High jumper

For other uses, see High jump (disambiguation).

Template:Infobox athletics event The high jump is a track and field event in which competitors must jump over a horizontal bar placed at measured heights without the aid of certain devices. In its modern most practiced format, auxiliary weights and mounds have been used for assistance; rules have changed over the years. Over the centuries since, competitors have introduced increasingly more effective techniques to arrive at the current form. Javier Sotomayor (Cuba) is the current men's record holder with a jump of Template:T&Fcalc set in 1993, the longest standing record in the history of the men's high jump. Stefka Kostadinova (Bulgaria) has held the women's world record at Template:T&Fcalc since 1987, also the longest-held record in the event.

Rules

Jumpers must take off on one foot.

A jump is considered a fail if the bar is dislodged by the action of the jumper whilst jumping or the jumper touches the ground or breaks the plane of the near edge of the bar before clearance.

Competitors may begin jumping at any height announced by the chief judge, or may pass, at their own discretion. Three consecutive missed jumps, at any height or combination of heights, will eliminate the jumper from competition.

The victory goes to the jumper who clears the greatest height during the final. If two or more jumpers tie for first place, the tie-breakers are: 1) The fewest misses at the height at which the tie occurred; and 2) The fewest misses throughout the competition.

If the event remains tied, the jumpers have a jump-off, beginning at the next greater height. Each jumper has one attempt. The bar is then alternately lowered and raised until only one jumper succeeds at a given height.[1]

History

ImageSize = width:200 height:990 PlotArea = width:35 height:950 left:50 bottom:40 Legend = columns:2 left:15 top:25 columnwidth:50 AlignBars = early

DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:1920 till:2004 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:5 start:1920

Colors=

 id:Basis  value:red legend:World_record_women's_high_jump

PlotData=

 bar:Leaders width:25 mark:(line,white) align:left fontsize:XS shift:(22,-4)
 
 from:1922 till:end color:Basis
 at:1922               text:Nancy Vorhees_1.46_m
 at:1926               text:Phyllis Green_1.55_m
 at:1928               text:Ethel Catherwood_1.595_m
 at:1929               text:Carolina Gisoll_1.60_m
 at:1932               text:Jean Shiley_1.65_m
 at:1939               text:Dorothy Tyler_1.66_m
 at:1943               text:Fanny Blankers-Koen_1.71_m
 at:1956               text:Mildred Singleton_1.76_m
 at:1958               text:Iolanda Balas_1.80_m
 at:1960 shift:(22,-8) text:Iolanda_Balas_1.85_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,-7) text:Iolanda_Balas_1.90_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,0)  text:Iolanda_Balas_1.91_m
 at:1971               text:Ilona Gusenbauer_1.92_m
 at:1972               text:Jordanka Blagojewa_1.94_m
 at:1974               text:Rosemarie Ackermann_1.95_m
 at:1976 shift:(22,-8) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_1.96_m
 at:1977 shift:(22,-8) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_1.97_m
 at:1977 shift:(22,-1) text:Rosemarie_Ackermann_2.00_m
 at:1978 shift:(22,-2) text:Sara Simeoni_2.01_m
 at:1982 shift:(22,-6) text:Ulrike Meyfarth_2.02_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,-8) text:Ulrike_Meyfarth_2.03_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,-1) text:Tamara Bykowa_2.04_m
 at:1984 shift:(22,-5) text:Tamara_Bykowa_2.05_m
 at:1984 shift:(22,2)  text:Ludmilla Andonowa_2.07_m
 at:1986               text:Stefka Kostadinova_2.08_m
 at:1987               text:Stefka_Kostadinova_2.09_m

ImageSize = width:200 height:990 PlotArea = width:35 height:950 left:50 bottom:40 Legend = columns:2 left:15 top:25 columnwidth:50 AlignBars = early

DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:1910 till:2004 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:5 start:1910

Colors=

 id:Basis  value:blue legend:World_record_men's_high_jump

PlotData=

 bar:Leaders width:25 mark:(line,white) align:left fontsize:XS shift:(22,-4)
 
