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Eastern Carpathians

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Eastern Carpathians

Main article: Carpathian Mountains

Divisions of the Carpathians is categorization of the Carpathian mountains system.

Below is a detailed overview of the major subdivisions and ranges of the Carpathian Mountains. The Carpathians are a "subsystem" of a bigger Alps-Himalaya System that stretches from the western Europe all the way to southern Asia, and are further divided into "provinces" and "subprovinces". The last level of the division, i.e. the actual mountain ranges and basins, is usually classified as "units". The main divisions are shown in the map on the right.

To generalize, there are three major provinces (regions): Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians, and Southern Carpathians.

Contents

Naming Conventions

The division is largely (with many exceptions) undisputed at the lowest level (except for the Ukrainian part), but various divisions are given for the higher levels, especially for the penultimate level. A geomorphological division has been used as much as the data was available; other new physiogeographic divisions were used in other cases. Where the classification of a higher level "title" is known/sure, it is added at the end of the name in brackets, e.g. "(subprovince)".

Taxonomy

The names are also given in the language of the corresponding country and marked by the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes:

The most confusing area may be the Beskids and the Eastern Beskids and the Ukrainian Carpathians. Their geologic features are fairly distinct, but multiple traditions, languages and nationalities have developed overlapping variants for the divisions and names of these ranges.

In Romania, it is usual to divide the Eastern Carpathians in Romanian territory into three geographical groups (north, center, south), instead in Outer and Inner Eastern Carpathians. The Romanian approach is shown by adding the following abbreviations to the names of units within Romania:

  • MMB = Carpathians of Maramureş and Bucovina (Munţii Carpaţi ai Maramureşului şi Bucovinei)
  • MMT = Carpathians of Moldavia and Transylvania (Munţii Carpaţi Moldo-Transilvani)
  • MC = Curvature Carpathians (Munţii Carpaţi de Curbură)

The Transylvanian Plateau is encircled by, and geologically a part of, the Carpathians. But it is not a mountainous region and its inclusion is disputed in some sources. Its features are included below.

The Serbian Carpathians are sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians (together with the Banat Mountains), sometimes not considered part of the Carpathians at all. They're included below.

The Outer Carpathian Depressions lay outside the broad arc of the entire formation and are usually listed as part of the individual divisions of the Carpathian Mountains, i.e. of Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians etc. With the difficulty of finding their exact subdivisions, they are given only as a list of the final units (mountains" etc.) from the west to the east and south, in a separate listing at the end.

Western Carpathians (province)


Outer Western Carpathians (subprovince)

South-Moravian Carpathians (CZ) / Austrian - South-Moravian Carpathians (AT) (area)

(CZ: Jihomoravské Karpaty, AT: Österreichisch-Südmährische Karpaten)

  • Lower Austrian Inselberg Swell (AT: Leiser Berge, Niederösterreichische Inselbergschwelle) + Mikulov Highlands (CZ: Mikulovská vrchovina)

Central Moravian Carpathians (CZ) (area)

(CZ: Středomoravské Karpaty)

  • Ždánice Forest (Ždánický les)
  • Litenčice Hills (Litenčická pahorkatina)
  • Chřiby
  • Kyjov Hills (Kyjovská pahorkatina)

Slovak-Moravian Carpathians (CZ/SK) (area)

(CZ/SK: Slovensko-moravské Karpaty)

  • White Carpathians (CZ: Bílé Karpaty, SK: Biele Karpaty)
  • Maple Mountains (Javorníky) (CZ+SK)
  • Myjava Hills (SK: Myjavská pahorkatina)
  • Váh Valley Land (SK: Považské podolie)
  • Vizovice Highlands (CZ: Vizovická vrchovina)

West-Beskidian Piedmont (CZ / PL) (area)

(CZ: Západobeskydské podhůří, PL: Pogórze Zachodniobeskidzkie)

  • Sub-Beskidian Hills (CZ: Podbeskydská pahorkatina)
  • Silesian Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Śląskie)
  • Wieliczka Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Wielickie)
  • Wiśnicz Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Wiśnickie)

Western Beskids (CZ / SK / PL) (area)

(CZ: Západní Beskydy, SK: Západné Beskydy, PL: Beskidy Zachodnie)

