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Hecate

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Hecate

a b The Running Maiden from Eleusis and the Early Classical Image of Hekate by Charles M. Edwards in the American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 90, No. 3 (Jul., 1986), pp. 307-318
  • ^ "HECATE : Greek goddess of witchcraft, ghosts & magic ; mythology ; pictures : HEKATE". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  • ^ a b d'Este, Sorita & Rankine, David, Hekate Liminal Rites, Avalonia, 2009.
  • ^ "Bryn Mawr Classical Review 02.06.11". Bmcr.brynmawr.edu. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  • ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Hekate Soteira, Scholars Press, 1990.
  • ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, Hecate, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate
  • ^ Berg 1974, p. 129.
  • ^ At least in the case of   Clay lists a number of researchers who have advanced some variant of the association between Hecate's name and will (e.g. Walcot (1958), Neitzel (1975), Derossi (1975)). The researcher is led to identify "the name and function of Hecate as the one 'by whose will' prayers are accomplished and fulfilled." This interpretation also appears in Liddell-Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, in the entry for Hecate, which is glossed as "lit. 'she who works her will'"
  • ^ a b c d Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds. (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 671.  
  • ^ Anthon, Charles (1869). A Classical Dictionary. Harper & Brothers. p. 579. 
  • ^ Wheelwright, P. E. (1975). Metaphor and Reality. Bloomington. p. 144.  
  • ^ McKechnie, Paul; Guillaume, Philippe (2008). Ptolemy II Philadelphus and His World. Leiden: Brill. p. 133.  
  • ^  
  • ^ Marlowe, Christopher (first published 1604; performed earlier). Doctor Faustus, Act III, Scene 2, line 21: "Pluto's blue fire and Hecat's tree".
    Shakespeare, William (c. 1594-96). A Midsummer Night's Dream, Act V, Scene 1, line 384: "By the triple Hecat's team".
    Shakespeare, William (c. 1603-07). Macbeth, Act III, Scene 5, line 1: "Why, how now, Hecat!"
    Jonson, Ben (c. 1637, printed 1641). , Act II, Scene 3, line 668:The Sad Shepherd "our dame Hecat".
  • ^ Webster, Noah (1866). A Dictionary of the English Language (10th ed.). Rules for pronouncing the vowels of Greek and Latin proper names", p.9: "Hecate..., pronounced in three syllables when in Latin, and in the same number in the Greek word Ἑκάτη, in English is universally contracted into two, by sinking the final e. Shakespeare seems to have begun, as he has now confirmed, this pronunciation, by so adapting the word in Macbeth.... And the play-going world, who form no small portion of what is called the better sort of people, have followed the actors in this world, and the rest of the world have followed them. 
    Cf. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable (1894): (3 syl. in Greek, 2 in Eng.)"Hec'ate"
  • ^ a b Lewis Richard Farnell, (1896). "Hecate in Art", The Cults of the Greek States. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • ^ Hekate Her Sacred Fires, ed. Sorita d'Este, Avalonia, 2010
  • ^ Yves Bonnefoy, Wendy Doniger, Roman and European Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, 1992, p. 195.
  • ^ This statue is in the British Museum, inventory number 816.
  • ^ [1]
  • ^ "Images". Eidola.eu. 2010-02-28. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  • ^ "The legend of the Argonauts is among the earliest known to the Greeks," observes Peter Green, The Argonautika, 2007, Introduction, p. 21.
  • ^ Apollonios Rhodios (tr. Peter Green), The Argonautika, University of California Press, 2007, p140
  • ^ a b c Walter Burkert, (1987) Greek Religion: Archaic and Classical, p. 171. Oxford, Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-15624-0.
  • ^ Strabo, Geography 14.2.25; Kraus 1960.
