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Gojong (Hangul: 고종; Hanja: 高宗; RR: Gojong; MR: Kojong), the Emperor Gwangmu (Hangul: 광무제; Hanja: 光武帝; RR: Gwangmuje; MR: Kwangmuje; 8 September 1852 – 21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty and the first emperor of the Korean Empire.
King of the Joseon
Gojong took the throne in 1863 when still a child. As a minor, his father, the Regent Heungseon Daewongun (or more commonly, the Daewongun), ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood.
During the mid-1860s the Heungseon Daewongun was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French invasion and the United States expedition to Korea in 1871. The early years of the Daewongun's rule also witnessed a concerted effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During the Daewongun's reign, factional politics, the Seowon (learned academies that often doubled as epicenters of factional power), and the power wielded by the Andong Kim clan, completely disappeared as political forces within Korean state life.
In 1873, Gojong announced his assumption of direct royal rule. With the retirement of Heungseon Daewongun, Gojong's consort, Queen Min (later Empress Myeongseong), gained complete control over the court, placing her family members in high court positions.
External Pressures and Unequal Treaties
In the 19th century tensions mounted between Qing China and Japan, culminating in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895). Much of this war was fought on the Korean peninsula. Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, had acquired Western military technology and had forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876. Japan encroached upon Korean territory in search of fish, iron ore, and natural resources. It also established a strong economic presence in the peninsula, heralding the beginning of Japanese imperial expansion in East Asia.
The French campaign against Korea of 1866, United States expedition to Korea in 1871 and the Incident of Japanese gunboat Unyo put pressure on many of Joseon's officials, including King Gojong.
The Treaty of Ganghwa became the first unequal treaty signed between Korea and foreign country; it gave extraterritorial rights to Japanese citizens in Korea and forced the Korean government to open three ports, Busan, Incheon and Wonsan, to Japanese and foreign trade. With the signing of its first unequal treaty, Korea became easy prey for many imperialistic powers, and later the treaty led to Korea being annexed by Japan.
Imo Rebellion and Gapsin Coup
King Gojong began to rely on newer, rifle-equipped armies, who were paid. The old army, which used spears and old matchlocks, eventually revolted as a result of their mediocre wages and loss of prestige, and Heungseon Daewongun was restored to power. However Chinese troops led by the Qing Chinese general Yuan Shikai soon abducted the Daewongun and took him to China, thus foiling his return to power. Four years later the Daewongun returned to Korea.
On 4 December 1884, five revolutionaries initiated a coup d'etat by leading a small anti-old minister army to Empress Myeongseong's brother's house. The coup failed in 3 days. Some of its leaders, including Kim Okgyun, fled to Japan, and others were executed.
Widespread poverty presented significant challenges to the 19th century Joseon Dynasty. One indication of this poverty was the average life expectancy of Koreans around the close of the Joseon period: 24 years for males and 26 for females. A number of factors, including famine, poverty, high taxes and corruption among the ruling class, led to several notable peasant revolts in the 19th century. King Gojong's predecessors had suppressed an 1811–1812 revolt in the Pyeongan Province, led by Hong Kyong-nae.
In 1894, another major revolt, the Donghak Peasant Revolution took hold as an anti-government, anti-yangban and anti-foreign campaign. To suppress the rebellion, the Joseon government requested military aid from Japan, thus deepening Japanese claims to Korea as a protectorate. In the end the revolution failed, but many of the peasants' grievances were later dealt with by the Gabo Reform.
Assassination of Empress Myeongseong
In 1895, Empress Myeongseong (referred to as "Queen Min" by the Japanese) was assassinated by Japanese agents. The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Goro orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents entered the Imperial palace in Seoul, which was under Japanese guard, and Empress Myeongseong was killed in the palace. The empress had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support.
Anti-Japanese sentiments in Korea
Meanwhile, Japan won the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), gaining much more influence over the Korean government. The Gabo reforms and the assassination of Empress Myeongseong also stirred controversy in Korea, along with anti-Japanese sentiments.
Some Confucian scholars, as well as farmers, formed over 60 successive righteous armies to fight for Korean freedom. These armies were preceded by the Donghak movement and succeeded by various Korean independence movements.
Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation
On 11 February 1896, King Gojong and his crown prince fled from the Gyeongbokgung palace to the Russian legation in Seoul, from which they governed for about one year, an event known as Korea royal refuge at the Russian legation.
Proclamation of Empire
In 1897, King Gojong, yielding to rising pressure from overseas and the demands of the Independence Association-led public opinion, returned to Gyeongungung (modern-day Deoksugung). There he proclaimed the founding of the Empire of Korea, officially redesignated the national title as such, and declared the new era name Gwangmu (Hangul: 광무, Hanja: 光武) (meaning shining warrior). This effectively ended Korea's historic subordination to the Qing Chinese empire which Korea had acknowledged since the fall of the Ming Dynasty, and turned King Gojong into the Gwangmu Emperor, the first imperial head of state and hereditary sovereign of the Empire of Korea.
This marked the end of the traditional Chinese tributary system in the Far East. Adopting the status of empire meant that Korea was declaring independence from Qing China and, at least nominally, it implemented the "full and complete" independence of Korea as recognized in 1895.
Emperor of the Korean Empire
Gojong proclaimed the Korean Empire in 1897 to justify the country's ending of its traditional tributary subordination to China. He tried to promote the ultimately unsuccessful Gwangmu Reform.
In 1904-5, the Japanese military achieved a comprehensive victory in the Russo-Japanese War. Following the Protectorate Treaty of 1905 between Korea and Japan, which stripped Korea of its rights as an independent nation, Gojong sent representatives to the Hague Peace Convention of 1907 in order to try to re-assert his sovereignty over Korea. Although the Korean representatives were blocked by the Japanese delegates, they did not give up, and later held interviews with newspapers.
