World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Gernikako Arbola


Gernikako Arbola

The "new tree".
The trunk of the "Old Tree".

Gernikako Arbola ("the Tree of Gernika" in Basque) is an oak tree that symbolizes traditional freedoms for the Biscayan people, and by extension for the Basque people as a whole. The Lords of Biscay (including kings of Castile and Carlist pretenders to the throne) swore to respect the Biscayan liberties under it, and the modern Lehendakari of the Basque Country swears his charge there.


  • The tree 1
  • Other fuero trees in Biscay 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

The tree

In the Middle Ages, representatives of the villages of Biscay would hold assemblies under local big trees. As time passed, the role of separate assemblies was superseded by the Guernica Assembly in 1512, and its oak would acquire a symbolic meaning, with actual assemblies being held in a purpose-built hermitage-house (the current building is from 1833). It was the Spanish regent Maria Christina accompanied by her infant daughter Queen Isabella II the last Spanish monarch to swear an oath to the charters under the iconic oak in 1839.

The known specimens[1] form a dynasty:

  • "the father", planted in the 14th century, lasted 450 years
  • the "old tree" (1742–1892), re-planted in 1811. The trunk now is held in a templet in the surrounding garden.
  • the third (1858–2004), re-planted in 1860, survived the Bombing of Guernica in 1937 but had to be replaced because of a fungus. The gardeners of the Biscayan government keep several spare trees grown from the tree's acorns.
  • the fourth (1986-2015) was replanted on the site of its father on 25 February 2005. It died of a humidity related disease on 15 January 2015.
  • the fifth was planted in March 2015, aged 14.

The tree's significance is illustrated by an event which occurred shortly after the Guernica bombings. When the Francoist troops took the town, the Tercio of Begoña, formed by Carlist volunteers from Biscay, put an armed guard around the tree to protect it against the Falangists, who had wanted to fell this symbol of Basque nationalism.[2]

An oak tree is depicted on the heraldic arms of Biscay and subsequently on the arms of many of the towns of Biscay. An oak leaf logo is being used by the local government of Biscay. The logo of the Basque nationalist party Jarrai also display oak leaves.

The Basque authorities present descendants of the tree as a symbol of friendship to Basque diaspora groups and related cities.

Arms of Biscay The coat of arms of Gernika-Lumo The logo of the University of the Basque Country
with Chillida's interpretation of the oak
The oak leaves and acorns around the coat of arms of the Basque Country are another reference to the tree.

Other fuero trees in Biscay


  1. ^ El Mundo, 26 February 2005, Otro árbol de Gernika
  2. ^ An interview with Jaime del Burgo Torres, the captain that ordered the guard. Allegedly from El Mundo (31 October 2005).

External links

  • Arbol de Gernika in the Spanish-language Auñamendi Encyclopedia.
  • Tourism in the Basque Country
  • Page on the tree at the site of the General Assemblies of Biscay (English, Basque, Spanish and French).
  • L'arbre de Guernica, a 1975 Surrealist film by Fernando Arrabal.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.