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Giro d'Italia

Giro d'Italia
Race details
Date May–June
Region Italy and nearby countries
English name Tour of Italy
Local name(s) Giro d'Italia (Italian)
Discipline Road
Competition UCI World Tour
Type Grand Tour
Organiser RCS Sport
Race director Mauro Vegni
First edition 1909 (1909)
Editions 98 (as of 2015)
First winner  Luigi Ganna (ITA)
Most wins
5 wins
Most recent  Alberto Contador (ESP)

The Giro d'Italia (Italian pronunciation: ; English: Tour of Italy) is an annual 1994 Giro d'Italia. Team Sky won the Trofeo Fast Team classification in 2013.

The Trofeo Super Team was introduced at the 1993 Giro d'Italia as the team points classification. The name Trofeo Super Team was adopted for the 1994 edition of the Giro and been used ever since. The classification was first won by Ariostea in 1993. The classification is a team points classification, with the top 20 placed riders on each stage earning points (20 for first place, 19 for second place and so on, down to a single point for 20th) for their team.[9] Movistar Team won the Trofeo Super Team classification in 2013.

Minor classifications

Other less well-known classifications, whose leaders did not receive a special jersey, are awarded during the Giro. These awards were based on points earned throughout the three weeks of the tour.[9] Each mass-start stage had one intermediate sprint, the Traguardo Volante, or T.V. The T.V. gave bonus seconds towards the general classification, points towards the regular points classification, and also points towards the T.V. classification. This award was known by various names in previous years, and was previously time-based.[9] In 2013 this classification was renamed to the sprints classification and was won by Rafael Andriato.

Other awards include the Combativity classification, which was a compilation of points gained for position on crossing intermediate sprints, mountain passes and stage finishes.[9] It was won by Mark Cavendish in 2013. The Azzurri d'Italia classification is based on finishing order; however, points were only awarded for the top three finishers in each stage.[9] It was also most recently won by Mark Cavendish. Additionally, the Trofeo Fuga Pinarello rewarded riders who took part in a breakaway at the head of the field, each rider in an escape of ten or fewer riders getting one point for each kilometre that the group stayed clear.[9] Vini Fantini-Selle Italia's Rafael Andriato was first in this competition in 2013. Teams were given penalty points for minor technical infringements.[9] Cannondale won the Fair Play classification after only accumulating twenty points in the 2013 edition.

Defunct classifications

In 1946 the maglia nera (black jersey) was introduced and awarded the cyclist who was last in the general classification.[50] Riders sometimes deliberately wasted time in order to become last overall and so wear the black jersey.[50] The classification was short lived, as it was last contested in the 1951 Giro d'Italia.[50] The classification was won twice by Luigi Malabrocca, who won the classification in 1946 and 1947. The last winner of the maglia nera was Giovanni Pinarello.

The intergiro classification was introduced in 1989 and first won by Yugoslavian Jure Pavlič.[13][51] In each stage there would be a point, before the finish, where the riders would be timed until they crossed the line.[13] The times from each stage would then be added together for each rider to determine the leader of the classification. The leader of the classification was awarded a blue jersey.[52] The classification was run each year since its addition until 2005.[51] The last winner of the classification was Stefano Zanini. Fabrizio Guidi won the classification three times, the most by any rider. Guidi won the classification in 1996, 1999, and 2000.[51]

There was also a combination classification that was introduced in the 1985 Giro d'Italia and was first won by Urs Freuler.[53] The classification was discontinued after the 1988 Giro d'Italia. For the 1988 edition of the Giro, the classification awarded a blue jersey.[54] However, the classification was reintroduced for the 2006 Giro d'Italia and was won by Paolo Savoldelli.[55] The classification was not brought back in the 2007 Giro d'Italia.