  • ^ a b Hesiod, Theogony, (English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White)
  • ^ a b Johnston, Sarah Iles, (1991). Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece. ISBN 0-520-21707-1
  • ^ Household and Family Religion in Antiquity by John Bodel and Saul M. Olyan, page 221, published by John Wiley & Sons, 2009
  • ^ Encyclopedia Britannica, Hecate, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/259138/Hecate also Hellenic Household Worship by Christos Pandion Panopoulos, edited and translated by Lesley Madytinou & Rathamanthys Madytinos http://www.labrys.gr/index.php?l=householdworship#1
  • ^ "Baktria, Kings, Agathokles, ancient coins index with thumbnails". WildWinds.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  • ^ d'Este & Rankine, Hekate Liminal Rites, Avalonia, 2009
  • ^ Theodor Kraus, Hekate: Studien zu Wesen u. Bilde der Göttin in Kleinasien u. Griechenland (Heidelberg) 1960.
  • ^ Berg 1974, p. 128: Berg comments on Hecate's endorsement of Roman hegemony in her representation on the pediment at Lagina solemnising a pact between a warrior (Rome) and an amazon (Asia)
  • ^ Berg 1974, p. 134. Berg's argument for a Greek origin rests on three main points: 1. Almost all archaeological and literary evidence for her cult comes from the Greek mainland, and especially from Attica—all of which dates earlier than the 2nd century BCE. 2. In Asia Minor only one monument can be associated with Hecate prior to the 2nd century BCE. 3. The supposed connection between Hecate and attested "Carian theophoric names" is not convincing, and instead suggests an aspect of the process of her Hellenization. He concludes, "Arguments for Hecate's "Anatolian" origin are not in accord with evidence."
  • ^ Kraus 1960, p. 52; list pp.166ff.
  • ^ Strabo, Geography, 14.1.23
  • ^ "CULT OF HEKATE : Ancient Greek religion". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  • ^ Mark Edwards, Neoplatonic saints: the Lives of Plotinus and Proclus by their Students, Liverpool University Press, 2000, p. 100.
  • ^ The Chaldean Oracles is a collection of literature that date from somewhere between the 2nd century and the late 3rd century, the recording of which is traditionally attributed to Julian the Chaldaean or his son, Julian the Theurgist. The material seems to have provided background and explanation related to the meaning of these pronouncements, and appear to have been related to the practice of theurgy, pagan magic that later became closely associated with Neoplatonism, seeHornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds. (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 316.  
  • ^ English translation used here from: William Wynn Wescott (tr.), The Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster, 1895.
  • ^ "A top of Hekate is a golden sphere enclosing a lapis lazuli in its middle that is twisted through a cow-hide leather thong and having engraved letters all over it. [Diviners] spin this sphere and make invocations. Such things they call charms, whether it is the matter of a spherical object, or a triangular one, or some other shape. While spinning them, they call out unintelligible or beast-like sounds, laughing and flailing at the air. [Hekate] teaches the taketes to operate, that is the movement of the top, as if it had an ineffable power. It is called the top of Hekate because it is dedicated to her. In her right hand she held the source of the virtues. But it is all nonsense." As quoted in Frank R. Trombley, Hellenic Religion and Christianization, C. 370-529, Brill, 1993, p. 319.
  • ^ "In 340 B.C., however, the Byzantines, with the aid of the Athenians, withstood a siege successfully, an occurrence the more remarkable as they were attacked by the greatest general of the age, Philip of Macedon. In the course of this beleaguerment, it is related, on a certain wet and moonless night the enemy attempted a surprise, but were foiled by reason of a bright light which, appearing suddenly in the heavens, startled all the dogs in the town and thus roused the garrison to a sense of their danger. To commemorate this timely phenomenon, which was attributed to Hecate, they erected a public statue to that goddess [...]" William Gordon Holmes, The Age of Justinian and Theodora, 2003, pp. 5-6; "If any goddess had a connection with the walls in Constantinople, it was Hecate. Hecate had a cult in Byzantium from the time of its founding. Like Byzas in one legend, she had her origins in Thrace. Since Hecate was the guardian of "liminal places", in Byzantium small temples in her honor were placed close to the gates of the city. Hecate's importance to Byzantium was above all as deity of protection. When Philip of Macedon was about to attack the city, according to he legend she alerted the townspeople with her ever-present torches, and with her pack of dogs, which served as her constant companions. Her mythic qualities thenceforth forever entered the fabric of Byzantine history. A statue known as the 'Lampadephoros' was erected on the hill above the Bosphorous to commemorate Hecate's defensive aid." Vasiliki Limberis, Divine Heiress, Routledge, 1994, pp. 126-127; this story apparently survived in the works Hesychius of Miletus, who in all probability lived in the time of Justinian. His works survive only in fragments preserved in Photius and the Suda, a Byzantine lexicon of the 10th century CE. The tale is also related by Stephanus of Byzantium and Eustathius.
