World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Education in Moldova

Article Id: WHEBN0009528868
Reproduction Date:

Title: Education in Moldova  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of education articles by country, Economy of Moldova, Education, Sociology of education, Philosophy of education
Collection: Education in Moldova
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Education in Moldova

Contents

  • Basic organization 1
    • Grading conventions 1.1
  • Kindergarten 2
  • Primary and secondary education 3
    • Types 3.1
    • The Baccalaureate exam 3.2
    • Special education 3.3
  • Higher education 4
    • Public universities and colleges 4.1
    • Private universities and colleges 4.2
    • The curriculum 4.3
    • Postgraduate programs 4.4
    • Researchers and professors 4.5
    • Moldovans pursuing higher education abroad 4.6
  • Additional types of education institutions 5
    • Private institutions 5.1
    • Religious institutions 5.2
    • Minority institutions 5.3
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Basic organization

Grading conventions

The lowest grade (mark) in Moldovan educational system is 1, the highest is 10. To pass a course, a subject, or an exam, the student must obtain a mark of 5 or above.

Kindergarten

In Moldova Kindergatens take kids from 3 to 5-6 years.

Primary and secondary education

Types

As of 2007-2008 academic year, Moldova had ten types of primary and secondary schools:

  • Primary schools, grades 1-4
  • Gymnasiums, grades 1-9
  • Lyceums, grades 1-12, Bacalaureat exam
  • General schools, grades 1-11, no Bacalaureat exam, cannot continue with higher education
  • Evening schools
  • Schools of trades, 1 year (grade 12), no Bacalaureat exam, cannot continue with higher education
  • Vocational schools, 3 years (grades 10-12), no Bacalaureat exam, but can continue with higher education
  • Vocational lyceums, 3 years (grades 10-12), Bacalaureat exam
  • Colegii, 2 to 3 years, no Bacalaureat exam, but can continue with higher education
  • Special schools, grades 1-11, no Bacalaureat exam, cannot continue with higher education
Secondary education in Moldova
Type of school 2007-2008 2008-2009
number of schools number of students average # of students
per school per grade
number of schools number of students average # of students
per school per grade
Primary schools 94 11,600 30.9 N/A N/A N/A
Gymnasiums
incl. boarding schools for orphans
678
N/A
108,900
N/A
17.8
N/A
N/A
19
N/A
5,832
N/A
27.9
Lyceums 471 259,100 45.8 N/A N/A N/A
General schools 254 77,100 27.6 N/A N/A N/A
Evening schools 7 1,800 23.4 N/A N/A N/A
Schools of trade
incl. for hearing and visually disabled
23
N/A
3,284
N/A
142.8
N/A
15
2
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Vocational schools 50 19,347 129.0 50 N/A N/A
Vocational lyceums 2 1,875 312.5 2 N/A N/A
Colegii 49 31,507 214.3 45 N/A N/A
Special education 37 4,000 9.8 41 5,487 12.2
Total 1,665 518,513 33.0 N/A N/A N/A
Language of secondary education in Moldova
Academic year Romanian Russian Other language
of instruction
Total number
of students
2000–2001 528,100 144,400 1,400 673,900
2001–2002 518,700 140,100 1,500 660,300
2002–2003 508,600 133,000 1,400 633,000
2003–2004 492,800 127,900 1,300 622,000
2004–2005 473,900 119,700 1,200 594,800
2005–2006 455,400 114,300 1,400 571,100
2006–2007 437,100 109,000 1,300 547,400
2007–2008   415,300
80.08%
  102,100
19.69%
1,300
0.25%
518,600
100%
Population of Moldova
by ethnicity
2,638,125
77.98%
201,218
5.95%
543,989
16.08%
3,383,332
100%
Population of Moldova
by native language
2,588,355
76.51%
380,796
11.26%
414,181
12.24%
3,383,332
100%
Population of Moldova
by language of first use
2,543,354
75.17%
540,990
15.99%
298,988
8.84%
3,383,332
100%

The Baccalaureate exam

Special education

Special education in Moldova
Type of school 2008-2009
number of schools number of students
Schools for students with locomotive deficiencies 2 367
Schools for hearing impaired 5 612
Schools for visually impaired 2 259
Schools for mental disabled 28 3,544
Schools for neuropsichical patients 2 670
Schools for heart and circulatory apparatus patients 1
Schools for underage with behavioral deviation 1 35
Total grades 1-11 41 5,487
Vocational schools for visually impaired 1 N/A
Vocational schools for hearing impaired 1 N/A

Higher education

In Moldova, there are 16 state and 15 [1][2] private institutions of higher education, with a total of 126,100 students, including 104,300 in the state institutions, and 21,700 in the private ones. The number of students per 10,000 inhabitants in Moldova has been constantly growing since the collapse of the Soviet Union, reaching 217 in 2000-2001, and 351 in 2005-2006.