 from:1910 till:end color:Basis
 at:1912               text:George Horine_2.00_m
 at:1914               text:Edward Beeson_2.02_m
 at:1924               text:Harold Osborne_2.03_m
 at:1933               text:Walter Marty_2.04_m
 at:1934               text:Walter Marty_2.06_m
 at:1936               text:Cornelius Johnson_2.07_m
 at:1936 shift:(22,2)  text:Dave Albritton_2.07_m
 at:1937 shift:(22,2)  text:Melvin Walker_2.09_m
 at:1941               text:Lester Steers_2.11_m
 at:1953               text:Walt Davis_2.12_m
 at:1956               text:Charles Dumas_2.15_m
 at:1957               text:Yuriy Stepanov_2.16_m
 at:1960 shift:(22,-10) text:John Thomas_2.17_m
 at:1960 shift:(22,-4) text:John Thomas_2.18_m
 at:1960               text:John Thomas_2.22_m
 at:1961               text:Valeriy Brumel_Ackermann_2.23_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,3)  text:Valeriy Brumel_2.24_m
 at:1961 shift:(22,5)  text:Valeriy Brumel_2.25_m
 at:1962 shift:(22,6)  text:Valeriy Brumel_2.26_m
 at:1962 shift:(22,11)  text:Valeriy Brumel_2.27_m
 at:1963 shift:(22,14)  text:Valeriy Brumel_2.28_m
 at:1971               text:Pat Matzdorf_2.29_m
 at:1973               text:Dwight Stone_2.30_m
 at:1976 shift:(22,-8) text:Dwight Stone_2.31_m
 at:1976 shift:(22,-2)  text:Dwight Stone_2.32_m
 at:1977               text:Vladimir Yashchenko_2.33_m
 at:1978 shift:(22,1)  text:Vladimir Yashchenko_2.34_m
 at:1980 shift:(22,-2) text:Jacek Wszola_2.35_m
 at:1980               text:Dietmar Mögenburg_2.35_m
 at:1980 shift:(22,5)  text:Gert Wessig_2.36_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,-5) text:Zhu Jianhua_2.37_m
 at:1983 shift:(22,2)  text:Zhu Jianhua_2.38_m
 at:1984               text:Zhu Jianhua_2.39_m
 at:1985               text:Rudolf Povarnitsyn_2.40_m
 at:1985 shift:(22,2)  text:Igor Paklin_2.41_m
 at:1988               text:Patrik Sjöberg_2.42_m
 at:1988 shift:(22,2)  text:Javier Sotomayar_2.43_m
 at:1989 shift:(22,2)  text:Javier Sotomayar_2.44_m
 at:1993               text:Javier Sotomayar_2.45_m


The first recorded high jump event took place in Scotland in the 19th century. Early jumpers used either an elaborate straight-on approach or a scissors technique. In the latter, the bar was approached diagonally, and the jumper threw first the inside leg and then the other over the bar in a scissoring motion. Around the turn of the 20th century, techniques began to modernise, starting with the Irish-American Michael Sweeney's Eastern cut-off. By taking off like the scissors, but extending his back and flattening out over the bar, Sweeney achieved a more economic clearance and raised the world record to Template:T&Fcalc in 1895.

Another American, George Horine, developed an even more efficient technique, the Western roll. In this style, the bar again is approached on a diagonal, but the inner leg is used for the take-off, while the outer leg is thrust up to lead the body sideways over the bar. Horine increased the world standard to Template:T&Fcalc in 1912. His technique was predominant through the Berlin Olympics of 1936, in which the event was won by Cornelius Johnson at Template:T&Fcalc.

American and Soviet jumpers held the playing field for the next four decades, and they pioneered the evolution of the straddle technique. Straddle jumpers took off as in the Western roll, but rotated their (belly-down) torso around the bar, obtaining the most economical clearance up to that time. Straddle-jumper Charles Dumas was the first to clear 7 feet (2.13 m) in 1956, and American John Thomas pushed the world mark to Template:T&Fcalc in 1960. Valeriy Brumel took over the event for the next four years. The elegant Soviet jumper radically sped up his approach run, took the record up to Template:T&Fcalc, and won the Olympic gold medal in 1964, before a motorcycle accident ended his career.


American coaches, including two-time NCAA champion Frank Costello of the University of Maryland, flocked to Russia to learn from Brumel and his coaches. However, it would be a solitary innovator at Oregon State University, Dick Fosbury, who would bring the high jump into the next century. Taking advantage of the raised, softer landing areas by then in use, Fosbury added a new twist to the outmoded Eastern Cut-off. He directed himself over the bar head and shoulders first, sliding over on his back and landing in a fashion which would likely have broken his neck in the old, sawdust landing pits. After he used this Fosbury flop to win the 1968 Olympic gold medal, the technique began to spread around the world, and soon floppers were dominating international high jump competitions. The last straddler to set a world record was Vladimir Yashchenko, who cleared Template:T&Fcalc in 1977 and then Template:T&Fcalc indoors in 1978.

Among renowned high jumpers following Fosbury's lead were: Americans Dwight Stones and his rival, 1.73 metres (5 ft 8 in) tall Franklin Jacobs of Paterson, NJ, who cleared Template:T&Fcalc, an astounding 0.59 metres (1 ft 11 in) over his head (a feat equaled 27 years later by Sweden's Stefan Holm); Chinese record-setters Ni-chi Chin and Zhu Jianhua; Germans Gerd Wessig and Dietmar Mögenburg; Swedish Olympic medalist and world record holder Patrik Sjöberg; and female jumpers Iolanda Balaş of Romania, Ulrike Meyfarth of Germany and Italy's Sara Simeoni.

Technical aspects

High jump shoes

High jump shoes are different from most other track shoes in that they have much thicker soles than ordinary "sprint spikes" - in order to provide stability and comfort at take-off, although in the 1960s and early 70s, when the straddle technique still predominated, a single shoe was often worn on the take-off foot where the built-up sole would allow the free leg to swing without spikes catching the ground. There are an additional four holes in the heel of the take-off shoe, where the user can insert spikes for increased traction. The total number of spikes allowed by the IAAF can not exceed 11 in the sole, and jump shoes are normally configured with six or seven in the front, and four in the heel: spikes may not exceed 12mm in length. The four heel spikes aid greatly in the last four to five steps of the J-approach, allowing the jumper to run on his or her curve at a fast speed without slipping. Some high jump shoes are even more technologically developed and in addition to the extra spikes on the heel, the shoes are modified to lean the direction of the approach to provide further support while running their curve. As well as the approach, high jump shoes also help and support the jumper's takeoff. The IAAF regulations specify a maximum sole thickness for both high jump and long jump shoes; competitors in all other events may wear shoes with soles of any thickness.