Types of stages


  • Official website
  • Palmares at Cycling Archives

External links

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  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Laura Weislo (13 May 2008). "Giro d'Italia classifications demystified". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved 27 August 2009. 
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  33. ^ Fotheringham, William (6 February 2012). "Alberto Contsdor gets two-year ban and stripped of 2010 Tour de France". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2012. 
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  39. ^ a b c d "Giro d'Italia 2009" (PDF). Infostrada sports. 2009. p. 187. Retrieved 29 June 2011. 
  40. ^ McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1910 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  41. ^ a b McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1913 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  42. ^ McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1914 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z "Formula and Itinerary" (PDF). Gazzetta della Sport. 2012. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 29 June 2012. 
  44. ^ a b c McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1933 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
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  47. ^ McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1966 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  48. ^ Cycling News (15 January 2010). "2010 Giro jersey presented in Florence". Cycling News (Future Publishing Limited). Archived from the original on 18 January 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f Gregor Brown (4 December 2006). "First Edition Cycling News for December 4, 2006". Cycling News (Future Publishing Limited). Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  50. ^ a b c "Giro, la Maglia nera diventa Numero nero" [The Giro, the black jersey becomes the black number]. La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian).  
  51. ^ a b c "91st Giro d'Italia – GT". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. 1 June 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  52. ^ "Giro d'Italia, Intergiro-Wertung". Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  53. ^ "Hinault: Tres Vidas En Rosa" [Hinault: Three Lives In Pink] (PDF). El Mundo Deportivo (in Spanish). 10 June 1985. p. 34. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  54. ^ Richard Pestes (1 December 2007). "Giro 1988: Andy's Epic Day". PezCycling News. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  55. ^ Anthony Tan (28 May 2006). Seven key moments"; Mission 1 of 2 complete""". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  56. ^ a b "UCI Cycling Regulations, Part II: Road Races".  
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  61. ^ "Le Giro a 100 ans" [The Giro d'Italia is 100 Years Old]. (in French). Retrieved 16 September 2010. 
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  63. ^ Daniel Friebe (25 May 2012). "The Stelvio: The sacred mountain of the Giro d'Italia". Cycling News (Future Publishing Limited). Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  64. ^ McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1965 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  65. ^ a b c McGann, Bill; McGann, Carol. "1968 Giro d'Italia". Bike Race Info. Dog Ear Publishing. Retrieved 6 August 2012. 
  66. ^ Ian Chadband (5 May 2013). "Giro d'Italia 2013, stage two: Team Sky storm to victory in team time-trial as Salvatore Puccio takes maglia rosa". The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group Limited. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
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  81. ^ Alasdair Fotheringham (5 May 2012). "The Most International Giro D’Italia Ever?". Cycling News. Future Publishing Limited. Retrieved 20 August 2012. 
  82. ^ Luca Gialanella (11 April 2011). "Il Giro è sempre più globale Nel 2012 il via dalla Danimarca" [The Giro is increasingly global in 2012 by Denmark]. La Gazzetta dello Sport (in Italian). RCS MediaGroup. Retrieved 10 July 2012. 
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See also

Foreign starts of the Giro[70][82]
Year Country City Ref(s).
1965 San Marino [79][83]
1966 Monaco Monte Carlo [79][83]
1973 Belgium Verviers [79][83]
1974 Vatican City [79][83]
1996 Greece Athens [79][83]
1998 France Nice [79][83]
2002 Netherlands Groningen [83]
2006 Belgium Seraing [83]
2010 Netherlands Amsterdam [83]
2012 Denmark Herning [43][83]
2014 Northern Ireland Belfast [83][84]
2016 Netherlands Apeldoorn [85][86]

For the first 47 editions of the race, the race started in Italian soil. In 1965 the race made its first foreign start in San Marino, and has since had ten more foreign starts.[70][81] The most recent start outside Italy was in 2014 when the race started in Belfast.

A group of cyclists riding away from the camera between guard rails that are covered with a pink plastic.
The Omega Pharma-Quick Step team at the team presentation for the 2012 Giro d'Italia in Herning, Denmark.

Starts outside Italy

The Giro takes place mainly in Italy, but some stages have departure or conclusion locations in other countries, especially in neighboring countries such as San Marino, France, Monaco, Switzerland, Austria, Croatia and Slovenia.[78][79] Some stages have been held in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany (2002 and 2006), Greece (1996)[78] and Denmark (2012)[78][80] The 2014 edition of the Giro started in Belfast.