  • Hostýn-Vsetín Mountains (CZ: Hostýnsko-vsetínská hornatina)
  • Moravian-Silesian Beskids (CZ: Moravskoslezské Beskydy, SK: Moravsko-sliezske Beskydy)
  • Turzovka Highlands (SK: Turzovská vrchovina)
  • Jablunkov Furrow (CZ: Jablunkovská brázda)
  • Rožnov Furrow (CZ: Rožnovská brázda)
  • Jablunkov Intermontane (SK: Jablunkovské medzihorie, CZ: Jablunkovské mezihoří)
  • Silesian Beskids (PL: Beskid Śląski, CZ: Slezské Beskydy)
  • Żywiec Basin (PL: Kotlina Żywiecka)

cont. (Polish) Western Beskids (PL) (PL: Beskidy Zachodnie)

  • Little Beskids (Beskid Mały)
  • Maków Beskids or Middle Beskids[1] (Beskid Makowski or "Beskid Średni")
  • Island Beskids (Beskid Wyspowy)
  • Gorce
  • (?)Rabka Basin (Kotlina Rabczańska)
  • Sącz Basin (Kotlina Sądecka)

Central Beskids (SK) / cont. (Polish) Western Beskids (PL) (area)

(SK: Stredné Beskydy, PL: Beskidy Zachodnie)

  • Orava Beskids (SK: Oravské Beskydy) + Żywiec Beskids (PL: Beskid Żywiecki) (the older SK equivalent of Beskid Zywiecki is "Slovenské Beskydy"- Slovak Beskids or "Kysucko-oravské Beskydy"- Kysuce-Orava Beskids; the older polish equivalent is "Beskid Wysoki" - High Beskids)
  • Kysuce Beskids (SK: Kysucké Beskydy) +Żywiec Beskids (PL: Beskid Żywiecki) (the older SK equivalent of Beskid Zywiecki is "Slovenské Beskydy" or "Kysucko-oravské Beskydy"; the older polish equivalent is "Beskid Wysoki" - High Beskids)
  • Kysuce Highlands (SK: Kysucká vrchovina)
  • Orava Magura (SK: Oravská Magura)
  • Orava Highlands (SK: Oravská vrchovina)
  • Sub-Beskidian Furrow (SK: Podbeskydská brázda)
  • Sub-Beskidian Highlands (SK: Podbeskydská vrchovina)

Eastern Beskids (SK) / cont. (Polish) Western Beskids (PL) (area)

(SK: Východné Beskydy, PL: Beskidy Zachodnie)

  • Sącz Beskids (PL: Beskid Sądecki) + Ľubovňa Highlands (SK: Ľubovnianska vrchovina)
  • Čergov (SK) + Czerchów Mountains (PL: Góry Czerchowskie)
  • Pieniny (often considered part of the Podhôľno-magurská oblasť in non-geomorphological systems)

Podhale-Magura Area (SK)/ Orava-Podhale Depression (PL)[2] (area)

(SK: Podhôľno-magurská oblasť, PL: Obniżenie Orawsko-Podhalańskie)

  • Skorušina Mountains (SK: Skorušinské vrchy) + Spiš-Gubałówka Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Spisko-Gubałowskie)
  • Sub-Tatra Furrow (SK: Podtatranská brázda, PL: Rów Podtatrzański)
  • Spiš Magura (SK: Spišská Magura) + Spiš-Gubałówka Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Spisko-Gubałowskie)
  • Levoča Mountains (SK: Levočské vrchy)
  • Bachureň (SK)
  • Spiš-Šariš Intermontane (SK: Spišsko-šarišské medzihorie)
  • Šariš Highlands (SK: Šarišská vrchovina)
  • Orava Basin (SK: Oravská kotlina) + Orava-Nowy Targ Basin (PL: Kotlina Orawsko-Nowotarska)

Inner Western Carpathians (subprovince)

Slovak Ore Mountains (SK) (area)

SK: Slovenské rudohorie
  • Vepor Mountains (Veporské vrchy)
  • Spiš-Gemer Karst (Spišsko-gemerský kras)
  • Stolica Mountains (Stolické vrchy)
  • Revúca Highlands (Revúcka vrchovina)
  • Volovec Mountains (Volovské vrchy)
  • Black Mountain (Čierna hora)
  • Rožňava Basin (Rožňavská kotlina)
  • Slovak Karst (Slovenský kras) and Aggtelek Karst (Hungarian: Aggteleki-karszt; lies in northern Hungary)