The approach

The approach of the high jump may actually be more important than the take off. If a high jumper runs with bad timing or without enough aggression, clearing a high bar becomes more of a challenge. The approach requires a certain shape or curve, the right amount of speed, and the correct number of strides. The approach angle is also critical for optimal height.

Most great straddle jumpers have a run at angles of about 30 to 40 degrees. The length of the run is determined by the speed of the person's approach. A slower run requires about 8 strides. However, a faster high jumper might need about 13 strides. A greater run speed allows a greater part of the body's forward momentum to be converted upward [2].

The J type approach, favored by Fosbury floppers, allows for horizontal speed, the ability to turn in the air (centripetal force), and good take-off position. The approach should be a hard controlled stride so that a person does not fall from creating an angle with speed. Athletes should run tall and lean from the ankles on the curve and not the hips [3]. Unlike the "classic" straddle technique, where the take-off foot is "planted" in the same spot at every height, flop-style jumpers must adjust their take-off as the bar is raised. Their J approach run must be adjusted slightly so that their take-off spot is slightly further out from the bar in order to allow their hips to clear the bar while still maintaining enough momentum to carry their legs across the bar. Jumpers attempting to reach record heights commonly fail when most of their energy is directed into the vertical effort, and they brush the bar off the standards with the backs of their legs as they stall-out in mid-air.

Drills can be practiced to solidify the approach. One drill is to run in a straight line (the linear part of the approach) and then run two to three circles spiraling into one another. Another is to run or skip a circle of any size, two to three times in a row [4]. It is important to train to leap upwards without first leaning into the bar, allowing the momentum of the J approach to carry the body across the bar.

Declaring the winner

In competition the winner is the person who cleared the highest height. In case of a tie, fewer failed attempts at that height are better: i.e., the jumper who makes a height on his/her first attempt is placed ahead of someone who clears the same height on the second or third attempt. If there still is a tie here, all the failed attempts at lower heights are added up, the one with the fewest number of total misses is declared the winner. If still tied a playoff is held. Starting height is the next larger height after the overjumped one. If all the competitors clear the height, the bar is raised 2 cm (0.79 in), and if they fail, the bar is lowered 2 cm. That continues until only one competitor succeeds in overjumping that height, he is declared the winner.

  • In the table below, dashes indicate that a height was not attempted, crosses indicate failed attempts, and circles indicate a cleared height. Jumpers A and D cleared 1.99 m but failed at 2.01 m. A wins this competition having cleared the winning height with two attempts, while jumper D required three attempts. Similarly, B is ranked ahead of C having cleared the decisive height (i.e., 1.97m) in the first attempt.
Athlete 1.91 m 1.93 m 1.95 m 1.97 m 1.99 m 2.01 m Height Rank
A - - XO XO XO XXX 1.99 1st
B O - O O XXX 1.97 3rd
C O - XO XO X-- XX 1.97 4th
D - XO O XXO XXO XXX 1.99 2nd
E - - - XXX 5th

Top performers

Updated 1 June 2013.[2]

Men (outdoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date Ref
1. Template:T&Fcalc Javier Sotomayor  Cuba Salamanca 27 July 1993 [3]
2. Template:T&Fcalc Patrik Sjöberg  Sweden Stockholm 30 June 1987 [3]
3. Template:T&Fcalc Igor Paklin  Soviet Union Kobe 4 September 1985
Bohdan Bondarenko  Ukraine Lausanne 4 July 2013 [4]
5. Template:T&Fcalc Rudolf Povarnitsyn  Soviet Union Donetsk 11 August 1985 [3]
Sorin Matei  Romania Bratislava 20 June 1990 [3]
Charles Austin United States USA Zürich 7 August 1991 [3]
Vyacheslav Voronin Russia Russia London 5 August 2000 [3]
Mutaz Essa Barshim Qatar Qatar Eugene 1 June 2013 [5][6]
10. Template:T&Fcalc Zhu Jianhua China China Eberstadt 10 June 1984 [3]
Hollis Conway United States USA Norman 30 July 1989 [3]
Ivan Ukhov Russia Russia Cheboksary 5 July 2012

Women (outdoor)

Pos. Mark Athlete Nationality Venue Date
1. Template:T&Fcalc Stefka Kostadinova  Bulgaria Rome 30 August 1987
2. Template:T&Fcalc Blanka Vlašić  Croatia Zagreb 31 August 2009
3. Template:T&Fcalc Lyudmila Andonova  Bulgaria Berlin 20 July 1984
Anna Chicherova Russia Russia Cheboksary 22 July 2011
5. Template:T&Fcalc Kajsa Bergqvist  Sweden Eberstadt 26 July 2003
Hestrie Cloete  South Africa Paris 31 August 2003
Yelena Slesarenko Russia Russia Athens 28 August 2004
Ariane Friedrich Germany Germany Berlin 14 June 2009
9. Template:T&Fcalc Tamara Bykova  Soviet Union Kiev 22 June 1984
Heike Henkel Germany Germany Tokyo 31 August 1991
Inha Babakova  Ukraine Tokyo 15 September 1995
Tia Hellebaut  Belgium Beijing 23 August 2008
Chaunté Lowe United States USA Des Moines 26 June 2010

Men (indoor)

