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Foreign relations of Moldova

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Foreign relations of Moldova

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Moldova
Administrative divisions
Wörner and Snegur signing PfP on March 16, 1994

After achieving independence from the Soviet Union, Moldova established relations with other European countries. A course for European Union integration and neutrality define the country's foreign policy guidelines.

In 1995, the country became the first Francophonie and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

In 2005, Moldova and EU established an action plan that sought to improve the collaboration between the two neighboring structures. After the War of Transnistria, Moldova sought a peaceful resolution to the conflict in the Transnistria region by working with Romania, Ukraine, and Russia, calling for international mediation, and cooperating with the OSCE and UN fact-finding and observer missions.

Contents

  • Overview 1
  • Relations with the European Union 2
  • Relations with NATO 3
  • Relations with USA 4
  • Relations with Romania 5
  • Relations with Russia and other post-Soviet states 6
  • Separatist movements 7
  • Bilateral relationships 8
  • See also 9
  • Gallery 10
  • References 11

Overview

Foreign relations of Moldova

Moldova has established diplomatic relations with 97 states,[1] the Holy See,[1] the Sovereign Military Order of Malta,[1] and the European Union.[1]

Moldova has not yet established diplomatic relations with:

  • Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Haiti, St.Kitts and Nevis, St.Lucia, St.Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay
  • Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, San Marino
  • Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, DRCongo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of Congo, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo
  • Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Iraq, Laos, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan
  • Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Timor-Leste, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
  • The states with limited recognition.

Relations with the European Union

Moldova currently aspires to join the European Union [2] and is implementing its first three-year Action Plan within the framework of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the EU.[3]

As regards energy policy, Moldova was an observer to the Treaty establishing Energy Community from the outset (2006). Following its interest in full membership, the European Commission was mandated to carry out negotiations with Moldova in 2007. In December 2009, the Energy Community Ministerial Council decided on the accession, but made it conditional to amendment of Moldova's gas law.[4] Moldova joined the Energy Community as a full fledged member in March 2010.[5]

Relations with NATO

NATO relations with Moldova date back to 1992, when the country joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Moldova works alongside NATO allies and partner countries in a wide range of areas through the Partnership for Peace and the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council.

Relations with USA

U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry made a visit to Moldova in December 2013 to support the former Soviet republic's pro-Western moves in the face of Russian pressure.

The United States remains committed to the 5+2 negotiations process as a means to resolving the Transnistria conflict. The United States supports a comprehensive settlement that affirms Moldova’s sovereignty and territorial integrity, while providing a special status for Transnistria.

Relations with Romania

Moldova's relations with its western neighbour, Romania, have been stressed since 1994. Most of Moldova was part of Romania during the interwar period (1918–40) and linguists generally agree that the Moldovan language is in fact identical with Romanian. However, Moldovans have been ambivalent about whether they consider themselves Romanians or Moldovans. Early signs that Romania and Moldova might unite after both countries achieved emancipation from communist rule quickly faded. Romania remains interested in Moldovan affairs, especially that country's civil conflict with the breakaway republic of Transnistria. However, the two countries have been unable to reach agreement on a basic bilateral treaty; Romania is insistent (against determined Moldovan resistance) that such a treaty would have to refer to Romania and Moldova's 'special relationship'. Beginning in 1994, the two countries enjoyed a visa-free arrangement that ended on January 1, 2007, with Romania's entry into the European Union. This prompted many Moldovan citizens to apply for Romanian citizenship.[6]

Relations with Russia and other post-Soviet states

The Moldovan Parliament approved the country's membership in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the CIS charter on economic union in April 1994. Moldova however has never participated in any military aspects of CIS, citing its neutrality status.

In 1998, Moldova contributed to the founding of Ukraine, Azerbaijan and Moldova. Although the agreement initially included a declaration of mutual defense, Moldova has since declared its disinterest in participating in any GUAM-based mutual defense initiative.

Russia continues to maintain a military presence in the Transnistrian region of Moldova, despite previous agreements with Moldova and within OSCE and CAF to withdraw its troops and ammunition.

Separatist movements

The territory of Moldova includes the separatist United States are involved at different degrees in the conflict resolution.

Bilateral relationships

Moldova has embassy-level relationships with:

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Armenia
  • Armenia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Kiev (Ukraine).
  • Moldova is represented in Armenia through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).
  • There are around 7,500 people of Armenian descent living in Moldova.
  • Armenian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: presentation of the Moldovan ambassador’s credentials to the Armenian Foreign Minister
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Armenia
 Austria 1992-03-25 see Austria–Moldova relations
 Belarus see Belarus–Moldova relations

There is no common border between Moldova and Belarus. The number of Belorussians in Moldova and of Moldovans in Belarus is insignificant.