There are 6,200 faculty members in Moldova's universities and colleges (on average 1 faculty member per 20.3 students). Out of these, only 2,700 (43%) hold PhD degrees, including 358 (5.8%) that also hold the highest academic degree: Habilitation. Moldovan faculty members usually teach around 20 hours per week (one of the highest workloads in the world).

52.5% of students major in economics, law, social sciences, or in some fields that the Moldovan Ministry of Education calls on its website "professional formation fields", 18.4% study engineering and architecture, 16.0% - education. There are a total of 90 specialities (majors) offered.

101,100 students, or 80.2%, pay for their studies (from 2,000 to 7,300 Moldovan lei per year, i.e. from 120 to 430 euros per year). The state is trying to increase the number of places offered free of charge when students are admitted to public universities: there were 5,085 in 2001, 5,290 in 2002, 5,628 in 2003, 6,354 in 2004, 7,048 in 2005, 7,835 in 2006, but this rate (54% over 5 years) is lower than the rate of increase (65% over the same period) in the total number of places. 15% of the free of charge places are reserved, and distributed to candidates from low-income families. In an effort to support them, the state gives scholarships to 70% of students who occupy the free of charge places, i.e. to 14.4% of the total number of students. As of January 1, 2006, these scholarships are in three categories: 210, 230, or 270 Moldovan lei per month, i.e. 12, 14, or 16 euros per month respectively.

78,4% of students study in Romanian, roughly corresponding to its respective linguistic group,[3][4] while 19,5% study in Russian (including members of other linguistic groups like Gagauz or Bulgarian).[3] Foreign languages became increasingly less popular in recent years: 1,8% studied in English or French during the 2010-2011 schoolyear, compared to 3,2% in 2006.[3]

The National Council on Accreditation and Attestation is an organization that approves the examination programs for doctoral students, confers scientific degrees, and scientific and pedagogical ranks. The Council publishes online all PhD theses that are elaborated and defended in Moldova.[5]

Public universities and colleges

  1. State University of Moldova (Universitatea de Stat din Moldova), Chişinău, str. Mateevici, 60, blocul 3
  2. Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova (Academia de Studii Economice a Moldovei), Chişinău, str. Bănulescu Bodoni, 51
  3. Nicolae Testemiţanu State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (Universitatea de Stat de Medicină şi Farmacie "N. Testemiţanu"), Chişinău, bd. Ştefan cel Mare, 165
  4. Technical University of Moldova (Universitatea Tehnică a Moldovei), Chişinău, bd. Ştefan cel Mare, 168
  5. Agricultural State University of Moldova (Universitatea Agrară de Stat din Moldova), Chişinău, str. Mirceşti, 44
  6. Ion Creangă Pedagogical State University (Universitatea Pedagogică de Stat "I. Creangă"), Chişinău, str. I. Creangă, 1
  7. Ştefan cel Mare Police Academy (Academia "Ştefan cel Mare" a Ministerului Afacerilor Interne), Chişinău, str. Gh. Asachi, 21
  8. Alexandru cel Bun Military Institute (Institutul Militar al Forţelor Armate "Alexandru cel Bun"), Chişinău, str Haltei 21
  9. National Institute of Physical Education and Sport (Institutul Naţional de Educaţie Fizică şi Sport), Chişinău, str. A. Doga, 24/1
  10. Academy of Music, Theatre and Fine Arts (Academia de Muzică, Teatru şi Arte Plastice), Chişinău, str. Mateevici, 87
  11. International Relations Institute of Moldova (Institutul de Relaţii Internaţionale din Moldova), Chişinău, str. Puşkin 54
  12. Alecu Russo State University (Universitatea de Stat "A: Russo"), Bălţi, str. Puşkin, 38
  13. Tiraspol State University (Chişinău) (Universitatea de Stat din Tiraspol (cu sediul în mun. Chişinău)), Chişinău, str. Iablocikin, 5
  14. Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu State University (Universitatea de Stat "Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu"), Cahul, Piaţa Independenţei, 1
  15. Comrat State University (Universitatea de Stat din Comrat), Comrat, str. Galaţan, 17
  16. Taraclia State University (Universitatea de Stat din Taraclia), Taraclia, str. Păcii 4