Updated to 10 February 2011[7]

Pos. Mark Athlete Venue Date
1. Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) Budapest 4 March 1989
2. Template:T&Fcalc  Carlo Thränhardt (FRG) Berlin 26 February 1988
3. Template:T&Fcalc  Patrik Sjöberg (SWE) Piraeus 1 February 1987
4. Template:T&Fcalc  Hollis Conway (USA) Seville 10 March 1991
 Stefan Holm (SWE) Madrid 6 March 2005
 Ivan Ukhov (RUS) Athens 25 February 2009
7. Template:T&Fcalc  Dietmar Mögenburg (FRG) Cologne 24 February 1985
 Ralf Sonn (GER) Berlin 1 March 1991
9. Template:T&Fcalc  Igor Paklin (USSR) Indianapolis 7 March 1987
 Hennadiy Avdyeyenko (USSR) Indianapolis 7 March 1987
 Steve Smith (GBR) Wuppertal 4 February 1994
 Wolf-Hendrik Beyer (GER) Weinheim 18 March 1994
 Sorin Matei (ROM) Wuppertal 3 February 1995
 Matt Hemingway (USA) Atlanta 4 March 2000
 Yaroslav Rybakov (RUS) Stockholm 15 February 2005
 Linus Thörnblad (SWE) Gothenburg 25 February 2007

Women (indoor)

Updated to 10 February 2011.[8]

Pos. Mark Athlete Venue Date
1. Template:T&Fcalc  Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE) Arnstadt 6 February 2006
2. Template:T&Fcalc  Heike Henkel (GER) Karlsruhe 8 February 1992
3. Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) Athens 20 February 1988
 Blanka Vlašić (CRO) Arnstadt 6 February 2010
 Anna Chicherova (RUS) Arnstadt 4 February 2012
6. Template:T&Fcalc  Tia Hellebaut (BEL) Birmingham 3 March 2007
 Ariane Friedrich (GER) Karlsruhe 15 February 2009
8. Template:T&Fcalc  Alina Astafei (GER) Berlin 3 March 1995
 Yelena Slesarenko (RUS) Budapest 7 March 2004
 Antonietta Di Martino (ITA) Banská Bystrica 9 February 2011

Best year performances

Men's outdoor

Year Height Athlete Venue
1971 Template:T&Fcalc  Pat Matzdorf (USA) Berkeley
1972 Template:T&Fcalc  Jüri Tarmak (URS) Moscow
1973 Template:T&Fcalc  Dwight Stones (USA) Munich
1974 Template:T&Fcalc  Dwight Stones (USA) Oslo
1975 Template:T&Fcalc  Dwight Stones (USA) New York
1976 Template:T&Fcalc  Dwight Stones (USA) Philadelphia
1977 Template:T&Fcalc  Vladimir Yashchenko (URS) Richmond
1978 Template:T&Fcalc  Vladimir Yashchenko (URS) Tbilisi
1979 Template:T&Fcalc  Dietmar Mögenburg (FRG) Ottawa
1980 Template:T&Fcalc  Gerd Wessig (GDR) Moscow
1981 Template:T&Fcalc  Aleksey Demyanyuk (URS) Leningrad
1982 Template:T&Fcalc  Zhu Jianhua (CHN) Delhi
1983 Template:T&Fcalc  Zhu Jianhua (CHN) Shanghai
1984 Template:T&Fcalc  Zhu Jianhua (CHN) Eberstadt
1985 Template:T&Fcalc  Igor Paklin (URS) Kobe
1986 Template:T&Fcalc  Igor Paklin (URS) Rieti
1987 Template:T&Fcalc  Patrik Sjöberg (SWE) Stockholm
1988 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) Salamanca
1989 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) San Juan
1990 Template:T&Fcalc  Sorin Matei (ROM) Bratislava
1991 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB)
 Charles Austin (USA)
Saint-Denis
Zürich
1992 Template:T&Fcalc  Steve Smith (GBR) Seoul
1993 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) Salamanca
1994 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) Seville
1995 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) Mar del Plata
1996 Template:T&Fcalc  Charles Austin (USA) Atlanta
1997 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) Athens
1998 Template:T&Fcalc  Javier Sotomayor (CUB) Maracaibo
1999 Template:T&Fcalc  Vyacheslav Voronin (RUS) Seville
2000 Template:T&Fcalc  Vyacheslav Voronin (RUS) London
2001 Template:T&Fcalc  Vyacheslav Voronin (RUS) Eberstadt
2002 Template:T&Fcalc  Jacques Freitag (RSA) Durban
2003 Template:T&Fcalc  Aleksander Walerianczyk (POL) Bydgoszcz
2004 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefan Holm (SWE) Eberstadt
2005 Template:T&Fcalc  Jacques Freitag (RSA)
 Andriy Sokolovskyy (UKR)
Oudtshoorn
Rome
2006 Template:T&Fcalc  Andrey Silnov (RUS) Monaco
2007 Template:T&Fcalc  Donald Thomas (BAH)
 Stefan Holm (SWE)
 Yaroslav Rybakov (RUS)
 Kyriacos Ioannou (CYP)
Salamanca
Stockholm
Osaka
Osaka
2008 Template:T&Fcalc  Andrey Silnov (RUS) London
2009 Template:T&Fcalc  Andra Manson (USA)
 Ivan Ukhov (RUS)
 Yaroslav Rybakov (RUS)
Austin
Cheboksary
Cheboksary
2010 Template:T&Fcalc  Ivan Ukhov (RUS) Opole
2011 Template:T&Fcalc  Jesse Williams (USA) Eugene
2012 Template:T&Fcalc  Ivan Ukhov (RUS)
 Mutaz Essa Barshim (QAT)
Cheboksary
Lausanne

