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Euston tube station

Euston
Passengers cross a paved concourse towards escalators that head down into the station entrance. A large
Entrance to the Underground station within main line station
Euston is located in Central London
Euston
Location of Euston in Central London
Location Euston Road
Local authority London Borough of Camden
Managed by London Underground
Number of platforms 6
Fare zone 1
OSI Euston [1]
Euston Square
London Underground annual entry and exit
2011 35.32 million[2]
2012 37.53 million[2]
2013 38.03 million[2]
2014 41.33 million[2]
Key dates
1907 Opened (C&SLR)
1907 Opened (CCE&HR)
1922 Closed for rebuilding (C&SLR)
1924 Reopened (C&SLR)
1968 Opened (Victoria line)
Other information
Lists of stations
London Transport portal

Euston is a London Underground station served by the Victoria line and both branches of the Northern line. It directly connects with Euston main line station above it. The station is in Travelcard Zone 1.

Euston was constructed as two separate underground stations. Three of the four Northern line platforms date from the station's opening in 1907. The fourth Northern line platform and the two Victoria line platforms were constructed in the 1960s when the station was significantly altered to accommodate the Victoria line. Plans for High Speed 2 and Crossrail 2 both include proposals to modify the station to provide interchanges with the new services.

On the Northern line's Bank branch the station is between Camden Town and King's Cross St Pancras. On the Charing Cross branch it is between Mornington Crescent and Warren Street. On the Victoria line it is between Warren Street and King's Cross St. Pancras. The station is near Euston Square station allowing connections at street level to the Circle, Hammersmith and City and Metropolitan lines.

Contents

  • History 1
    • Northern line 1.1
      • Planning 1.1.1
      • Construction and opening 1.1.2
      • Reconstruction and extension 1.1.3
    • London & North Western Railway 1.2
    • Victoria line 1.3
  • Future proposals 2
  • Services 3
  • Connections 4
  • Notes and references 5
    • Notes 5.1
    • References 5.2
    • Bibliography 5.3
  • External links 6

History

Northern line

Planning

An underground station to serve Euston station was first proposed by the Hampstead, St Pancras & Charing Cross Railway in 1891.[3][n 1] The company planned a route to run from Heath Street in Hampstead to Strand in Charing Cross with a branch diverging from the main route to run under Drummond Street to serve Euston, St Pancras and King's Cross stations.[5] Following parliamentary review of the proposals and a change in name to the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (CCE&HR), permission was granted for the route in 1893, although the branch line was only permitted as far as Euston.[6]

For the remainder of the 1890s, the CCE&HR struggled unsuccessfully to raise the capital it needed to fund the construction.[7] Whilst it did so it continued to develop its route proposals. In 1899, parliamentary permission was obtained to modify the route so that the Euston branch was extended northwards to connect to the main route at the south end of Camden High Street. The section of the main route between the two ends of the loop was omitted.[8][9][n 2] In 1900, the CCE&HR was taken over by a consortium led by American financier Charles Yerkes which raised the necessary money.[7]

Also in 1900, a proposal was presented to parliament by the Islington and Euston Railway (I&ER) for an extension of the

Preceding station   London Underground   Following station
Northern line
Bank branch
towards Morden (via Bank)
towards Kennington or
Morden (via Charing Cross)
Northern line
Charing Cross branch
towards Brixton
Victoria line
  • Clive's Underground Lines Guide – Northern Line, section on King's cross Loop
  • London Transport Museum Photographic Archive
    • Charing Cross, Euston & Hampstead Railway station building, 1915
    • City & South London Railway station building
    • Station entrance from main line platform, 1915
    • Station entrance from main line platform, 1932
    • Station entrance from main line platform, 1951
    • Victoria line Platform tiling showing Euston Arch motif, 1969
  • More photos of this station

External links

  • Badsey-Ellis, Antony (2005). London's Lost Tube Schemes. Capital Transport.  
  • Connor, J.E. (2006) [1999]. London's Disused Underground Stations (2nd ed.). Capital Transport.  
  • Day, John R; Reed, John (2010) [1963]. The Story of London's Underground (11th ed.). Capital Transport.  
  • Railway (London Plan) Committee (1946). Report to the Minister of War Transport.  
  • Rose, Douglas (1999) [1980]. The London Underground, A Diagrammatic History (7th ed.). Douglas Rose/Capital Transport.  
  •  