In 2009, to commemorate the centennial of the event, the finish took place in Rome.[74][75] The Italian capital, Rome, had already been the location of the final stage of the 1911 and 1950 editions of the Giro d'Italia.[60][76] The 2010 edition ended in Verona, as happened in the 1981 and 1984 editions.[77]

For nearly half a century, the Giro started and finished by Milan, the city where the headquarters of the Gazzetta dello Sport were located.[71][72] The first time the race didn't start or finish in Milan was in 1911, where the start and finish were moved to Rome to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Italy's unification.[60] With the occasional exception, the start and finish in Milan was the standard for the Giro d'Italia. However, since 1960 the place of departure has changed each year. Some years (1965, 1966, 1968, 1970, 1973, 1975, 1981–1989) the finish was also changed, but in 1990 the traditional finish in Milan was restored.[73]

The start of the Giro d'Italia is a big deal and cities pay lots of money to host the start or finish of a stage.[70] For the start of the Giro itself, the cities are willing to pay much more money.[70] The money the city and other investors put into get the start is quickly earned back.[70] Former race director said that the cities often earn ten times the money they invested.[70]

A man riding a bike while wearing a blue, white, and pink skinsuit.
Gilberto Simoni in 2010 riding the stage 1 time trial that navigated through Amsterdam.

The start and finish of the Giro

Each stage begins and ends in a city. Most stages have different start cities and end cities, while some stages have the same starting and ending location. Milan has hosted the most stage starts and finishes with 137 since the race traditionally finishes in Milan. In addition to that, the race used to begin in Milan during the race's early existence. Milan has hosted the most starts and finishes for Giro d'Italia stages, with Rome being a close second and many towns having hosted over 25 stages.[58]

Stage towns

The team time trial has been used 20 times in the history of the in the Giro d'Italia.[67][68] The first team time trial occurred in the 1937 Giro d'Italia.[62] and was won by the Italian team, Legnano.[62][68][69] The course was 60 km (37 mi) in length and stretched from Viareggio to Marina di Massa.[62][69]

A team time trial (TTT) is a race against the clock in which each team rides alone.[57] The order for the team time trial is determined by the inversed order of the team classification, except for the race leader's team who is always the last to start.[43] The teams' start times are staggered by five minutes.[43][57] The riders work together in the team time trial by taking turns at the front, to lift the pace and break the wind for their teammates to save them energy.[57] The time is that of the fifth rider of each team: riders more than a bike-length behind their team's fifth rider are awarded their own times.[43][57] The TTT has been criticized for favoring strong teams and handicapping strong riders in weak teams. The most recent team time trial in the Giro was in the 2015 edition, which was won by Orica-GreenEDGE.[66]

A group of cyclists wearing the same blue and black uniform while riding bikes.
The Garmin-Barracuda team during the stage 4 in the 2012 Giro d'Italia.

Team time trial

There are usually two or three time trials, with team time trials being included in the tally, in each modern edition of the Giro d'Italia. The final time trial has sometimes been the final stage, more recently often the penultimate stage.

The first stage in modern Giros is often a short trial, a prologue, to decide who wears pink on the opening day. To be classified as a prologue, the time trial must be shorter than 8 km (5 mi) in length.[56][57] The first prologue occurred in the 1968 Giro d'Italia.[65] The route stretched 5.7 km (4 mi) around the streets of Campione d'Italia and was won by the Frenchman Charly Grosskost.[65] The riders raced the course in an unusual format, with the riders racing in ten groups of thirteen and the time not being counted towards their overall time.[65]

Riders in a time trial compete individually against the clock.[43][57] If the first stage of the Giro is a time trial, then order is determined by a draw to establish the team's sequence.[43] Once the team's order is chosen, then the teams can choose the starting order.[43] If the incumbent winner of the Giro d'Italia is participating, he will start last.[43] The riders are given staggered start times between one and three minutes.[43] Once the first stage has been run and the general classification standing has been established, the riders' start order is determined by the inverse standings of the general classification, with the highest ranked person going last and the lowest ranked person going first.[43] The first time trial was in the 1933 Giro d'Italia; it was between Bologna and Ferrara, and stretched 62 km (39 mi).[44] The first time trial was won by Alfredo Binda.[44]

A cyclist wearing a pink skinsuit while riding a bike.
Alberto Contador riding a time trial during the 2008 Giro d'Italia.

