World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Historical period

Article Id: WHEBN0000617936
Reproduction Date:

Title: Historical period  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: The Palisades (Hudson River), Sinzig, ABMAP
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Historical period

The categorization of time into discrete named blocks is called periodization. This is a list of such named time periods as defined in various fields of study. Major categorization systems include cosmological (concerning the various time periods in the origin and evolution of the Universe), geological (concerning time periods in the origin and evolution of earth) and historical (concerning time periods in the origin and human evolution).

Human time periods

These can be divided broadly into prehistorical (before history began to be recorded) and historical periods (when written records began to be kept).

In archaeology and anthropology, human prehistory is subdivided around the three-age system. This list includes the use of the three-age system as well as a number of various designation used in reference to sub-ages within the traditional three.

The dates for each age can vary by region. On the geologic time scale, the Holocene epoch starts at the end of the last glacial period of the current ice age (around 10,000 BC) and continues to the present. The beginning of Mesolithic is usually considered to correspond to the beginning of the Holocene epoch.

Historical periods

Main article: History by period

The Americas

Southeast Asia

Further information: History of Southeast Asia

China

Further information: History of China

Central Asia

Further information: History of Mongolia

Egypt

Further information: History of Egypt

Europe

Further information: History of Europe

India

Further information: History of India

Japan

Further information: History of Japan

Middle East

Contemporary historical periods throughout the world

Mythological and astrological time periods

  • Aztec mythology
    • Nahui-Ocelotl, Destroyed by Jaguars
    • Nahui-Ehécatl, Destroyed by Hurricane
    • Nahuiquiahuitl, Destroyed by rain of Fire
    • Nahui-Atl, Destroyed by Flood
    • Nahui-Ollin, Destroyed by Earthquakes

Geologic time periods

The geologic time scale covers the extent of the existence of Earth, from about 4600 million years ago to the present day. It is marked by Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points. Geologic time units are (in order of descending specificity) eons, eras, periods, epochs, and ages; and the corresponding chronostratigraphic units, which measure "rock-time", are eonothems, erathems, systems, series, and stages.

The second and third timelines are each subsections of their preceding timeline as indicated by asterisks. The Cenozoic is sometimes divided into the Quaternary and Tertiary periods, although their use is no longer official.

Cosmological time periods

13.8 billion years ago: The Big Bang Theory (the universe's possible beginnings)

Main article: Timeline of the Big Bang
Time Period Duration Description
Planck epoch From the start to 10−43 seconds after the Big Bang Very little concrete information is known about this epoch. Different theories propose different views on this particular time.
Grand unification epoch Between 10−43 to 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang The result of the universe expanding and cooling down during the Planck epoch.
Electroweak epoch Between 10−36 seconds to 10−12 seconds after the Big Bang The universe cools down to 1028 kelvin.
Inflationary epoch Between 10−36 seconds to 10−32 seconds after the Big Bang The shape of the universe flattens due to cosmic inflation.
Quark epoch Between 10−12 seconds to 10−6 seconds after the Big Bang Cosmic inflation has ended. Quarks are present in the universe at this point.
Hadron epoch Between 10−6 seconds to 1 second after the Big Bang The universe has cooled enough for quarks to form hadrons, protons, neutrons.
Lepton epoch Between 1 second to 10 seconds after the Big Bang Most hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilate each other, leaving behind leptons and anti-leptons.
Photon epoch Between 10 seconds to 380,000 years after the Big Bang Most leptons and anti-leptons annihilate each other. The universe is dominated by photons.
Nucleosynthesis Between 3 minutes to 20 minutes after the Big Bang The temperature of the universe has cooled down enough to allow atomic nuclei to form via nuclear fusion.
Recombination About 377,000 years after the Big Bang Hydrogen and helium atoms form.
Reionization Between 150 million and 1 billion years after the Big Bang The first stars and quasars form due to gravitational collapse.

See also

References

Works Cited
als:Zeitalter

ar:قائمة العصور الزمنية bg:Историческа периодизация cs:Periodizace historie de:Periodisierung es:Periodización fr:Histoire (périodes) id:Daftar periode waktu it:Periodizzazione ka:ისტორიის პერიოდიზაცია hu:Történelmi korszakok nl:Periodisering pl:Periodyzacja pt:Periodização da História ru:Периодизация истории sl:Periodizacija zgodovine sr:Периодизација tr:Çağ

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.