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Four Power Agreement on Berlin

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Title: Four Power Agreement on Berlin  
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Subject: Cold War, History of East Germany, West Berlin, Ostpolitik, Soviet Union–United States relations
Collection: 1970S in Berlin, 1971 in France, 1971 in the Soviet Union, 1971 in the United Kingdom, 1972 in Politics, 20Th Century in Berlin, 20Th Century in Germany, Allied Occupation of Germany, Cold War Treaties, France–soviet Union Relations, History of East Germany, Political History of Germany, Politics of Berlin, Soviet Union–united Kingdom Relations, Soviet Union–united States Relations, Treaties Concluded in 1971, Treaties Entered Into Force in 1972, Treaties of France, Treaties of the Soviet Union, Treaties of the United Kingdom, Treaties of the United States, West Berlin
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Four Power Agreement on Berlin

The Four Power Agreement on Berlin also known as the Berlin Agreement or the Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin was agreed on 3 September 1971 by the four wartime allied powers, represented by their Ambassadors. The four foreign ministers, Alec Douglas-Home of the United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics' Andrei Gromyko, France's Maurice Schumann, and the United States's William P. Rogers signed the agreement and put it into force at a ceremony in Berlin on 3 June 1972.[1] The agreement was not a treaty and required no formal ratification.

Contents

  • The Berlin Agreement 1
  • See also 2
  • Footnotes 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

The Berlin Agreement

In 1969 Berlin Brigade troops of the U.S. Army roar through morning rush hour traffic in a Zehlendorf residential district, a routine reminder that Berlin was still legally occupied by the World War II victors.

By reconfirming the existence of the rights and responsibilities of the four Powers for the future of Berlin and Germany as a whole (which the Soviets claimed to have abrogated as a result of the Berlin crisis of 1959-1962), the Agreement laid the foundation for a series of East-West agreements which ushered in the period usually known as Détente. It also reestablished ties between the two parts of Berlin, improved travel and communications between the two parts of the city and brought numerous improvements for the residents of the Western Sectors.

In order to reach such improvements, the ultimate political definition of the status of Berlin was purposely left vague, thus preserving the differing legal positions of the two sides. The word "Berlin" does not appear in the text. The city of Berlin is identified only as the "relevant area."

The Quadripartite Agreement is drawn up "in the English,[lower-roman 1] French[lower-roman 2] and Russian[lower-roman 3] languages, all texts being equally authentic." Thus, there is no authentic text in the German language. The translations used by both German states have some differences.[lower-roman 4]

After the agreement entered into force, the Soviet Union used this vague wording in an effort to loosen West Berlin's ties with the Federal Republic of Germany. However, the agreement contributed greatly both to a reduction of tensions between East and West over Berlin and to expanded contacts between the two parts of Germany. As such, it made an important contribution to the process which resulted in the reunification of Germany in 1990.

Along with the Allied agreement, the Basic Treaty (Grundlagenvertrag) (effective June 1973) recognized two German states, and the two countries pledged to respect one another's sovereignty. Under the terms of the treaty, diplomatic missions were to be exchanged and commercial, tourist, cultural, and communications relations established. Under the Agreement and the Treaty, in September 1973, both German states joined the United Nations.

These treaties were part of a breakthrough series of international agreements which were seen by some as formalizing the Cold War's division of Europe, while others saw this as the start of the process that led to the end of the Cold War. M. E. Sarotte wrote in 2001 that "...despite all the fears, both sides managed to make many bargains as a result of the détente dialogue."[2]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Big 4 Sign Berlin Accord, Stars and Stripes, June 4, 1972, p1
  2. ^ M.E. Sarotte; "Dealing with the Devil: East Germany, Detente & Ostpolitik, 1969-73"; The University of North Carolina Press; Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Page 164 in paperback edition.

References

  1. ^ on Berlin (Berlin, 3 September 1971)"Quadripartite Agreement" (PDF). CVCE. Retrieved 2013-02-19. 
  2. ^ sur Berlin (Berlin, 3 septembre 1971)"Accord quadripartite" (PDF) (in French). CVCE. Retrieved 2013-02-19. 
  3. ^ между Правительством Союза Советских Социалистических Республик, Соединенным Королевством Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, Соединенными Штатами Америки и Французской Республикой, Берлин, 3 сентября 1971 г.Четырехстороннее соглашение (in Russian). Юридическая Россия. Федеральный правовой портал. Retrieved 2013-02-19. 
  4. ^ Mahnke, Hans Heinrich, ed. (1987). "118. Viermächte-Abkommen vom 3. September 1971 (sowie die authentischen alliierten Texte in Englisch, Französisch und Russisch)". Dokumente zur Berlin-Frage 1967-1986. (Schriften des Forschungsinstituts der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Auswärtige Politik e.V.: Reihe Internationale Politik und Wirtschaft 52/II) (in German). München: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. pp. 190–211.   (GDR translation as footnotes: Vierseitiges Abkommen)

External links

  • Text des Viermächte-Abkommens E-text of the Agreement in German
  • Ostpolitik: The Quadripartite Agreement of September 3, 1971 U.S Embassy Germany
  • Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations Note 4 gives details of the impact of this Agreement on the assession of East and West Germany to this Convention and other international treaties which effected the international status of West Berlin.
  • Site of the Four Power Talks on the Status of Berlin. Photo series on the 1970 treaty sessions.
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