Individual time trials

Stages in the mountains often cause major shifts in the general classification. On ordinary stages, most riders stay in the peloton to the finish; however during mountain stages, it is not uncommon for riders to lose 30 minutes or to be eliminated after finishing outside the time limit.[43]

The Giro d'Italia is known for its steep and difficult climbs. Each race features a few stages that contain many climbs of high severity. The race traditionally passes through the Alps and the Dolomites. The first Alpine pass included was the Sestriere in 1911.[60] The Dolomites were first included in the Giro in 1937, when the race crossed over the Rolle Pass and the Passo di Costalunga.[61][62] Some of the most famous mountains used in the Giro are the Passo dello Stelvio,[63] Passo Pordoi, and the Passo di Gavia. Since 1965 the highest point in the Giro d'Italia has been dubbed the Cima Coppi in honor of the great Italian climber Fausto Coppi.[64]

Mountains stages

Time bonuses were awarded in the Giro for finishing high in the stages, in the first three positions. The stage's first placed rider receives twenty seconds, second placed twelve seconds, and the third placed rider receives six seconds.[43]

All riders in a group finish in the same time as the lead rider, which helps avoid dangerous mass sprints.[43] It is not unusual for the entire field to finish in a group, taking time to cross the line but being credited with the same time. When riders fall or crash within the final 3 kilometers of a stage with a flat finish, they are awarded the same time as the group they were in before they crashed.[43] This change encourages riders to sprint to the finish for points awards without fear of losing time to the group. The final kilometer of racing is indicated by a red banner on an arch that also reads "Arrivo."[43]

Riders are permitted to touch, but not push or nudge, each other. The first to cross the line wins. On flat stages or stages with low hills, which generally predominate in the first week, this leads to spectacular mass sprints.

Most of the stages in the race are usually mass-start stages, with the whole peloton starting together.[43] Mass-start stages begin in different towns with a send off to gain publicity, the riders ride without racing.[43] The riders then ride a few kilometers around the stage's start town before reaching kilometer zero, where the race director then waves a flag to start the stage's racing.[43] Once the flag is waved there are usually attacks by the riders to form a breakaway.

A group of cyclists riding through the country.
The peloton in stage 7 of the 2012 Giro d'Italia.

Mass-start stages

[59][58] has the second most with 41.Alfredo Binda's 42 stage victories are the most in the history of the Giro d'Italia, while Mario Cipollini Italian [57][43] There are two team classifications that are contested at the Giro d'Italia: the

Team classifications

The Young rider classification is restricted to the riders that are under the age of 25.[9][49] The leader of the classification is determined the same way as the general classification, with the riders' times being added up after each stage and the eligible rider with lowest aggregate time is dubbed the leader.[9][49] This classification was added to the Giro d'Italia in the 1976 edition, with Alfio Vandi being the first to win the classification after placing seventh overall.[49] The classification was not contested between the years of 1995 and 2006.[9] The classification was reintroduced in the 2007, and has been in each Giro since.[9][49] The Giro d'Italia awards a white jersey to the leader of the classification.[49] Evgeni Berzin is the only rider in the history of the Giro d'Italia to win the young rider classification and the general classification in the same year; Berzin won both classifications in 1994.[49] Two riders have won the young rider classification twice in their respective careers: Vladimir Poulnikov and Pavel Tonkov.[39] In 2013 it was won by Carlos Betancur.

A cyclist wearing a white skinsuit while riding a bike.
Riccardo Riccò wearing the maglia bianca skinsuit during a time trial at the 2008 Giro d'Italia.