  • ^ Joseph Eddy Fontenrose, Python: A Study of Delphic Myth and Its Origins, Biblo & Tannen Publishers, 1974, p. 96.
  • ^ "Hecate, Greek Goddess of the Crossroads". Goddess Gift: Meet the Goddesses Here. Retrieved 18 April 2011. 
  • ^ Alberta Mildred Franklin, The Lupercalia, Columbia University, 1921, p. 68.
  • ^ Jon D. Mikalson, Athenian Popular Religion, UNC Press, 1987, p. 76.
  • ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 208-209.
  • ^ a b c d e f Liddell-Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon.
  • ^ Ivana Petrovic, Von den Toren des Hades zu den Hallen des Olymp (Brill, 2007), p. 94; W. Schmid and O. Stählin, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (C.H. Beck, 1924, 1981), vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 982; W.H. Roscher, Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner, 1890–94), vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 16.
  • ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece, University of California Press, 1999, p. 207.
  • ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Hekate Soteira, Scholars Press, 1990.
  • ^ Amanda Porterfield, Healing in the history of Christianity, Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 72.
  • ^ book II.16Vita EligiiSaint Ouen, .
  • ^ Alberta Mildred Franklin, The Lupercalia, Columbia University, 1921, p67
  • ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead, University of California Press, 1999, pp. 211-212.
  • ^ The poem Alexandra by Lycophron 1174 ff, translation by Mair. Lycophron of Chalcis was a Greek poet in the 3rd century BCE The poem can be read here: http://www.theoi.com/Text/LycophronAlexandra.html
  • ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 29, translation by Francis Celoria, Psychology Press, 1992
  • ^ On the Characteristics of Animals by Aelian, translated by Alwyn Faber Scholfield, Harvard University Press, 1958
  • ^ Charles Duke Yonge, tr.), The Learned Banqueters, H.G. Bohn, 1854.
  • ^ Robert Parker, Miasma: Pollution and Purification in Early Greek Religion, Oxford University Press, 1990, pp. 362-363.
  • ^ William Martin Leake, The Topography of Athens, London, 1841, p. 492.
  • ^ Alan Davidson, Mediterranean Seafood, Ten Speed Press, 2002, p. 92.
  • ^ Varner, Gary R. (2007). Creatures in the Mist: Little People, Wild Men and Spirit Beings Around the World: A Study in Comparative Mythology, p. 135. New York: Algora Publishing. ISBN 0-87586-546-1.
  • ^ Yves Bonnefoy, Wendy Doniger, Roman and European Mythologies, University of Chicago Press, 1992, p. 195; "Hecate" article, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1823.
  • ^ R. L. Hunter, The Argonautica of Apollonius, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 142, citing Apollonius of Rhodes.
  • ^ Daniel Ogden, Magic, Witchcraft, and Ghosts in the Greek and Roman Worlds, Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 82-83.
  • ^ Matthew Suffness (Ed.), Taxol: Science and Applications, CRC Press, 1995, p. 28.
  • ^ Frederick J. Simoons, Plants of Life, Plants of Death, University of Wisconsin Press, 1998, p. 143; Fragkiska Megaloudi, Plants and Diet in Greece From Neolithic to Classic Periods, Archaeopress, 2006, p. 71.
  • ^ Freize, Henry; Dennison, Walter (1902). Virgil's Aeneid. New York: American Book Company. pp. N111. 
