World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Hachijō dialects

Article Id: WHEBN0034755146
Reproduction Date:

Title: Hachijō dialects  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Kantō dialect, Japanese language, Japanese dialects, Japanese irregular verbs, Sanuki dialect
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Hachijō dialects

Hachijō
Native to Japan
Region southern Izu Islands
Native speakers
Unknown; 10,000 inhabitants of the islands  (2007)
Japonic
Language codes
ISO 639-3
ISO 639-6 hhjm
Glottolog hach1238[1]

The small group of Hachijo or Hachijōjima dialects are perhaps the most divergent of Japanese. They are spoken on the southern Izu Islands south of Tokyo, Hachijō Island and the smaller Aogashima, as well as on the Daitō Islands of Okinawa Prefecture, which were settled from Hachijo in the Meiji period. Based on the criterion of mutual intelligibility, Hachijo may be considered a distinct Japonic language.

Hachijo dialects retain ancient Eastern Japanese features, as recorded in the 8th-century Man'yōshū. There are also lexical similarities with the dialects of Kyushu and even the Ryukyuan languages; it is not clear if these indicate the southern Izu islands were settled from that region, if they are loans brought by sailors traveling among the southern islands, or if they might be independent retentions of Old Japanese.[2]

Dialects

The dialect of Aogashima is quite distinct. There are also numerous dialects on Hachijo Island, with the speech of nearly every village distinct. There may be a few speakers left of the dialect of Little Hachijo Island, which was abandoned in 1969.

Grammar

Hachijo uses the be-verb aru with all subjects, without the animate–inanimate (iru–aru) distinction made on the mainland. It also distinguishes between the attributive form (連体形 rentaikei) and terminal form (終止形 shūshikei) of verbs and adjectives, a distinction which existed in Early Middle Japanese but has all but vanished from the modern language.

Vocabulary

Hachijo preserves a number of phrases that have been otherwise lost in the rest of Japan, such as まぐれる magureru for standard 気絶する kizetsu suru 'to faint, pass out'. There are also words which occur in standard Japanese, but with different meanings:[3]
Hachijō Standard Japanese Meaning Standard cognate
yama hatake field yama 'mountain'
ureshi naru byōki ga naotte kuru to heal from an illness ureshiku naru 'become happy'
kowai tsukareru to be tired kowai 'to be tough, stubborn'
gomi takigi firewood gomi 'trash'

References

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Hachijō". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Masayoshi Shibatani, 1990. The Languages of Japan
  3. ^ "島言葉(八丈方言)を見直そう (Summary of the Hachijo dialect)". Hachijo-jima Official Site. 八丈町教育課生涯学習係. Retrieved 2013-08-23. 

Further reading

  • (Japanese) Sound clip and transcription of Hachijo
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.