Young rider classification

Type 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th
Finish/Time Trial 25 20 16 14 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Intermediate sprint 8 6 4 3 2 1

The point distribution for the sprints are as follows:[43]

[48] The first year the points classification was used, it had no jersey that was given to the leader of the classification. In the

In addition, stages can have one or more intermediate sprints: 8, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1 points are awarded to the first six cyclists passing these lines.[43] These points also count toward the TV classification (Traguardo Volante, or "flying sprint"), a separate award.[43]

The points classification is the third oldest of the four jersey current awarding classifications in the Giro d'Italia. It was introduced in the 1966 Giro d'Italia and was first won by Gianni Motta.[13][47] Points are given to the rider who is first to reach the end of, or determined places during, any stage of the Giro. The red jersey is worn by the rider who at the start of each stage, has the largest amount of points.[13] The rider whom at the end of the Giro, holds the most points, wins the points competition. Each stage win, regardless of the stage's categorization, awards 25 points, second place is worth 20 points, third 16, fourth 14, fifth 12, sixth 10, and one point less per place down the line, to a single point for fifteenth.[43] This means that a true sprinter might not always win the points classification. The classification was added to draw the participation of the sprinters. The classification has been won four times by two riders: Francesco Moser and Giuseppe Saronni.[39] The 2013 winner of the classification was Mark Cavendish.

A man wearing an almost all red uniform while riding a bike.
Michele Scarponi wearing the red jersey during the 2011 Giro d'Italia.

Points classification

Type 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th
Cima Coppi 40 28 21 15 9 5 3 2 1
First Category 32 20 14 10 7 4 2 1
Second Category 14 9 6 4 2 1
Third Category 7 4 2 1
Fourth Category 3 2 1

The point distribution for the mountains is as follows:[46]

won the mountains classification at the 2013 Giro d'Italia. Stefano Pirazzi [45], renewed its sponsorship for another four years and desired the jersey to be blue rather than green.Banca Mediolanum, when the classification's sponsor, 2012 The green jersey was used until [13] The classification awarded no jersey to the leader until the

The climbers' jersey is worn by the rider who, at the start of each stage, has the largest amount of climbing points.[13] If a rider leads two or more of the categories, the climbers' jersey is worn by the rider in second, or third, place in that contest.[9] At the end of the Giro, the rider holding the most climbing points wins the classification.[9] In fact, some riders, particularly those who are neither sprinters nor particularly good at time-trialing, may attempt only to win this particular competition within the race. The Giro has four categories of mountains. They range from category 4, the easiest, to category 1, the hardest. There is also the Cima Coppi, the highest point reached in a particular Giro, which is worth more points than the race's other first-category climbs.[9] Gino Bartali has won the mountains classification a record seven times.[39]

The mountains classification is the second oldest jersey awarding classification in the Giro d'Italia. The mountains classification was added to the Giro d'Italia in 1933 Giro d'Italia and was first won by Alfredo Binda.[13][44] During mountain stages of the race, points are awarded to the rider who is first to reach the top of each significant climb.[13] Points are also awarded for riders who closely follow the leader up each climb.[13] The number of points awarded varies according to the hill classification, which is determined by the steepness and length of that particular hill.[9][13]

 A man riding a bike while wearing a green uniform.
Stefano Garzelli wearing the then green leader's jersey for the mountains classification in 2009.

Mountains classification

Type 1st 2nd 3rd
Flat finish 20" 12" 8"
Intermediate Sprint 6" 4" 2"

These are the time bonuses that the riders receive for crossing the lines in the first few positions:[43]

[42] The general classification winner was not always determined by a time system. In the

The color pink was chosen as the magazine that created the Giro, La Gazzetta dello Sport, printed its newspapers on pink paper.[9][13] The pink jersey was added to the race in the 1931 edition and it has since become a symbol of the Giro d'Italia.[1][13] The first rider to wear the pink jersey was Learco Guerra.[1][13] Each team brings multiple pink jerseys in advance of the Giro in case one of their riders becomes the overall leader of the race. Riders usually try to make the extra effort to keep the jersey for as long as possible in order to get more publicity for the team and the sponsor(s) of the team. Eddy Merckx wore the jersey for 78 stages, more than any other rider in the history of the Giro d'Italia.[36][37][38] Three riders have won the general classification five times in their career: Alfredo Binda, Fausto Coppi, and Eddy Merckx.[39]

The most sought after classification in the Giro d'Italia is the general classification.[1] All of the stages are timed to the finish, after finishing the riders' times are compounded with their previous stage times; so the rider with the lowest aggregate time is the leader of the race.[1][9] The leader is determined after each stage's conclusion. The leader of the race also has the privilege to wear the race leader's pink jersey.[1][9] The jersey is presented to the leader rider on a podium in the stage's finishing town. If a rider is leading more than one classification that awards a jersey, he will wear the maglia rosa since the general classification is the most important one in the race. The lead can change after each stage. The winner of the 2013 Giro d'Italia was Vincenzo Nibali.