Fatra-Tatra Area (SK/PL/AT) * (area)

Slovak:Fatransko-tatranská oblasť

Slovak Central Mountains (Slovenské stredohorie) (SK) (area)

SK: Slovenské stredohorie, EN: Slovakian mid-mountainous region
  • Vtáčnik
  • Pohronský Inovec
  • Štiavnica Mountains (Štiavnické vrchy)
  • Kremnica Mountains (Kremnické vrchy)
  • Poľana
  • Ostrôžky
  • Javorie
  • Krupina Plain (Krupinská planina)
  • Zvolen Basin (Zvolenská kotlina)
  • Pliešovce Basin (Pliešovská kotlina)
  • Žiar Basin (Žiarska kotlina)

Lučenec-Košice Depression (SK/HU) (area)

SK: Lučensko-košická zníženina
  • Southern Slovak Basin (SK: Juhoslovenská kotlina) + Central Ipoly Basin (HU: Középső-Ipoly-völgy) + Borsod Hills (HU: Borsodi-dombság)
  • Bodva Hills (SK: Bodvianska pahorkatina)
  • Košice Basin (SK: Košická kotlina) + Hernád-Valley Basin (HU: Hernád-völgy)

Mátra-Slanec Area (SK) /North Hungarian Mountains (HU) (area)

SK: Matransko-slanská oblasť, HU: Északi-középhegység
  • Börzsöny Mountains (HU: Börzsöny-hegység, literally: Logwood Mountains) + Burda (SK)
  • Gödöllő Hills (HU: Gödöllői-dombság)
  • Cerová vrchovina (SK; Cerová Highlands) + Cserhát (HU: Cserhát)
  • Mátra (HU: Mátra)
  • Bükk (HU: Bükk – literally Beech Mountains)
  • Cserehát Hills (HU: Cserehát)
  • Slanec Mountains (SK: Slanské vrchy) + Zemplén Mountains (HU: Zempléni-hegység, also Tokaji-hegység/Tokaj Mountains)
  • Zemplín Mountains (SK, Zemplínske vrchy)

Eastern Carpathians (province)

Clarification: In Ukraine sometimes is denoted as "Eastern Carpathians" only the part basically on their territory (i.e.to the north of the Prislop Pass), while in Romania sometimes use to call "Eastern Carpathians" (Carpații Orientali) only the other part, which lies on their territory (i.e. from the Ukrainian border or from the Prislop Pass to the south). In Poland Central Beskidian Piedmont and Lower Beskids belongs to Western Carpathians province and Outer Western Carpathians subprovince.

Outer Eastern Carpathians (subprovince)

Central Beskidian Piedmont (PL)***

PL: Pogórze Środkowobeskidzkie
  • Rożnów Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Rożnowskie)
  • Ciężkowice Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Ciężkowickie)
  • Strzyżów Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Strzyżowskie)
  • Dynów Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Dynowskie)
  • Przemyśl Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Przemyskie)
  • Gorlice Depression (PL: Obniżenie Gorlickie)
  • Jasło-Krosno Basin (PL: Kotlina Jasielsko-Krośnieńska)
  • Jasło Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Jasielskie)
  • Bukowsko Piedmont (PL: Pogórze Bukowskie)

Lower Beskids (SK) / Central Beskids (PL)[3] (area)

SK: Nízke Beskydy, PL: Beskidy Środkowe
  • Busov (SK)
  • Ondava Highlands (SK: Ondavská vrchovina)
  • Low Beskids (PL: Beskid Niski) + Laborec Highlands (SK: Laborecká vrchovina)
  • Beskidian Piedmont (SK: Beskydské predhorie)

Eastern Beskids and the Ukrainian Carpathians (area)

Known variously as the Eastern Beskids (PL) / (?)Wooded Carpathians (SK) / Carpathians (Ukraine) (UA)
PL: Beskidy Wschodnie, SK: Poloniny, UA: Ukrains'ki Karpaty. Note that there are many variants for the divisions and names of these ranges.