One representative warned forebodingly of Japanese ambitions in Asia:
"The United States does not realize what Japan's policy in the Far East is and what it portends for the American people. The Japanese adopted a policy that in the end will give her complete control over commerce and industry in the Far East. Japan is bitter against the United States and against Great Britain. If the United States does not watch Japan closely she will force the Americans and the English out of the Far East."
As a result, Gojong was forced to abdicate by the Japanese and Gojong's son Sunjong succeeded to the throne.
After abdicating, Emperor Gojong was confined to the Deoksu Palace by the Japanese. On 22 August 1910, the Empire of Korea was annexed by Japan under the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty.
Gojong died suddenly on 21 January 1919 at Deoksugung Palace. There is much speculation that he was killed by poison administered by Japanese officials, an idea that gained wide circulation and acceptance at the time of his death. His death and subsequent funeral proved a catalyst for the March First Movement for Korean independence from Japanese rule. He is buried with his wife at the imperial tomb of Hongneung (홍릉, 洪陵) in the city of Namyangju.
- Empress Myeongseong of the Yeoheung Min clan (명성황후 민씨, 19 October 1851 – 8 October 1895)\
- Unnamed Prince (1871)
- Crown Prince of the Empire, (황태자 25 March 1874 – 24 April 1926)
- Unnamed Prince (1875)
- Unnamed Prince (1878)
- Unnamed Princess (1873)
- Honorable Princess Consort of the Eom clan (귀비 엄씨, 5 January 1854 – 20 July 1911)
- Crown Prince Euimin (의민태자, 20 October 1897 – 1 May 1970).Gojong's seventh son. He married Princess Masako Nashimotonomiya of Japan, a daughter of Prince Morimasa Nashimotonomiya of Japan.
- Lee Gwi-in of the Yeongbo Hall (영보당귀인 이씨, 1847–1928)
- Prince Wanhwa (완화군, 16 April 1868 – 12 January 1880)
- Unnamed Princess
- Jang Gwi-in (귀인 장씨)
- Prince Euihwa (의화군, 30 March 1877 – August 1955).He married Kim Su-deok (who became Princess Deogin), daughter of Baron Kim Sa-jun.
- Lee Gwi-in of the Gwanghwa Hall (광화당귀인 이씨, 1887–1970)
- Yi Yook, Prince of the Empire (이육, 1914–1915)
- Jeong Gwi-in of the Bohyeon Hall (보현당귀인 정씨)
- Yi Woo, Prince of the Empire (이우, 1915–1916)
- Yang Gwi-in of the Boknyeong Hall (복녕당귀인 양씨, 1882–1929)
- Princess Deokhye (덕혜옹주, 25 May 1912 – 11 April 1989). Gojong's 4th daughter. She married Count Takeyuki Sō, a Japanese nobleman of Tsushima.
- Lee Gwi-in of the Naean Hall (내안당귀인 이씨)
- Unnamed Princess
- Lady Kim of the Samchuk Hall (삼축당상궁 김씨, 1890–1972) – no issue
- Lady Kim of the Jeonghwa Hall (정화당상궁 김씨, 1871–?) – no issue
- Lady Yeom (상궁 염씨)
- Yi Mun-yong, Princess of the Empire (이문용, 1900–1987)
- Lady Seo (상궁 서씨) – no issue
- Lady Kim (상궁 김씨) – no issue
- The Lord Yi Myeong-bok (Jaehwang) (李命福 이명복 Yi Myeong-bok), second son of Prince Heungseon, a great-great-grandson of Yeongjo (1852–1863)
- His Majesty King Gojong of Korea (1863–1897)
- His Imperial Majesty Emperor Gwangmu of Korea (大韓帝國光武大皇帝陛下 대한제국광무대황제폐하 Daehan Jeguk Gwangmu Daehwangje Pyeha) (1897–1907)
- His Imperial Majesty The Emperor Emeritus of Korea (大韓帝國太皇帝陛下 대한제국태황제폐하 Daehan Jeguk Taehwangje Pyeha) (1907–1910), after his abdication by force of the Japanese government.
- His Majesty The King Emeritus Yi of Korea (德壽宮李太王殿下 덕수궁이태왕전하 Deoksugung Yi Taewang Jeonha) (1910–1919), a demoted title given by the Japanese government on the annexation of Korea, ignored in Korea.
His era name
During the Joseon
- Gaeguk (開國, 개국 : used for the reign of King Gojong 1894 – 1895)
- Geonyang (建陽, 건양 : used for the reign of King Gojong 1896 – 1897)
During the Korean Empire
- Gwangmu (광무; 光武; "Bright Valour") – used for the reign of Emperor Gojong, 1897–1907
His full posthumous name
- His Imperial Majesty Emperor Gojong Tongcheon Yung-un Jogeuk Donyun Jeongseong Gwang-ui Myeonggong Daedeok Yojun Sunhwi Umo Tanggyeong Eungmyeong Ripgi Jihwa Sinryeol Oehun Hong-eop Gyegi Seonryeok Geonhaeng Gonjeong Yeong-ui Honghyu Sugang Munheon Mujang Inik Jeonghyo Tae of Korea
- Daehan Jeguk Gojong Tongcheon Yung-un Jogeuk Donyun Jeongseong Gwang-ui Myeonggong Daedeok Yojun Sunhwi Umo Tanggyeong Eungmyeong Ripgi Jihwa Sinryeol Oehun Hong-eop Gyegi Seonryeok Geonhaeng Gonjeong Yeong-ui Honghyu Sugang Munheon Mujang Inik Jeonghyo Tae Hwangje Pyeha
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