 Belgium
  • Moldova has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Trade is modest between Moldova and Belgium .for the year 2005: 44.7 million USD was traded between the two countries increasing by 33.4% compared to the year 2004 [9]
  • Embassy of the Republic of Moldova in Belgium
  • Belgian Embassy in Bucharest (French)
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova
  • Belgian Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation
 Bulgaria 1992-02-05
  • Bulgaria recognized Moldova on December 28, 1991.
  • Since 1992, Bulgaria has an embassy in Chişinău.[10]
  • Moldova has embassy in Sofia.[11]
  • Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
 Croatia 1992-07-28
  • Moldova has recognised the independence of the Republic of Croatia on May 29, 1992.
  • Croatia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).
  • Moldova is represented in Croatia through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).
  • Croatian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration: list of bilateral treaties with Moldova
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration about relations with Croatia
 Cyprus 1992-02-12
  • Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs: list of bilateral treaties with Moldova
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration about relations with Cyprus
 Czech Republic
 Denmark 1992-01-20 See Denmark–Moldova relations
 Estonia 1992-11-10
  • Before 1918, both countries were part of the Russian Empire and before 1991 both countries were part of the USSR.
  • Moldova recognized Estonia on August 28, 1991
  • Estonia recognized Moldova on February 20, 1992.
  • Estonia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Kiev (Ukraine) and through an honorary consulate in Chișinău. * Moldova is represented in Estonia through its embassy in Tallinn (Estonia).
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Moldova
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs about the relation with Estonia
 Finland 1992-02-26
  • Finland recognised Moldova's independence on December 30, 1991.
  • Finland is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest, Romania.
  • Moldova is represented in Finland its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.[12]
  • Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland about relations with Moldova
 France
  • France opened an Embassy in Chişinău
  • When visiting the respective country, a mutual visa obligation exists for both nationals for any border crossing, except for transfer passengers.
  • A lot of French companies invest in Moldova. Orange S.A. operates the Orange Moldova GSM network. Or also Société Générale with Mobias Banca. There are also a lot of offshore IT companies in Chișinău.
  • Embassy of the Republic of Moldova in Paris
  • French Embassy in Chisinau
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova
  • French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs
 Georgia 1992-06-25
  • Until 1991, both countries were part of the USSR and before 1918 part of the Russian empire.
  • Georgia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania). Moldova is represented in Georgia through its embassy in Baku (Azerbaijan).
  • Georgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Moldova
 Germany see Germany–Moldova relations

Germany has an embassy in Chişinău. Moldova has an embassy in Berlin.

 Greece 27 March 1992 see Greece–Moldova relations
  • Diplomatic relations between Greece and Modlova were established 27 March 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union
  • Moldova is represented in Greece through its embassy in Athens, opened in 2003.[13]
  • Greece is represented in Moldova through its honorary consulate in Chișinău and its embassy in Kiev.
  • See also Moldovan Embassy, Athens
 Hungary
 Ireland 1992
  • Ireland is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).[14]
  • Moldova is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London (United Kingdom).[15]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Ireland
 Israel 1992-06-22 see Israel–Moldova relations
  • Israel recognized Moldova on December 25, 1991.
  • Israel is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Kiev.
  • Moldova has an embassy in Tel Aviv and an honorary consulate in Haifa.
 Italy
  • Italy opened an Embassy in Chişinău.
  • The Italian ambassador to Moldova with residence in Bucharest is Daniele Mancini.
  • Embassy of the Republic of Moldova in Rome
  • Italian Embassy in Bucharest
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova
  • Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
 Japan 1992-03-16 see Foreign relations of Japan
 Lithuania
 Netherlands 2013-09-06
 Malta
  • Malta is represented in Moldova through a non resident embassy based in Valletta (in the Foreign Affairs Ministry).
  • Moldova is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy).
  • Direction of the Maltese representation in Moldova
  • Direction of the Moldovan representation in Malta
  • Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration about the relation with Malta
 Poland
 Romania See Moldovan–Romanian relations
 Russia see Moldova–Russia relations

Relations between Moldova and Russia deteriorated in November 2003 over a Russian proposal for the solution of the Transnistrian conflict, which Moldovan authorities refused to accept. In the following election, held in 2005, the Communist party made a formal 180 degree turn and was re-elected on a pro-Western platform, with Voronin being re-elected to a second term as president.

 Serbia 1995
  • Moldova is represented in Serbia through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).
  • Serbia is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania).
  • Serbian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Moldova
 Slovenia 1993-10-27
  • Both countries are represented in each other through their embassies in Budapest (Hungary).
  • Both countries are full members of the Francophonie.
 Turkey
  • Moldova has an embassy in Ankara.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Chişinău.
  • Both countries are full members of BSEC.
  • There are around 11,000 Turks who live in Moldova.
  • Moldovan embassy in Ankara
  • Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Moldova
 United Kingdom
  • United Kingdom opened a British Embassy, Chişinău.[16]
  • Embassy of The Republic of Moldova to United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Moldova
 United States 1991-12-25 see Moldova – United States relations

The United States recognized the independence of Moldova on December 25, 1991, and opened an embassy in its capital, Chișinău, in March 1992. A trade agreement providing reciprocal most-favored-nation tariff treatment became effective in July 1992. An Overseas Private Investment Corporation agreement, which encourages U.S. private investment by providing direct loans and loan guarantees, was signed in June 1992. A bilateral investment treaty was signed in April 1993. A generalized system of preferences status was granted in August 1995, and some Eximbank coverage became available in November 1995.

See also

Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b c d Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration of the Republic of Moldova
  2. ^ Moldova will prove that it can and has chances to become EU member, Moldpress News Agency, June 19, 2007
  3. ^ Moldova-EU Action Plan Approved by European Commission, December 14, 2004, retrieved July 2, 2007
  4. ^ Energy Community Ministerial Council Conclusions, Dec 2009.
  5. ^ Accession Protocoll of Republic of Moldova to the Energy Community
  6. ^ Cetatenia romana, portita spre Europa December 27, 2006
  7. ^ http://www.tur.md/eng/foreignembassy/112/
  8. ^ "Relations with Austria". Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration. Retrieved 2009-05-07. 
  9. ^ http://www.ambasadamoldova.be/bilateral/bel_en.htm
  10. ^ Bulgarian embassy in Chişinău
  11. ^ Moldovan Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Bulgaria
  12. ^ http://formin.finland.fi/public/default.aspx?nodeid=17267&contentlan=2&culture=en-US
  13. ^ http://greece.visahq.com/embassy/Moldova/
  14. ^ Irish embassy in Bucharest (also accredited to Moldova)
  15. ^ Moldovan embassy in London (also accredited to Ireland)
  16. ^ British Embassy in Chisinau

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