World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Eclogues

Article Id: WHEBN0001633271
Reproduction Date:

Title: Eclogues  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Virgil, Christian interpretations of Virgil's Fourth Eclogue, Georgics, Appendix Vergiliana, Pastoral
Collection: 1St-Century Bc Books, Poetry by Virgil
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Eclogues

The opening lines of the Eclogues in the 5th-century Vergilius Romanus.

The Eclogues (; Latin: Eclogae ), also called the Bucolics, is the first of the three major works of the Latin poet Virgil.

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Eclogue 4 2
  • Eclogue 5 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Background

Taking as his generic model the Greek Bucolica ("on care of cattle", so named from the poetry's rustic subjects) by Theocritus, Virgil created a Roman version partly by offering a dramatic and mythic interpretation of revolutionary change at Rome in the turbulent period between roughly 44 and 38 BC. Virgil introduced political clamor largely absent from Theocritus' poems, called idylls ("little scenes" or "vignettes"), even though erotic turbulence disturbs the "idyllic" landscapes of Theocritus.

Virgil's book contains ten pieces, each called not an idyll but an eclogue ("draft" or "selection" or "reckoning"), populated by and large with herdsmen imagined conversing and performing amoebaean singing in largely rural settings, whether suffering or embracing revolutionary change or happy or unhappy love. Performed with great success on the Roman stage, they feature a mix of visionary politics and eroticism that made Virgil a celebrity, legendary in his own lifetime.

Eclogue 4

Capping a sequence or cycle in which Virgil created and augmented a new political mythology, "Eclogue 4" reaches out to imagine a golden age ushered in by the birth of a boy heralded as "great increase of Jove," which ties in with divine associations claimed in the propaganda of Octavian, the ambitious young heir to Julius Caesar. The poet makes this notional scion of Jove the occasion to predict his own metabasis up the scale in epos, rising from the humble range of the bucolic to the lofty range of the heroic, potentially rivaling Homer: he thus signals his own ambition to make Roman epic that will culminate in the Aeneid. In the surge of ambition, Virgil also projects defeating the legendary poet Orpheus and his mother, the epic muse Calliope, as well as Pan, the inventor of the bucolic pipe, even in Pan's homeland of Arcadia, which Virgil will claim as his own at the climax of his eclogue book in the tenth eclogue. Biographical identification of the fourth eclogue's child has proved elusive; but the figure proved a link between traditional Roman authority and Christianity. The connection is first made in the Oration of Constantine [1] appended to the Life of Constantine by Eusebius of Caesarea (a reading to which Dante makes fleeting reference in his Purgatorio). Some scholars have also remarked similarities between the eclogue's prophetic themes and the words of Isaiah 11:6: "a little child shall lead."

Eclogue 5

"Eclogue 5" articulates another significant pastoral theme, the shepherd-poet's concern with achieving worldly fame through poetry. This concern is related to the metabasis Virgil himself undertakes thematically in "Eclogue 4." In "Eclogue 5," the shepherds Menalcas and Mopsus mourn their deceased companion Daphnis by promising to “praise… Daphnis to the stars— / yes, to the stars raise Daphnis.” Menalcas and Mopsus praise Daphnis out of compassion, but also out of obligation. Daphnis willed that his fellow shepherds memorialize him by making a “mound and add[ing] above the mound a song: / Daphnis am I in woodland, known hence far as the stars." Not only are Daphnis’s survivors concerned with solidifying and eternizing his poetic reputation, but the dead shepherd-poet himself is involved in self-promotion from beyond the grave through the aegis of his will. It is an outgrowth of the friendly poetic rivalries that occur between them, and of their attempts to best the gods, usually Pan or Phoebus, at their lyric craft. At the end of “Eclogue 5,” Daphnis is deified in the shepherds’ poetic praise: “‘A god, a god is he, Menalcas!’ / …Here are four altars: / Look, Daphnis, two for you and two high ones for Phoebus." Menalcas apostrophizes Daphnis with a promise: “Always your honor, name and praises will endure." Ensuring poetic fame is a fundamental interest of the shepherds in classical pastoral elegies, including the speaker in Milton's "Lycidas."[2]

In "Eclogue 10," Virgil caps his book by inventing a new myth of poetic authority and origin: he replaces Theocritus' Sicily and old bucolic hero, the impassioned oxherd Daphnis, with the impassioned voice of his contemporary Roman friend, the elegiac poet Gaius Cornelius Gallus, imagined dying of love in Arcadia. Virgil transforms this remote, mountainous, and myth-ridden region of Greece, homeland of Pan, into the original and ideal place of pastoral song, thus founding a richly resonant tradition in western literature and the arts.

See also

References

  1. ^ Oration of Constantine
  2. ^ Vigil. “Eclogue 5.” The Eclogues. Trans. Guy Lee. New York: Penguin Books, 1984. 29-35. Print.
  • Clausen, Wendell (1994). Virgil: Eclogues. Clarendon, Oxford University Press.  
  • Coleman, Robert, ed. (1977). Vergil: Eclogues. Cambridge University Press.  
  • Hornblower, Simon, and Antony Spawforth (1999). The Oxford Classical Dictionary: Third Edition. Oxford University Press.  
  • Hunter, Richard, ed. (1999). Theocritus: A Selection. Cambridge University Press.  
  • Van Sickle, John B. (2004). The Design of Virgil's Bucolics. Duckworth.  
  • _________. (2011). Virgil’s Book of Bucolics, the Ten Eclogues in English Verse. Framed by Cues for Reading Out-Loud & Clues for Threading Texts & Themes. Johns Hopkins University Press. |  

Further reading

  • Buckham, Philip Wentworth; Spence, Joseph; Holdsworth, Edward; Warburton, William; Jortin, John, Miscellanea Virgiliana: In Scriptis Maxime Eruditorum Virorum Varie Dispersa, in Unum Fasciculum Collecta, Cambridge : Printed for W. P. Grant; 1825.

External links

  • (Internet Classics Archive)EcloguesThe
  • The Bucolics and Eclogues by Virgil at Project Gutenberg (Latin)
  • The Bucolics and Eclogues by Virgil at Project Gutenberg (English)
  • French translations (Bibliotheca Classica Selecta)
  • Latin texts and German translations
  • An appreciation by Samuel Johnson
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.