  • ^ "Hecate had a "botanical garden" on the island of Colchis where the following alkaloid plants were kept: Akoniton (Aconitum napellus), Diktamnon (Dictamnus albus), Mandragores (Mandragora officinarum), Mekon (Papaver somniferum), Melaina (Claviceps pupurea), Thryon (Atropa belladona), and Cochicum [...]" Margaret F. Roberts, Michael Wink, Alkaloids: Biochemistry, Ecology, and Medicinal Applications, Springer, 1998, p. 16.
  • ^ Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, Penguin Books, 1977, p. 154.
  • ^ Frederick J. Simoons, Plants of Life, Plants of Death, University of Wisconsin Press, 1998, pp. 121-124.
  • ^ Bonnie MacLachlan, Judith Fletcher, Virginity Revisited: Configurations of The Unpossessed Body, University of Toronto Press, 2007, p. 14.
  • ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece, University of California Press, 1999, p. 209.
  • ^ Sarah Iles Johnston, Restless Dead: Encounters Between the Living and the Dead in Ancient Greece, University of California Press, 1999, p. 208.
  • ^ Vasiliki Limberis, Divine Heiress: The Virgin Mary And The Creation of Christian Constantinople, Routledge, 1994, pp. 126-127.
  • ^ Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Antony, eds. (1996). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (Third ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 490.  
  • ^ Richard Cavendish, The Powers of Evil in Western Religion, Magic and Folk Belief, Routledge, 1975, p. 62.
  • ^ [5] The play Plutus by Aristophanes (388BCE), line 594 any translation will do or Benjamin Bickley Rogers is fine
  • ^ Harvard Theological Review, Vol. 65, No.2, 1972 pages 291-297
  • ^ These are the biaiothanatoi, aoroi and ataphoi (cf. Rohde, i. 264 f., and notes, 275-277, ii. 362, and note, 411-413, 424-425), whose enthumion, the quasi-technical word designating their longing for vengeance, was much dreaded. See Heckenbach, p. 2776 and references.
  • ^ Antiphanes, in Athenaeus, 313 B (2. 39 K), and 358 F; Melanthius, in Athenaeus, 325 B. Plato, Com. (i. 647. 19 K), Apollodorus, Melanthius, Hegesander, Chariclides (iii. 394 K), Antiphanes, in Athenaeus, 358 F; Aristophanes, Plutus, 596.
  • ^ Hekate's Suppers, by K. F. Smith. Chapter in the book The Goddess Hekate: Studies in Ancient Pagan and Christian Philosophy edited by Stephen Ronan. Pages 57 to 64
  • ^ Roscher, 1889; Heckenbach, 2781; Rohde, ii. 79, n. 1. also Ammonius (p. 79, Valckenaer)
  • ^ "What is the Hekate Festival 13 August ? | Sorita d'Este". Sorita.co.uk. 2012-03-20. Retrieved 2012-09-24. 