A man wearing a pink jersey while holding a golden trophy.
Ryder Hesjedal, the winner of the 2012 Giro d'Italia, wearing the maglia rosa and holding the winner's trophy in Milan.

General classification

A few riders from each team aim to win overall but there are three further competitions to draw riders of all specialties: points,[9] mountains,[9] and a classification for young riders with general classification aspirations.[9] The oldest of the four classifications is the general classification.[1][9] The leader of each aforementioned classifications wears a distinctive jersey.[9] If a rider leads more than one classification that awards, he wears the jersey of the most prestigious classification.[9] The abandoned jersey is worn by the rider who is second in the competition.[9]


Stefano Garzelli won the Giro in 2000.[28] Gilberto Simoni was the winner in 2001 and 2003, with Paolo Savoldelli victorious in 2002. Simoni was denied a third victory in 2004, when he was beaten by team-mate Damiano Cunego. Salvodelli won his second Giro in 2005, beating Simoni by 28 seconds. Ivan Basso was the victor in 2006, Danilo di Luca won in 2007, though the tour was marred by doping allegations.[29] Spaniard Alberto Contador of Astana was the winner in 2008; the following year he raced in the Tour de France instead, and Denis Menchov was the Giro victor.[30] Basso returned after a doping suspension to regain his title in 2010.[31] Contador was the victor at the podium ceremony in Milan,[32] but he was later stripped of the title after he was found guilty of doping in the 2010 Tour de France. Runner-up Michele Scarponi was awarded the victory.[33] Ryder Hesjedal became the first Canadian to win the Giro in 2012, beating Joaquim Rodríguez by 16 seconds.[34] After gaining the lead after the eighth stage, Vincenzo Nibali won two more stages to help consolidate his lead and win the 2013 edition.[35]

Stephen Roche was victorious in 1987, a year in which he also won the Tour and the UCI Road World Championship.[26] American Andy Hampsten became the first non-European winner the following year,[21] and Laurent Fignon was victorious in 1989. Spaniard Miguel Indurain, winner of five Tours, won successive Giros in 1991 and 1992. Three time winner of the Vuelta a España, Tony Rominger was victorious in 1995, defeating the previous winner Evgeni Berzin.[27] Marco Pantani was the winner in 1998, a year in which he completed the Tour and Giro double, Ivan Gotti won the previous Giro in 1997 and the subsequent one in 1999.

Belgian Eddy Merckx was the dominant figure during the 1970s. His first victory came in 1968; another triumph in 1970 was followed by three successive victories from 1972 to 1974, which is the record for the most successive victories in the Giro.[24] Felice Gimondi was victorious in 1976 winning his third Giro. Belgians Michel Pollentier and Johan De Muynck won the two subsequent Giros in 1977 and 1978. In 1980, Frenchman Bernard Hinault who up to this point had won two Tours de France, became France's first winner since Anquetil in 1964. He would win another two Giros in 1982 and 1985.[25]

The rivalry between Bartali and Coppi intensified after the war. Bartali won his last Giro in 1946, with Coppi winning his second the following year. Coppi won a further three Giros and in 1952 he became the first cyclist to win the Tour de France and Giro in the same year. Swiss Hugo Koblet became the first non-Italian to win the race in 1950.[21] No one dominated the tour during the 1950s, Coppi, Charly Gaul and Fiorenzo Magni each won two Giros during the decade. The 1960s were similar, five-time Tour de France winner Jacques Anquetil won in 1960, and 1964,[22] while Franco Balmamion won two successive Giros in 1962 and 1963.[23]

A pink jersey hung on coat-hanger, with bikes in the background
The Pink Jersey (Italian: Maglia rosa) worn by the leader of the general classification