Bibliography

  1. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (XLS).  
  2. ^ a b c d "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures" (XLS). London Underground station passenger usage data.  
  3. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26226. pp. 6324–6326. 24 November 1891. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Rose 1999.
  5. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 58.
  6. ^ The London Gazette: no. 26435. p. 4825. 25 August 1893. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  7. ^ a b Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 118.
  8. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27025. pp. 7134–7136. 22 November 1898. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  9. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27107. pp. 5011–5012. 11 August 1899. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  10. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 84.
  11. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27249. pp. 7482–7483. 23 November 1900. Retrieved 23 March 2015.
  12. ^ a b Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 96.
  13. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 139.
  14. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 47.
  15. ^ Wolmar 2005, p. 185.
  16. ^ a b c d Connor 2006, p. 125.
  17. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, pp. 55–56.
  18. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 86.
  19. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28665. pp. 8802–8805. 22 November 1912. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  20. ^ The London Gazette: no. 28665. pp. 8798–8801. 22 November 1912. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  21. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 268–269.
  22. ^ The London Gazette: no. 27970. pp. 8181–8182. 23 November 1906. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  23. ^ Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 269.
  24. ^ a b c Badsey-Ellis 2005, p. 270.
  25. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 143.
  26. ^ Railway (London Plan) Committee 1946
  27. ^ a b "Victoria Line – History". Clive's Underground Line Guides. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 6 April 2015. 
  28. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 148.
  29. ^ Day & Reed 2010, p. 153.
  30. ^ a b Day & Reed 2010, p. 160.
  31. ^ "Euston (poster image)". Abandonedstations.org.uk. Retrieved 12 April 2015. 
  32. ^ a b Day & Reed 2010, p. 168.
  33. ^ Report of Society Meeting (PDF) (Report). London Underground Rail Society. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 
  34. ^ a b  
  35. ^ "Euston Tube Station". Google Maps. Retrieved 12 July 2015. 
  36. ^ Euston Area Plan – A new plan for the Euston Area (PDF).  
  37. ^ "The Route".  
  38. ^ "Northern line – First and Last trains" (PDF).  
  39. ^ "Victoria line – First and Last trains" (PDF).  
  40. ^ "Day buses from Euston" (PDF). Transport for London. 31 August 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 
  41. ^ "Night buses from Euston" (PDF). Transport for London. 31 August 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 14 July 2015. 

References

  1. ^ The Metropolitan Railway's original underground line, opened in 1863, had a station at the junction of Euston Road and Gower Street, but this is approximately 250 metres (820 ft) south-west of the main line station. Originally, named "Gower Street", the station was renamed "Euston Square" in 1909.[4]
  2. ^ A separate proposal in 1899 by the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway for a branch from its planned line near Regent's Park to Euston was rejected by Parliament. The station building would have been located in Cardington Street.[10]
  3. ^ The C&SLR was suffering from a poor financial reputation at the time due to what was seen as the wasteful abandonment of its original terminal at [12]
  4. ^ The only section of the C&SLR's tunnels constructed with 11 ft 6 in diameter tunnels was the section between [18]
  5. ^ The LER was formed by the Underground Group in 1910 through a merger of the CCE&HR with its two other deep level railways, the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway and the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway.
  6. ^ Instead, the LNWR's trains for the new line operated from the surface station and the company collaborated with the Underground Electric Railways Company of London to extend Bakerloo tube services from Paddington to Queen's Park in tunnel, where they met the LNWR's new line.[24] Bakerloo services started to Queen's Park in February 1915, before extension to Willesden Junction in May 1915 and on to Watford Junction in April 1917.[4][24]
  7. ^ In 1946, the Railway (London Plan) Committee published a report including "Route 8 – South to North link from East Croydon to Finsbury Park", a main line service running between Norbury and Hornsey in tunnel via Streatham Hill, Brixton, Vauxhall, Victoria, Bond Street, Euston, King's Cross and Finsbury Park.[26] In 1947, the London Passenger Transport Board produced a plan for a similar route for a tube line running into north-east London. This ran between Coulsdon North or Sanderstead and Walthamstow (Hoe Street) or Waltham Cross.[27] These plans were reviewed by the British Transport Commission in 1949 and a feasibility study was recommended. This became a combined route, "Route C" running between Walthamstow and Victoria.[27][28]
  8. ^ The diversion took place on Sunday 15 October 1967.[31]
  9. ^ This arrangement results in an unusual feature of the station: a passenger changing between the Victoria line and Northern line Bank branch will find that trains on adjacent platforms travel in opposite directions even though both are either northbound or southbound.

Notes

Notes and references

London Bus routes 18, 59, 68, 91, 168, 253 and 476 and night routes N5, N20, N91 and N253 serve Euston bus station outside the main line station.[40][41]

Connections

The station is in Travelcard Zone 1. On the Northern line's Bank branch the station is between Camden Town and King's Cross St Pancras. On the Charing Cross branch it is between Mornington Crescent and Warren Street. On the Victoria line it is between Warren Street and King's Cross St. Pancras.[34] Train frequencies vary throughout the day, but, generally, Northern line trains operate every 2–6 minutes from approximately 05:49 to 00:45 northbound and 05:49 to 00:28 southbound. Victoria line trains operate every 2–6 minutes from approximately 05:41 to 00:42 northbound and 05:31 to 00:26 southbound.[38][39]

Services

Unlike the neighbouring main line termini, St Pancras and Kings Cross, Euston is not served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines. Euston Square station, which is served by the Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines,[34] is approximately 250 metres (270 yd) to the south-west.[35] Plans for the redevelopment of the main line station for High Speed 2 include the construction of a direct connection to Euston Square.[36] Proposals for Crossrail 2 include an underground station serving Euston and St Pancras that will be integrated with the existing London Underground station.[37]

