World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Galactic coordinate system

Article Id: WHEBN0000048389
Reproduction Date:

Title: Galactic coordinate system  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Celestial coordinate system, Milky Way, Galactic quadrant, Infobox supernova, Infobox supernova/doc
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Galactic coordinate system

Artist's depiction of the Milky Way galaxy, showing the galactic longitude relative to the galactic center.

The galactic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system in spherical coordinates, with the Sun as its center, the primary direction aligned with the approximate center of the Milky Way galaxy, and the fundamental plane approximately in the galactic plane. It uses the right-handed convention, meaning that coordinates are positive toward the north and toward the east in the fundamental plane.[1]

Contents

  • Galactic longitude 1
  • Galactic latitude 2
  • Definition 3
  • Rectangular coordinates 4
  • In the constellations 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Galactic longitude

The galactic coordinates use the Sun as the origin. Galactic longitude (l) is measured with primary direction from the Sun to the center of the galaxy in the galactic plane, while the galactic latitude (b) measures the angle of the object above the galactic plane.

Longitude (symbol l) measures the angular distance of an object eastward along the galactic equator from the galactic center. Analogous to terrestrial longitude, galactic longitude is usually measured in degrees ( ° ).

Galactic latitude

Latitude (symbol b) measures the angular distance of an object perpendicular to the galactic equator, positive to the north, negative to the south. For example, the north galactic pole has a latitude of +90°. Analogous to terrestrial latitude, galactic latitude is usually measured in degrees ( ° ).

Definition

In 1958, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined the galactic coordinate system in reference to the 21-cm radio emissions of galactic neutral hydrogen, replacing a system first defined in 1932.[1] In the equatorial coordinate system, for equinox and equator of 1950.0, the north galactic pole is defined at right ascension 12h 49m, declination +27°.4, in the constellation Coma Berenices, with a probable error of ±0°.1.[2] Longitude 0° is the great semicircle that originates from this point along the line in position angle 123° with respect to the equatorial pole. The galactic longitude increases in the same direction as right ascension. Galactic latitude is positive towards the north galactic pole, the galactic equator being 0°, the poles ±90°.[3] Based on this definition, the galactic poles and equator can be found from spherical trigonometry and can be precessed to other epochs; see the table.


Equatorial coordinates B1950.0 / (J2000.0) of galactic reference points[1]
  right ascension declination constellation
north pole (+90° latitude) 12h 49m

(12h 51m.4)

+27°.4

(+27°.13)

Coma Berenices
south pole (-90° latitude) 0h 49m

(0h 51m.4)

-27°.4

(-27°.13)

Sculptor
galactic center (0° longitude) 17h 42m.4

(17h 45m.6)

-28°.92

(-28°.94)

Sagittarius
anti-center (180° longitude) 5h 42m.4

(5h 45m.6)

+28°.92

(+28°.94)

Auriga

Radio source Sagittarius A*, which is the best physical marker of the true galactic center, is located at 17h 45m 40s.0409, -29° 00' 28".118 (J2000).[2] Rounded to the same number of digits as the table, 17h 45m.7, -29°.01 (J2000), there is an offset of about 0°.07 from the defined coordinate center, well within the 1958 error estimate of ±0°.1.

Rectangular coordinates

There are two major rectangular variations of galactic coordinates, commonly used for computing space velocities of galactic objects. In these systems the xyz axes are designated UVW, but the definitions vary by author. In one system, the U axis is directed toward the galactic center (l = 0°), and it is a right-handed system (positive towards the east and towards the north galactic pole); in the other, the U axis is directed toward the galactic anti-center (l = 180°), and it is a left-handed system (positive towards the west and towards the north galactic pole).[4]

In the constellations

The anisotropy of the star density in the night sky makes the galactic coordinate system very useful for coordinating surveys, both those that require high densities of stars at low galactic latitudes, and those that require a low density of stars at high galactic latitudes. For this image the Mollweide projection has been applied, typical in maps using galactic coordinates.
The galactic equator runs through the following constellations:[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Blaauw, A.; Gum, C.S.; Pawsey, J.L.; Westerhout, G. (1960). "The new IAU system of galactic coordinates (1958 revision)".  , at SAO/NASA ADS
  2. ^ a b Reid, M.J.; Brunthaler, A. (2004). "The Proper Motion of Sagittarius A*". The Astrophysical Journal (The American Astronomical Society) 616 (2): 874, 883.  , at SAO/NASA ADS
  3. ^ James Binney, Michael Merrifield (1998). Galactic Astronomy. Princeton University Press. pp. 30–31.  
  4. ^ Johnson, Dean R.H.; Soderblom, David R. (1987). "Calculating galactic space velocities and their uncertainties, with an application to the Ursa Major group". Astronomical Journal 93: 864.  , at SAO/NASA ADS
  5. ^ SEDS Milky Way Constellations

External links

  • Equatorial/Galactic conversion tool.
  • Galactic Coordinate System - Wolfram Demonstration
  • Galactic coordinates, The Internet Encyclopedia of Science
  • Universal coordinate converter.
  • Fiona Vincent, Positional Astronomy: Galactic coordinates, University of St Andrews
  • An Atlas of the Universe
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.