Women's outdoor

Year Height Athlete Venue
1970 Template:T&Fcalc  Antonina Lazareva (URS) Kiev
1971 Template:T&Fcalc  Ilona Gusenbauer (AUT) Vienna
1972 Template:T&Fcalc  Yordanka Blagoeva (BUL) Zagreb
1973 Template:T&Fcalc  Yordanka Blagoeva (BUL) Warsaw
1974 Template:T&Fcalc  Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR) Rome
1975 Template:T&Fcalc  Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR) Nice
1976 Template:T&Fcalc  Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR) Dresden
1977 Template:T&Fcalc  Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR) Berlin
1978 Template:T&Fcalc  Sara Simeoni (ITA) Brescia
1979 Template:T&Fcalc  Rosemarie Ackermann (GDR) Turin
1980 Template:T&Fcalc  Sara Simeoni (ITA) Turin
1981 Template:T&Fcalc  Pamela Spencer (USA) Brussels
1982 Template:T&Fcalc  Ulrike Meyfarth (FRG) Athens
1983 Template:T&Fcalc  Tamara Bykova (URS) Pisa
1984 Template:T&Fcalc  Lyudmila Andonova (BUL) Berlin
1985 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) Moscow
1986 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) Sofia
1987 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) Rome
1988 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) Sofia
1989 Template:T&Fcalc  Silvia Costa (CUB) Barcelona
1990 Template:T&Fcalc  Yelena Yelesina (URS) Seattle
1991 Template:T&Fcalc  Heike Henkel (GER) Tokyo
1992 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) San Marino
1993 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) Fukuoka
1994 Template:T&Fcalc  Silvia Costa (CUB)
 Inga Babakova (UKR)
 Britta Bilač (SLO)
Havana
Moscow
Helsinki
1995 Template:T&Fcalc  Inga Babakova (UKR) Tokyo
1996 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL) Atlanta
1997 Template:T&Fcalc  Stefka Kostadinova (BUL)
 Inga Babakova (UKR)
Osaka
Fukuoka
1998 Template:T&Fcalc  Venelina Veneva (BUL) Kalamátai
1999 Template:T&Fcalc  Hestrie Cloete (RSA) Monaco
2000 Template:T&Fcalc  Monica Iagăr (ROM) Villeneuve d'Ascq
2001 Template:T&Fcalc  Venelina Veneva (BUL) Kalamáta
2002 Template:T&Fcalc  Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE) Poznań
2003 Template:T&Fcalc  Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE)
 Hestrie Cloete (RSA)
Eberstadt
Saint-Denis
2004 Template:T&Fcalc  Yelena Slesarenko (RUS) Athens
2005 Template:T&Fcalc  Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE) Sheffield
2006 Template:T&Fcalc  Kajsa Bergqvist (SWE) London
2007 Template:T&Fcalc  Blanka Vlašić (CRO) Stockholm
2008 Template:T&Fcalc  Blanka Vlašić (CRO) Istanbul
Madrid
2009 Template:T&Fcalc  Blanka Vlašić (CRO) Zagreb
2010 Template:T&Fcalc  Chaunté Lowe (USA)
 Blanka Vlašić (CRO)
Des Moines
Split
2011 Template:T&Fcalc  Anna Chicherova (RUS) Cheboksary
2012 Template:T&Fcalc  Anna Chicherova (RUS) London

Most successful athletes

Athletes who have won multiple titles at the two most important competitions, the Olympic Games and the World Championships:

Men

  • 3 wins: Javier Sotomayor (CUB) - Olympic Champion in 1992, World Champion in 1993 & 1997
  • 2 wins: Gennadiy Avdeyenko (URS) - Olympic Champion in 1988, World Champion in 1983
  • 2 wins: Charles Austin (USA) - Olympic Champion in 1996, World Champion in 1991

Women

Note: Kostadinova and Sotomayor are the only high jumpers to have been Olympic Champion, World Champion and broken the World Record.

Athletes with most medals

Men

Athlete Olympic Games World Championships World Indoor Championships Continental Championships Continental Indoor Championships Universiade Regional Games
Mediterranean
Panamerican
Asian
Total
Cuba Javier Sotomayor 1 1 0 2 2 0 4 1 0 2 0 1 - - - 1 0 0 3 0 0 13 4 1
West Germany Dietmar Mögenburg 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 5 2 1 0 0 0 - - - 7 3 1
Sweden Stefan Holm 1 0 0 0 1 0 4 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 - - - 7 2 1
Sweden Patrik Sjöberg 0 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 - - - 6 3 2
South Korea Lee Jin-Taek 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 0 - - - 1 0 1 2 0 0 6 1 1
Soviet Union Igor Paklin 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 - - - 4 1 0
Soviet Union Valeriy Brumel 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 - - - 4 1 0
China Zhu Jianhua 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 - - - 0 0 0 2 0 0 4 0 2
Russia Yaroslav Rybakov 0 0 1 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 - - - 3 8 2
Serbia Dragutin Topić 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 3 0 4
Soviet Union Vladimir Yashchenko 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 - - - 3 0 0
Soviet Union Gennadiy Avdeyenko 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 - - - 2 2 1
United States Hollis Conway 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 - - - 1 1 0 0 0 1 2 2 3