Future proposals

In conjunction with the reconstruction of the main line station above, a new ticket hall was excavated below the concourse with two sets of escalators replacing the lifts. The escalators provide access to and from an intermediate passenger circulation level, which, in turn, gives access to the Northern line Charing Cross branch platforms and two further sets of escalators; one set each serving the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern line Bank branch platforms.[32] Interchanges between the northbound and southbound Victoria and Northern Bank Line platforms are made via a passageway at the lower level so as to avoid the need to use the escalators. An emergency stair to the intermediate interchange level is located midway along the passageway. The Victoria line platforms opened on 1 December 1968 when the second section of the line was opened between Highbury & Islington and Warren Street.[4] Disused passages remain with tiling and posters from the 1960s.[33]

At Euston, major reconstruction works were undertaken to incorporate the new Victoria line platforms so that cross-platform interchanges could be provided with the Northern line's Bank branch—the former C&SLR route to King's Cross and Bank. Unlike the former CCE&HR platforms, which were in separate tunnels with side platforms, the Bank branch tracks served an island platform in a single large tunnel.[30] These platforms suffered from dangerous overcrowding at peak times. To provide cross-platform interchange, a new section of tunnel was constructed for northbound Bank branch trains, which were diverted to a new platform south of the original alignment.[n 8] The redundant northbound track bed in the station tunnel was filled in to form a wider southbound platform. The new Victoria line platforms were excavated between and parallel to the original and the new Bank branch tunnels.[32] Each pair of platforms was linked via a concourse served by escalators.[n 9]

A wide concrete platform in a circular tunnel. Railway track runs along the left with posters fixed to the wall opposite the platform.
The extra wide southbound platform of the Northern line's Bank branch formed by the removal of the northbound track (passengers on the right are standing where the northbound track was).

Plans for the route that eventually became the Victoria line date from the 1940s. A proposal for a new underground railway line linking north-east London with the centre was included in the County of London Plan in 1943.[25] Between 1946 and 1954, a series of routes were proposed by different transport authorities to connect various places in south and north or north-east London. Each of these connected the three main line termini at King's Cross, Euston and Victoria.[n 7] A route was approved in 1955 with future extensions to be decided later,[29] though funding for the construction was not approved by the government until 1962.[30]

diagram of station layout below ground showing the six crossing tunnels of the three lines passing through Euston station.
Plan of Euston station showing arrangement of platforms and alterations needed to accommodate the Victoria line

Victoria line

In 1906, the London and North Western Railway (LNWR), operator of the main line station, announced proposals to construct an underground station of its own. The company planned to construct new tracks parallel with its line to Watford, the first section of which would have been constructed as a single-track loop 1,588 yards (1,452 m) long and 55 feet 6 inches (16.92 m) deep beneath the surface station. The single platform underground station would have been close to the CCE&HR's platforms.[21] The proposal was presented to parliament in November 1906 and received royal assent on 26 July 1907.[22][23] The LNWR did not proceed with the loop plan and the underground station, which were dropped in 1911.[24][n 6]

London & North Western Railway

[4] They reopened on 20 April 1924 along with the new link to Camden Town.[4] A separate bill was published at the same time by the [19] The smaller tunnel size restricted the capacity of the C&SLR's trains and, in 1912, the C&SLR published a bill for their enlargement.[n 4][17] Most of the C&SLR's route had been constructed with tunnels 10 feet 2 inches (3.10 m) or 10 feet 6 inches (3.20 m) in diameter, smaller than the 11 feet 6 inches (3.51 m) diameter that had been adopted as the standard for the CC&EHR and other deep level tube lines.

Reconstruction and extension

Although built and initially operated as two separate stations by the two companies, the C&SLR and the CCE&HR platforms were sufficiently close together that a deep level interchange was constructed between the passages of the two stations with a small ticket office for passengers changing between the lines. Another passage led to lifts that surfaced within the main line station itself. With the entrance within the main line station able to serve both sets of platforms satisfactorily, the separate station buildings were unneeded and they both closed on 30 September 1914.[16] The CCE&HR building remains (converted for use as an electrical substation), but the C&SLR's building was demolished in 1934 to enable the construction of Euston House for the London, Midland and Scottish Railway.[16]

The disused CCE&HR station building on the corner of Drummond Street and Melton Street

With funding obtained, tunnelling for the CCE&HR was carried out between September 1903 and December 1905, after which the station buildings and fitting-out of the tunnels commenced.[15] The C&SLR's Euston extension was constructed at the same time from the newly opened Angel station and opened on 12 May 1907,[4] with the station building designed by Sidney Smith located on the east side of Eversholt Street.[16] The CCE&HR opened on 22 June 1907,[4] its building, designed by Leslie Green, is located at the corner of Drummond Street and Melton Street.[16]

Map
Locations of the two companies' stations superimposed on an 1896 map

Construction and opening

[14] A third attempt, presented to parliament in November 1902 by the C&SLR itself, was successful and approved in 1903.[13]

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