Private universities and colleges

  1. Universitatea Liberă Internaţională din Moldova, Chişinău, str. Vlaicu Pîrcălab 52
  2. Universitatea Cooperatist-Comercială din Moldova, Chişinău, bd. Gagarin, 8
  3. Imi-Nova International Management Institute (Institutul Internaţional de Management "IMI - Nova), Chişinău
  4. Institutul de Studii Politice şi Relaţii Internaţionale, Chişinău, str. Gheorghe Caşu 32
  5. Universitatea de Studii Europene din Moldova, Chişinău, str. Iablocichin 2/1
  6. Universitatea de Studii Aplicate din Moldova, Chişinău, bd. Ştefan cel Mare 200, bir. 109
  7. Universitatea "Şcoala Antropologică Superioară", Chişinău, str. Zimbrului 10 "A"
  8. Institutul Umanistic Contemporan, Chişinău, str.Albişoara 78/4
  9. Academia de Transporturi, Informatică şi Comunicaţii, Chişinău, str. Munceşti 121a
  10. Universitatea "Perspectiva - INT", Chişinău, str. Alba Iulia, 75
  11. Universitatea Slavonă, Chişinău, str. Florilor 28/1
  12. Institutul Nistrean de Economie şi Drept, Bălţi, str. Ştefan cel Mare 82
  13. Filiala instituţiei nestatale de învăţămînt "Балтийский Институт Экологии, Политики и Права" din Moldova, Bălţi, str. Sorocii 21 (şcoala nr.3)
  14. Universitatea Real-Umanistică din Cahul, Cahul, str. Victoriei 16

The curriculum

At present, the graduates get two types of diplomas: one type for fulfilling the curriculum and the Licence examination, and a second type, if in addition they write a Licence Diploma paper.

The Ministry of Education defines its strategic objective for higher education to be "the integration into the European common space for higher education, and active participation in its construction". In 2005 Moldova signed the commitment to implement the Bologna process agreements. In view of this, several changes have been operated since:

  • reorganization from September 1, 2005 of the higher education into an undergraduate cycle of 3–4 years, and a master cycle of 1-2 year
  • commitment to copy European laws and adopt them wholesale
  • elaboration and implementation of a Framework Plan for the first cycle (undergraduate)
  • elaboration of a new Classification List of Specialities for the undergraduate cycle
  • elaboration of an Implementation Guide for a to be National System of Transferable Credits, and institutionalization of this system in all universities and colleges
  • implementation of the introduction of an educational record from in a unique European format, as a supplement to the Licence diploma

The Ministry of Education's declared objectives in taking these actions are:

  • improvement of the quality of the country's higher education
  • increasing the national and international mobility of students and faculty
  • taking and implementing "European university education values" into the educational system of Moldova

The quality of the higher education has been declared a priority. In this context, a prime priority is declared to the implementation of the National Framework of Qualifications for Professional Formation, which will determine the "educational finalities and competences", the "compulsory minimum of realization in higher education", and will somehow facilitate the rise in "the quality of the preparation of graduates for the national economy", and will also somehow contribute to "ensuring the continuous rise of the quality of education".

Universities and colleges are told to start creating own "systems of internal management of quality", with the aim of "organizing the internal process of ensuring the quality, in accordance with national standards, and the demands of external evaluation systems".

Postgraduate programs

Researchers and professors

Moldovans pursuing higher education abroad

Additional types of education institutions

Private institutions

Religious institutions

Minority institutions

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^ http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/links/National-reports-2007/National_Report_moldova2007.pdf
  2. ^ Report on Moldova's education in 2007
  3. ^ a b c Educația în Republica Moldova, p. 97
  4. ^ 2004 Census results
  5. ^ NCAA website
  • Web site of the Ministry of Education and Youth of Moldova

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.