Wooded Beskids (PL: Beskidy Lesiste + (?) UA: Beskydy, Skyb Carpathians) (Outer Carpathians):

  • Bieszczady or Western Bieszczady (PL: Bieszczady Zachodnie) [and Góry Sanocko-Turczańskie, sometimes known as Middle Beskyds in UA] (PL) + Bukovské vrchy Mts. (SK) + Western Beskids (UA, Zakhidni Beskydy)
  • Skole Beskids (UA: Skolivs'ki Beskydy), partly or completely also known as High Beskids (Vysoki Beskydy); part of (Ukrainian) Eastern Beskids (Skhidni Beskydy)
  • Upper Dniester Beskids (UA: Verkhn'odnistrovs'ki Beskydy), part of (Ukrainian) Eastern Beskids (Skhidni Beskydy)
  • Gorgany (UA)
  • Pokuttya-Bucovina Carpathians (UA, Pokuts'ko-Bukovins'ki Karpaty)

Central Carpathians:

  • Verkhovyna Carpathians

Polonyna Ridge (UA: Polonyns'kyi chrebet) (Inner Carpathians):

  • Smooth Polonyna (Polonyna Rivna)
  • Polonyna Borzhava
  • Polonyna Kuk
  • Polonyna Beautiful (Polonyna Krasna)
  • Svydovets
  • Chornohora (literally: Black Mountain)
  • Hrynyav Mountains

Moldavian-Muntenian Carpathians

RO: Munţii Carpaţi ai Moldo-Munteniei
  • Bucovina Ridges (RO: Obcinele Bucovinei), i.e. Obcina Mare (Great Ridge) + Obcina Feredeului (Feredeu Ridge), MMB
  • Stânişoara Mountains (RO: Munţii Stânişoarei) MMT
  • Tarcău Mountains (RO: Munţii Tarcăului) MMT
  • Comăneşti Depression (RO: Depresiunea Comăneşti) MMT
  • Nemira Mountains (RO: Munţii Nemira) MMT
  • Ciuc Mountains (RO: Munţii Ciucului), incl. Bodoc Mountains (RO: Munţii Bodocului), MMT
  • Bârsa Mountains (RO: Munţii Bârsei) MC
  • Ciucaş Mountains (RO: Munţii Ciucaş) MC
  • Baiu Mountains (RO:Munții Baiului or Munții Gârbova) MC
  • Buzău Mountains (RO: Munţii Buzăului) MC
  • Vrancea Mountains (RO: Munţii Vrancei) MC

Inner Eastern Carpathians (subprovince)


Vihorlat-Gutin Area (SK) / Volcanic Ridge (UA) (area)

SK: Vihorlatsko-gutínska oblasť, UA: Vulkanichnyi chrebet
  • Vihorlat Mountains (SK: Vihorlatské vrchy) + Vyhorliat (UA)
  • Makovytsia (UA)
  • Velikyi Dil (UA, literally: Great Dil)
  • Tupyi (UA)
  • Oaş Mountains (RO: Munţii Oaşului) and Oaş Depression (RO: Depresiunea Oaşului) MMB
  • Gutâi Mountains (RO: Munţii Gutâiului) MMB
  • Ţibleş Mountains (RO: Munţii Ţibleşului) MMB
  • Lăpuş Mountains (RO: Munții Lăpușului) MMB

Bistriţa Mountains (RO)

RO: Munţii Bistriţei
  • Bistriţa Mountains (Munţii Bistriţei) sensu stricto, i.e. Pietrosul Massif (Masivul Pietrosul; literally: Rocky Massif) + Budacul Massif (Masivul Budacul) + Ceahlău Massif (Masivul Ceahlău), the latter being considered a separate range sometimes, MMT
  • Mestecăniş Ridge (Obcina Mestecăniş) MMB
  • Dorna Depression (Depresiunea Dornei) MMB
  • Giumalău-Rarău Mountains (Munţii Giumalău-Rarău) MMB
  • Giurgeu Mountains (Munţii Giurgeului) MMT
  • Hăşmaş Mountains (Munţii Hăşmaşu Mare) MMT

Căliman-Harghita Mountains (RO)

RO: Munţii Căliman-Harghita

Giurgeu-Braşov Depression (RO)

RO: Depresiunea Giurgeu-Braşovului
  • Giurgeu Depression (Depresiunea Giurgeului) MMT
  • Ciuc Depression (Depresiunea Ciucului) MMT
  • Braşov Depression (Depresiunea Braşovului) MC