The dominant figure in the 1920s was Alfredo Binda, who won his first Giro in 1925 and followed this up with another victory in 1927, in which he won 12 of the 15 stages. Victory in 1929 came courtesy of eight successive stage wins. At the height of his dominance Binda was called to the head office of La Gazzetta dello Sport in 1930; the newspaper accused him of ruining the race and offered him 22,000 lira to be less dominant, which he refused.[18] Binda won five Giros before he was usurped as the dominant cyclist by Gino Bartali. Nicknamed the "Iron Man of Tuscany" for his endurance, Bartali won two Giros during the 1930s, in 1936 and 1937.[19] Bartali's dominance was challenged in 1940, the last Giro before the Second World War, when he was defeated by his 20-year-old team-mate Fausto Coppi.[20]

The first Giro was won by Luigi Ganna, while Carlo Galetti won the two following Giros. In 1912, there was no individual classification, instead there was only a team classification, which was won by Team Atala. The 1912 Giro is the only time the competition has not had an individual classification.[16] From 1914 onwards the scoring format was changed from a points-based system to a time-based system, in which the cyclist who had the lowest aggregate time at the end of the race would win. The Giro was suspended for four years from 1915 to 1918, due to the First World War. Costante Girardengo was the winner of the first Giro after the war in 1919.[17]

On 13 May 1909 at 02:53 am 127 riders started the first Giro d'Italia at Loreto Place in Milan.[2][13] The race was split into eight stages covering 2,448 km (1,521 mi).[13] A total of 49 riders finished, with Italian Luigi Ganna winning.[13][15] Ganna won three individual stages and the General Classification.[15] Ganna received 5325 lira as a winner’s prize, with the last rider in the general classification receiving 300 lira.[13] The Giro's director received only 150 lira a month, 150 lira fewer than the last-placed rider.[13]

[11]s rival, gave 3,000 lire to the race's fund.La Gazzetta', Corriere Even [12][11] employee, encouraged it to contribute to the race.Gazzetta after Francesco Sghirla, a former San Remo The money that was to be given out as prizes came from a casino in [12] Bongrani's efforts were largely successful, he had procured enough money to cover the operating costs.[12] Since the organizers lacked the funds, 25,000

[14][2] had gained from it.L'Auto and the success that Tour de France The idea of the race was inspired by the [13] The race was to be held in May of 1909.[13].La Gazzetta dello Sport Their bike race was announced on August 7, 1908 in the first page of that day's edition of [14][12], the owner Costamagna decided to go through with the idea.Milan–San Remo and Giro di Lombardia had with creating the La Gazzetta However, after the success [12] The idea of the holding a bicycle race that navigated around Italy was first suggested when

A cyclist sitting down.
Luigi Ganna the winner of the inaugural Giro d'Italia.



  • History 1
  • Classifications 2
    • General classification 2.1
    • Mountains classification 2.2
    • Points classification 2.3
    • Young rider classification 2.4
    • Team classifications 2.5
    • Minor classifications 2.6
    • Defunct classifications 2.7
  • Types of stages 3
    • Mass-start stages 3.1
      • Mountains stages 3.1.1
    • Individual time trials 3.2
    • Team time trial 3.3
    • Stage towns 3.4
  • The start and finish of the Giro 4
    • Starts outside Italy 4.1
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

All of the stages are timed to the finish. After finishing the riders' times are compounded with their previous stage times. The rider with the lowest aggregate time is the leader of the race and gets to don the coveted pink jersey.[1][9] While the general classification gathers the most attention there are other contests held within the Giro: the points classification for the sprinters,[9] the mountains classification for the climbers,[9] young rider classification for the riders under the age of 25,[9] and the team classification for the competing teams.[9] Spanish rider Alberto Contador was the victor in the 2015 edition of the race.[10]

Along with the Tour de France and Vuelta a España, the Giro makes up cycling's prestigious three-week-long Grand Tours.[1][7] The Giro is usually held during late May and early June.[1] While the route changes each year, the format of the race stays the same, with the appearance of at least two time trials, and a passage through the mountains of the Alps,[8] including the Dolomites. Like the other Grand Tours, the modern editions of the Giro d'Italia normally consist of 21 day-long segments (stages) over a 23-day period that includes 2 rest days.[1]


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