  • ^ For Hecate as a protector deity of a contemporary (mid-nineties) neopagan coven see: Sabina Magliocco, Witching Culture: Folklore and Neopaganism in America, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, p79
  • ^ "Neo-paganism/witchcraft is a spiritual orientation and a variety of ritual practices using reconstructed mythological structures and pre-Christian rites primarily from ancient European and Mediterranean sources. […] most see in goddess worship a rediscovery of folk practices that persisted in rural Europe throughout the Christian era and up to recent times." Timothy Miller (Ed.), America's Alternative Religions, State University of New York Press, 1995, p339; "Neopaganism sees itself as a revival of ancient pre-Christian religion: the old nature religions of Greece and Rome, of the wandering Teutonic tribes and of others as well." Gaustad, Noll (Eds.),A Documentary History of Religion In America Since 1877, Eerdmans, 2003, p603; "A second theme in the Neo-Pagan combination is the pre-Christian European folk religion or Paganism." James R. Lewis, Magical Religion and Modern Witchcraft, State University of New York Press, 1996, p303
  • ^ For a summary of the wild hunt as a neopagan 'tradition' see the entry in James R. Lewis, Witchcraft Today: An Encyclopedia of Wiccan and Neopagan Traditions, 1999, pp 303-304; For a 'moon magick' reference to Hecate as "Lady of the Wild Hunt and witchcraft" see: D. J. Conway, Moon Magick: Myth & Magic, Crafts & Recipes, Rituals & Spells, Llewellyn, 1995, p157
  • ^ For an extensive discussion of the symbolism of the hedge and hedge-riding as it relates to contemporary witchcraft see: Eric De Vries, Hedge-Rider: Witches and the Underworld, Pendraig Publishing, 2008, pp 10-23 (De Vries also mentions Hecate in this liminal context); and for the relation between hedges, hedge-riding and witches in German folklore see: C. R. Bilardi, The Red Church or The Art of Pennsylvania German Braucherei, Pendraig Publishing, 2009, pp 127-129; As a general indicator of the currency of the association of hedge and witch see titles such as: Silver Ravenwolf, Hedge Witch: Spells, Crafts & Rituals for Natural Magick, Llewellyn, 2008 and Rae Beth, Hedge Witch: Guide To Solitary Witchcraft, Hale, 1992
  • ^ Hellenion is a 501c3 religious organization based in the USA dedicated to reviving the religions indigenous to Greece. http://hellenion.org/ The Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes is an umbrella group based in Greece that is a legally recognized Non Profit Organization (NPO) and was "founded in June of 1997 aiming to the morale and physical protection and restoration of the Polytheistic, Ethnic Hellenic religion, tradition and way of life in the "modern" Greek Society from which is oppressed due to its institutional intolerance and theocracy".
  • ^ E.g.
  • ^ https:/s.google.com/hellenionstemenos/Home/festivals/hekatesdeipnon
  • ^ Michael Strmiska, Modern paganism in world cultures, ABC-CLIO, 2005, p. 68.
  • ^ Francis Douce, Illustrations of Shakspeare, and of Ancient Manners, 1807, p. 235-243.
  • ^ Walter Whiter, Etymologicon Universale (1822)
  • ^ e.g. Gerald Milnes, Signs, Cures, & Witchery, Univ. of Tennessee Press, 2007, p. 116; Samuel X. Radbill, "The Role of Animals in Infant Feeding", in American Folk Medicine: A Symposium Ed. Wayland D. Hand. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1976.
  • ^ "Many have been caught by the obvious resemblance of the Gr. Hecate, but the letters agree to closely, contrary to the laws of change, and the Mid. Ages would surely have had an unaspirated Ecate handed down to them; no Ecate or Hecate appears in the M. Lat. or Romance writings in the sense of witch, and how should the word have spread through all German lands?" Jacob Grimm, Teutonic Mythology, 1835, (English translation 1900)
  • ^ a b Etymology Online, entry 'hag', accessed 8/23/09
  • ^ Mallory, J.P, Adams, D.Q. The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World. Oxford University Press, 2006. p. 223
  • ^ Apuleius, The Golden Ass 11.47.
  • ^ Hans Dieter Betz, "Fragments from a Catabasis Ritual in a Greek Magical Papyrus", History of Religions 19,4 (May 1980):287-295). The goddess appears as Hecate Ereschigal only in the heading: in the spell itself only Erschigal is called upon with protective magical words and gestures.
  • ^ Heidel, William Arthur (1929). The Day of Yahweh: A Study of Sacred Days and Ritual Forms in the Ancient Near East, p. 514. American Historical Association.
  • ^ Roel Sterckx, The Animal and The Daemon In Early China, State University of New York Press, 2002, pp 232-233. Sterckx explicitly recognizes the similarities between these ancient Chinese views of dogs and those current in Greek and Roman antiquity, and goes on to note "Dog sacrifice was also a common practice among the Greeks where the dog figured prominently as a guardian of the underworld." (Footnote 113, p318)
  • ^ Frederick J. Simoons, Eat Not This Flesh: Food Avoidances from Prehistory to the Present, University of Wisconsin Press, 1994, pp 233-234
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