Other

  • Maramureş Depression (UA: Marmaros'ka ulohovyna, RO: Depresiunea Maramureşului) MMB
  • Rakhiv Massif (UA: Rakhivs'kyi masyv) + Maramureş Mountains (RO: Munţii Maramureşului) MMB
  • Rodna Mountains (RO: Munţii Rodnei) MMB
  • Piatra Mare Mountains MC
  • Postăvarul Massif MC

Southern Carpathians (RO) (province)

Bucegi Mountains Group

RO: Grupa Munţii Bucegi

Făgăraş Mountains group

RO: Grupa Munţii Făgăraşului
  • Făgăraş Mountains (Munţii Făgăraşului)
  • Iezer Mountains (Munţii Iezer; literally:Mountains of the Deep Lake)
  • Piatra Craiului (literally: Rock of the King)
  • Cozia Mountains (Munţii Cozia)
  • Lovişte Depression (Depresiunea Loviştei)

Parâng Mountains group

RO: Grupa Munţii Parângului
  • Parâng Mountains (Munţii Parângului)
  • Şureanu Mountains (Munţii Şureanu/M. Sebeşului)
  • Cindrel Mountains (Munţii Cindrel/M. Cibinului)
  • Lotru Mountains (Munţii Lotrului; literally: Mountains of the Thief)
  • Căpăţână Mountains (Munţii Căpăţânii; literally: Mountains of the Skull)
  • Petroşani Depression (Depresiunea Petroşani)

Retezat-Godeanu Mountains group

RO: Grupa Munţii Retezat-Godeanu
  • Retezat Mountains (Munţii Retezat; literally: Hewed Mountains)
  • Godeanu Mountains (Munţii Godeanu)
  • Vâlcan Mountains (Munţii Vâlcanului)
  • Mehedinţi Mountains (Munţii Mehendinţi)
  • Cerna Mountains (Munţii Cernei)
  • Ţarcu Mountains (Munţii Ţarcu; literally: Pen Mountains)

Romanian Western Carpathians (RO)

RO: Carpaţii Occidentali or Carpaţii Apuseni or Carpaţii de Apus. The term Bihor Massif is sometimes used for the Apuseni Mountains and Poiana Ruscă.

Apuseni Mountains (Munţii Apuseni)

Criş Mountains (Munţii Criş) :

Seş-Meseş Mountains (Munţii Seş-Meseşului):

  • Meseş Mountains (Munţii Meseşului)
  • Seş Mountain (Muntele Seş)
  • Şimleu Depression (Depresiunea Şimleu), often considered part of the Transylvanian Basin-Podişul Someşan
  • Şimleu Mountains (Munţii Şimleu), often considered part of the Transylvanian Basin-Podişul Someşan

Bihor Massif (Masivul Bihor):

  • Bihor Mountains (Munţii Bihorului)
  • Great Mountain (Muntele Mare)
  • Gilău Mountains (Munţii Gilăului)

Mureş Mountains (Munţii Mureşului):

  • Zarand Mountains (Munţii Zarandului)
  • Metalliferous Mountains (Munţii Metaliferi), incl. Trascău Mountains (Munţii Trascăului)

Poiana Ruscă Mountains

RO: Munţii Poiana Ruscă

(Note: sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians)

  • Poiana Ruscă (literally: Ruscă Meadows)
  • Lipova Plateau (Podişul Lipovei)
  • Bega-Timiş Groove (Culoarul Bega-Timiş)
  • Orăştie Groove (Culoarul Orăştiei), incl. Haţeg Depression (Depresiunea Haţegului)

Banat Mountains

RO: Munţii Banatului

(Note: sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians)

  • Banat Mountains (Munţii Banatului) sensu stricto, i.e. Semenic Mountains (Munţii Semenic), Locva Mountains (Munţii Locvei), Anina Mountains (Munţii Aninei) and Dognecea Mountains (Munţii Dognecei)
  • Almăj Mountains (Munţii Almăjului)
  • Timiş-Cerna Groove (Culoarul Timiş-Cerna), incl. Almăj Depression (Depresiunea Almăj)
  • Caraş Hills (Dealurile Caraşului)

Transylvanian Plateau (RO)

RO: Depresiunea Transilvaniei, i.e. Transylvanian Depression. Sometimes not considered part of the Carpathians at all.
  • Mureş-Turda Depression (Depresiunea Mureş-Turda)
  • Sibiu Depression (Depresiunea Sibiului)
  • Făgăraş Depression (Depresiunea Făgăraşului)