Women

Athlete Olympic Games World Championships World Indoor Championships Continental Championships Continental Indoor Championships Universiade Regional Games
Mediterranean
Panamerican
Commonwealth
Total
Bulgaria Stefka Kostadinova 1 1 0 2 0 0 5 0 0 1 0 0 4 1 0 0 0 0 - - - 13 2 0
Italy Sara Simeoni 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 4 0 0 2 1 2 2 0 0 10 2 4
Croatia Blanka Vlašić 0 1 0 2 0 0 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 2 1
South Africa Hestrie Cloete 0 2 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 6 2 0
West Germany Heike Henkel 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 2 1 0 0 2 0 1 0 0 0 - - - 6 1 3
Romania Iolanda Balaş 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 - - - 6 1 0
Sweden Kajsa Bergqvist 0 0 1 1 0 2 2 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 - - - 5 1 4
East Germany Rosemarie Ackermann 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 - - - 5 1 0
Russia Anna Chicherova 1 0 1 1 2 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 - - - 4 4 2
Soviet Union Tamara Bykova 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 - - - 4 2 2
Romania Germany Alina Astafei 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 1 1 0 0 - - - 4 3 2
Belgium Tia Hellebaut 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 - - - 4 0 0
West Germany Ulrike Meyfarth 2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 - - - 3 2 0
Russia Yelena Slesarenko 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 - - - 3 1 1
Italy Antonietta Di Martino 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2 3 1

High Jump Differentials

All time lists of athletes with the highest recorded jumps above their own height.[9][10]

Men

Athlete born tall jump year diff.
1 Sweden Stefan Holm 1976 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 2005 Template:T&Fcalc
United States Franklin Jacobs 1957 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1978
3 Sweden Linus Thörnblad 1985 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 2005 Template:T&Fcalc
Germany Anton Riepl 1969 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1993
United States Rick Noji 1967 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1992
6 United States Hollis Conway 1967 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1989 Template:T&Fcalc
7 Japan Takahiro Kimino 1973 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1993 Template:T&Fcalc
United States Charles Austin 1967 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1991
Romania Sorin Matei 1963 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1990
10 Poland Robert Wolski 1982 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 2006 Template:T&Fcalc
India Hari Shankar Roy 1986 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 2004
Italy Marcello Benvenuti 1964 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1986
Canada Milton Ottey 1959 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1986
14 Japan Hikaru Tsuchiya 1986 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 2009 Template:T&Fcalc
United States Jeremy Fischer 1976 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 2000
Japan Motochika Inoue 1967 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1987
Japan Takashi Katamine 1958 Template:T&Fcalc Template:T&Fcalc 1983

† Indoor performance.

Women

Athlete born tall jump year diff.
1 Italy Antonietta Di Martino 1978 1.69 m 2.04 m * 2011 Template:T&Fcalc
2 Sweden Kajsa Bergqvist 1976 1.75 m 2.08 m * 2006 Template:T&Fcalc
Greece Niki Bakoyianni 1968 1.70 m 2.03 m 1998
4 United States Yolanda Henry 1964 1.68 m 2.00 m * 1990 Template:T&Fcalc
Bulgaria Emilia Dragieva 1965 1.68 m 2.00 m * 1987
6 France Marie Collonvillé 1973 1.63 m 1.94 m 1997 Template:T&Fcalc
7 United Kingdom Jessica Ennis 1986 1.65 m 1.95 m 2007 Template:T&Fcalc
Russia Viktoriya Seryogina 1973 1.70 m 2.00 m 2002
Italy Antonella Bevilacqua 1971 1.69 m 1.99 m 1996
Bulgaria Lyudmila Andonova 1960 1.77 m 2.07 m 1984
United States Cindy Holmes 1962 1.53 m 1.83 m 1982
  • Indoor performance.

Female two metres club

At 31 January 2013 included, 65 different female athletes had ever been able to jump 2.00 metres (outdoor and indoor).[11][12] The following table shows the only ten countries from which more than one athlete has a personal best of at least 2.00 metres.

# Nations Nr. Athletes
1  Russia 15 Anna Chicherova 2.07, Elena Slesarenko 2.06, Tamara Bykova 2.05, Irina Gordeeva 2.04, Marina Kuptsova 2.03,
Svetlana Shkolina 2.03, Tatyana Babashkina 2.03, Yelena Yelesina 2.02, Yelena Gulyayeva 2.01, Svetlana Lapina 2.00,
Ekaterina Savchenko 2.00, Larisa Kositsyna 2.00, Viktoriya Klyugina 2.00, Viktoriya Seryogina 2.00, Yuliya Lyakhova 2.00
2  United States 8 Chaunté Lowe 2.05, Brigetta Barrett 2.03, Louise Ritter 2.03, Amy Acuff 2.01, Tisha Waller 2.01,
Coleen Sommer 2.00, Jan Wohlschlag 2.00, Tisha Waller 2.00, Yolanda Henry 2.00
3  Germany 8 Heike Henkel 2.07, Ariane Friedrich 2.06, Alina Astafei 2.04, Ulrike Meyfarth 2.03, Gabriele Günz 2.01, Heike Balck 2.01,
Daniela Rath 2.00, Meike Kröger 2.00
4  Bulgaria 5 Stefka Kostadinova 2.09, Lyudmila Andonova 2.07, Venelina Veneva-Mateeva 2.04, Emilia Dragieva 2.00, Svetlana Isaeva-Leseva 2.00
5  Ukraine 5 Inha Babakova 2.05, Vita Styopina 2.02, Iryna Mykhalchenko 2.01, Vita Palamar 2.01, Lyudmila Avdeyenko 2.00
6  Italy 3 Antonietta Di Martino 2.04, Sara Simeoni 2.01, Alessia Trost 2.00 m
7  South Africa 3 Hestrie Cloete 2.06, Desiré Du Plessis 2.01, Charmaine Gale-Weavers 2.00
8  Sweden 2 Kajsa Bergqvist 2.08, Emma Green Tregaro 2.01
9  Cuba 2 Silvia Costa 2.04, Ioamnet Quintero 2.01
10  East Germany 2 Susanne Beyer 2.02, Rosemarie Ackermann 2.00

National records

Updated June 2013.

Men

Nation Height Athlete Venue Date Ref
 CUB Template:T&Fcalc Javier Sotomayor Salamanca 1993-07-27
 SWE Template:T&Fcalc Patrik Sjöberg Stockholm 1987-06-30
Germany GER Template:T&Fcalc Carlo Thränhardt Berlin 1988-02-26
 KGZ Template:T&Fcalc Igor Paklin Kobe 1985-09-04
 UKR Template:T&Fcalc Bohdan Bondarenko Lausanne 4 July 2013 [4]
 ROM Template:T&Fcalc Sorin Matei Bratislava 1990-06-20
United States USA Template:T&Fcalc Charles Austin Zürich 1991-08-07
Russia RUS Template:T&Fcalc Vyacheslav Voronin London 2000-08-05
Qatar QAT Template:T&Fcalc Mutaz Essa Barshim Eugene 1 June 2013 [6]
 PRC Template:T&Fcalc Zhu Jianhua Beijing 1983-06-11
 SRB Template:T&Fcalc Dragutin Topic Belgrad 1993-08-01
 BAH Template:T&Fcalc Troy Kemp Nice 1995-07-12
 POL Template:T&Fcalc Artur Partyka Eberstadt 1996-08-18
 RSA Template:T&Fcalc Jacques Freitag Oudtshoorn 2005-03-05
Canada CAN Template:T&Fcalc Derek Drouin Moscow 2013-08-15
 AZE Template:T&Fcalc Valeriy Sereda Rieti 1984-09-02
 GBR Template:T&Fcalc m Steve Smith Seoul 1992-09-20
Stuttgart 1993-08-22
Robbie Grabarz Lausanne 2012-08-23 [13]
 BEL Template:T&Fcalc Eddy Annys Ghent 1985-05-26
 SVK Template:T&Fcalc Jan Zvara Prague 1987-08-23
 CZE Template:T&Fcalc Jaroslav Baba Rome 2005-07-08
 BER Template:T&Fcalc Clarence Saunders Auckland 1990-02-01
 BUL Template:T&Fcalc Georgi Dakov Brussels 1990-08-10
 GRE Template:T&Fcalc Lambros Papakostas Athens 1992-07-21
Australia AUS Template:T&Fcalc Tim Forsyth Melbourne 1997-03-02
 NOR Template:T&Fcalc Steinar Hoen Oslo 1997-07-01
 ISR Template:T&Fcalc Konstantin Matusevich Perth 2000-02-05
France FRA Template:T&Fcalc Jean-Charles Gicquel Paris 1994-03-13
 CYP Template:T&Fcalc Kyriakos Ioannou Osaka 2007-08-29
 LTU Template:T&Fcalc Rolandas Verkys Warsaw 1991-06-16
 ESP Template:T&Fcalc Arturo Ortíz Barcelona 1991-06-22
 BLR Template:T&Fcalc Andrey Sankovich Gomel 1993-05-15
 KOR Template:T&Fcalc Lee Jin-Taek Seoul 1997-06-20
 ALG Template:T&Fcalc Abderrahmane Hammad Algiers 2000-07-14
 JAM Template:T&Fcalc Germaine Mason Santo Domingo 2003-08-09
 BOT Template:T&Fcalc Kabelo Kgosiemang Addis Ababa 2008-05-04
 ITA Template:T&Fcalc Marcello Benvenuti Verona 1989-09-12
 COL Template:T&Fcalc Gilmar Mayo Pereira 1994-10-17
Japan JPN Template:T&Fcalc Naoyuki Daigo Kobe 2006-07-02
 UZB Template:T&Fcalc Gennadiy Belkov Tashkent 1982-05-29
 BRA Template:T&Fcalc Jessé de Lima Lausanne 2008-09-02
  SUI Template:T&Fcalc Roland Dalhäuser Eberstadt 1981-06-07
 TJK Template:T&Fcalc Oleg Palaschevskiy Bryansk 1990-08-12
 BIH Template:T&Fcalc Elvir Krehmic Zagreb 1998-07-07
 FIN Template:T&Fcalc Mika Polku Hämeenkyrö 2000-07-22
Toni Huikuri Bratislava 2002-06-11
 NED Template:T&Fcalc Wilbert Pennings Eberstadt 7 August 1999 [14]
 PER Template:T&Fcalc Hugo Munoz Lima 1995-10-29
 EST Template:T&Fcalc Marko Turban Rakvere 1996-06-05
 LAT Template:T&Fcalc Normunds Sietiņš Nurmijärvi 1992-07-20
 IRL Template:T&Fcalc Adrian O'Dwyer Algiers 2004-06-24
 ISL Template:T&Fcalc Einar Karl Hjartarson Reykjavík 2001-02-20
 MAS Template:T&Fcalc Lee Hup Wei Beijing 2008-05-25
 SRI Template:T&Fcalc Manjula Kumara Wijesekara Colombo 2004-07-23
Incheon 2005-09-04