Transylvanian Plateau (Podişul Transilvaniei):

  • Târnava Plateau (Podişul Târnavelor), incl. Hârtibaci Plateau (Podişul Hârtibaciului) and Secaşe Plateau (Podişul Secaşelor)
  • Transylvanian Plain (Câmpia Transilvaniei), or Transylvanian Plateau (Podişul Transivan(iei)) sensu stricto
  • Someş Plateau (Podişul Someşan or Podişul Someşelor)

Serbian Carpathians (RS)

Serbian: Karpatske planine, i.e. "Carpathian Mountains". Sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians (together with the Banat Mountains), sometimes not considered part of the Carpathians at all.

Outer Carpathian depressions (subprovince)

The Outer Carpathian Depressions are divided into Western, Northern etc. and are usually treated as part of the individual parts of the Carpathian Mountains, i.e. of Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians etc.. Since, however, it was impossible to find their exact subdivision, they are given only as a list of the final units (mountains etc.) from the west to the east and south here:

  • Weinviertel Hills (AT: Weinviertler Hügelland) + Dyje-Svratka Vale (CZ: Dyjsko-svratecký úval)
  • Vyškov Gate (CZ: Vyškovská brána)
  • Upper Moravian Vale (CZ: Hornomoravský úval)
  • Moravian Gate (CZ: Moravská brána)
  • Ostrava Basin (CZ: Ostravská pánev, PL: Kotlina Ostrawska)
  • Oświęcim Basin (PL: Kotlina Oświęcimska)
  • Kraków Gate (PL: Brama Krakowska)
  • Sandomierz Basin (PL: Kotlina Sandomierska) + San-Dniester Plain (UA: Sans'ko-Dnistrovs'ka rivnyna)
  • Upper Dniester Plain (UA: Verchn'odnistrovs'ka rivnyna)
  • Drohobych Highlands (UA: Drohobyc'ka vysochyna)
  • Dniester Plain (UA: Pridnistrovs'ka rivnyna)
  • Pokutsk Upland (UA: Pokuts'ka vysochyna)
  • Bucovina Highlands (UA: Bukovyns'ka vysochyna) + Suceava Plateau (RO: Podişul Sucevei)
  • Moldavia-Siret Groove (RO: Culoarul Moldova-Siret)
  • Moldavian Subcarpathians (RO: Subcarpaţii Moldovei)
  • Muntenian Subcarpathians (RO: Subcarpaţii Munteniei)
  • Getic Subcarpathians (RO: Subcarpaţii Getici)
  • Getic Plateau (RO: Podişul Getic)

Footnotes

Bibliography

  • Kondracki, Jerzy. Karpaty. Ed.2 (updated). "Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne". Warsaw, 1989. (ISBN 83-02-04067-3) (Polish)
  • Vladár,J. (editor). Encyklopédia Slovenska. Vol.4, letters T-Ž. "Veda". Bratislava, 1982. p. 497 (Slovak)
  • Plašienka,D. Geologica Carpathica Special Issues, 53, Proceedings of XVII. Congress of Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association Bratislava, September 1 - 4 2002
  • Mazúr, E., Lukniš M., Geomorphological division of SSR and ČSSR. Slovakian part. "Slovenská kartografia." Bratislava, 1986
  • Rohlík, Jiří. Moravo-Silesian Beskids, Collection of tourist maps 1:50 000. "TRASA, s.r.o.". Prague, 2001. (ISBN 80-85999-29-3). (Czech)
  • Ludvík, Marcel. Beskids, Travel guide of ČSSR. "Olympia". Prague, 1987. (27-031-87). (Czech)
  • Földvary, G. Z., ed. (1988). Geology of the Carpathian Region, pp. 106, 108, 109, 172, 554, etc., World Scientific Publishing, Singapore. ISBN 9971-50-344-1

External links

  • Information on Beskids (Western and Eastern Carpathians) (English)/(Polish)
  • Information on Beskids (mostly a travel guide) (Czech)
  • The geography of Romania (might be outdated page) (Romanian)
  • Geography of Moldavian Region (Romanian)
  • "White Carpathians" (English)/(Czech)
  • Pictures (a travel guide) (English)/(Czech)/(Ukrainian)
  • Pictures of the Eastern Carpathians (Polish)
  • Carpathians of Ukraine (Ukrainian)
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