Women

Nation Height Athlete Venue Date
 BUL Template:T&Fcalc Stefka Kostadinova Rome 1987-08-30
 CRO Template:T&Fcalc Blanka Vlašić Zagreb 2009-08-31
 SWE Template:T&Fcalc Kajsa Bergqvist Arnstadt 2006-02-04
Germany GER Template:T&Fcalc Heike Henkel Karlsruhe 1992-02-08
Russia RUS Template:T&Fcalc Anna Chicherova Cheboksary 2011-07-22
 RSA Template:T&Fcalc Hestrie Cloete Paris 2003-08-31
 UKR Template:T&Fcalc Inga Babakova Tokyo 1995-09-15
 BEL Template:T&Fcalc Tia Hellebaut Birmingham 2007-03-03
United States USA Template:T&Fcalc Chaunte Lowe Des Moines 2010-06-26
 CUB Template:T&Fcalc Silvia Costa Barcelona 1989-09-09
 ITA Template:T&Fcalc Antonietta Di Martino Banská Bystrica 2011-02-09
 GRE Template:T&Fcalc Niki Bakogianni Atlanta 1996-08-03
 ROM Template:T&Fcalc Monica Iagar Bucharest 1999-01-23
 ESP Template:T&Fcalc Ruth Beitia San Sebastián 2007-08-04
 KAZ Template:T&Fcalc Olga Turchak Moscow 1986-07-07
 NOR Template:T&Fcalc Hanne Haugland Zürich 1997-08-13
 YUG Template:T&Fcalc Biljana Petrović Saint-Denis 1990-06-22
 BLR Template:T&Fcalc Tatyana Shevchik Gomel 1993-05-14
 CZE Template:T&Fcalc Zuzana Hlavoňová Prague 2000-06-05
 SLO Template:T&Fcalc Britta Bilač Helsinki 1994-08-14
 HUN Template:T&Fcalc Dóra Györffy Nyiregyhaza 2001-07-26
 UZB Template:T&Fcalc Lyudmila Butuzova Sochi 1984-06-10
Canada CAN Template:T&Fcalc Debbie Brill Rieti 1984-09-02
Australia AUS Template:T&Fcalc Alison Inverarity Ingolstadt 1989-02-12
 LCA Template:T&Fcalc Levern Spencer Athens, GA 2010-05-08
 POL Template:T&Fcalc Danuta Bułkowska Wörrstadt 1984-06-09
China CHN Template:T&Fcalc Jin Ling Hamamatsu 1989-05-07
 LAT Template:T&Fcalc Valentīna Gotovska Vilnius 1992-30-03
 AUT Template:T&Fcalc Sigrid Kirchmann Stuttgart 1993-08-21
 MDA Template:T&Fcalc Olga Bolşova Rieti 1993-09-05
 ARG Template:T&Fcalc Solange Witteveen Manaus 2001-05-19
 DOM Template:T&Fcalc Juana Rosario Arrendel San Salvador 2002-12-02
 KGZ Template:T&Fcalc Tatyana Efimenko Rome 2003-07-11
 MEX Template:T&Fcalc Romary Rifka Xalapa 2004-04-04
 EST Template:T&Fcalc Anna Iljuštšenko Viljandi 2011-08-09
Japan JPN Template:T&Fcalc Miki Imai Yokohama 2001-09-15
 LTU Template:T&Fcalc Nelė Žilinskienė Atlanta 1996-08-03
Airinė Palšytė Shenzhen 2011-08-21
 GBR Template:T&Fcalc Diana Elliott (Davies) Oslo 1982-06-26
Susan Moncrieff Bremen 2001-06-24
Jessica Ennis Desenzano 2007-05-05
 IRL Template:T&Fcalc Deirdre Ryan Daegu 2011-09-01
France FRA Template:T&Fcalc Maryse Ewanje-Epee Göteborg 1984-03-04
 ISR Template:T&Fcalc Danielle Frenkel Paris 2011-03-05
 VIE Template:T&Fcalc Bui Thi Nhung Bangkok 2005-05-04
 BIH Template:T&Fcalc Amra Temim Varaždin 1987-08-15
 SRB Template:T&Fcalc Amra Temim Thessaloniki 1988-09-16
 TUR Template:T&Fcalc[15] Candeğer Oğuz Istanbul 2004-05-16
 BRA Template:T&Fcalc Orlane dos Santos Bogotá 1989-08-11
 FIN Template:T&Fcalc Hanna Mikkonen Tampere 2005-06-12

See also

References

Bibliography

External links

  • 50 cm club - Alltime list in jump above own height
  • High Jump All-Time Rankings
  • High Jump Resource Center
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.