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History of Filipino Americans

Filipinos in what is now the United States were first documented in the 16th century, with small settlements beginning in the 18th century. Mass migration did not begin until the early 20th century, and for a period the History of the Philippines merged with that of the United States. After the independence of the Philippines from the United States, Filipino Americans continued to grow in population and had events that are associated to them.


  • Immigration history 1
  • Timeline 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • Further reading 5
  • External links 6

Immigration history

Researchers have looked upon the patterns of immigration of Filipinos to the United States and have recognized four significant waves. The first was connected to the period when the Philippines was part of New Spain and later the Spanish East Indies; Filipinos, via the Manila galleons, would migrate to North America.

The second wave was during the period when the Philippines were a territory of the United States; as U.S. Nationals, Filipinos were unrestricted from immigrating to the US by the Immigration Act of 1917 that restricted other Asians.[1] This wave of immigration has been referred to as the manong generation.[2][3][4] Filipinos of this wave came for different reasons, but the majority were laborers, predominantly Ilocano and Visayan.[1] This wave of immigration was distinct from other Asian Americans, due to American influences, and education, in the Philippines; thefore they did not see themselves as aliens when they immigrated to the United States.[5] During the Great Depression, Filipino Americans were also affected, losing jobs, and being the target of race based violence.[6] This wave of immigration ended due to the Philippine Independence Act in 1934, which restricted immigration to 50 persons a year.[1]

Later, due to basing agreements with the Philippines, Filipinos were allowed to enlist in the United States Navy, this continued a practice of allowing Filipinos to serve in the Navy that began in 1901.[7] Before the end of World War I Filipino sailors were allowed to serve in a number of ratings, however due to a rules change during the interwar period Filipino sailors were restricted to officers' stewards and mess attendants.[8] This ended in 1946, following the independence of the Philippines from the United States, but resumed in 1947 due to language inserted into the Military Base Agreement between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines.[7] In 1973, Admiral Zumwalt removed the restrictions on Filipino sailors, allowing them to enter any rate they qualified for;[9] in 1976 there were about 17,000 Filipinos serving in the United States Navy;[7] they created a distinct Navy-related Filipino American immigrant community.[10]

The third wave of immigration followed the events of World War II. Filipinos who had served in World War II had been given the option of becoming U.S. Citizens, and many took the opportunity,[11] upwards of 10,000 according to Barkan.[12][13] Filipina War brides were allowed to immigrate to the United States due to War Brides Act and Fiancée Act, with approximately 16,000 Filipinas entering the United States in the years following World War II.[14] This immigration was not limited only to Filipinas and children; between 1946 and 1950, there was recorded one Filipino Groom granted immigration under the War Brides Act.[15] A source of immigration was opened up with the Luce-Celler Act of 1946 that gave the Philippines a quota of 100 persons a year; yet records show that 32,201 Filipinos immigrated between 1953 to 1965.[16] This wave ended in 1965.[1]

The fourth and present wave of immigration began in 1965 with passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 into law. It ended national quotas into law, and provided an unlimited number of visas for family reunification.[1] By the 1970s and 1980s Filipina wives of service members reach annual rates of five to eight thousand.[17] Navy based immigration stopped with the expiration of the military bases agreement in 1992;[18] yet it continues in a more limited fashion.[19] Many Filipinas of this new wave of migration have migrated here as professionals due to a shortage in qualified nurses.[20]


  • 1573-1811, Roughly between 1556 and 1813, Spain engaged in the Galleon Trade between Manila and Acapulco. The galleons were built in the shipyards of Cavite, outside Manila, by Filipino craftsmen. The trade was funded by Chinese traders, manned by Filipino sailors and "supervised" by Mexico City officials. In this time frame, Spain recruited Mexicans to serve as soldiers in Manila. Likewise, they drafted Filipinos to serve as soldiers in Mexico. Once drafted, the trip across the ocean sometimes came with a "one way" ticket.
  • 1587, First Filipinos ("Luzonians") to set foot in North America arrive in Morro Bay, (San Luis Obispo) California on board the Manila-built galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza under the command of Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno.[21][22]
  • 1595, Filipino were among the crew aboard the San Augustine when it wrecked near Point Reyes, California.[23]
  • 1720, Gaspar Molina, a Filipino from Pampanga province, oversees the construction of El Triunfo de la Cruz, the first ship built in California.[24]
  • 1763, First permanent Filipino settlements established in North America near Barataria Bay in southern Louisiana.[25][26]
  • 1781, Antonio Miranda Rodriguez chosen a member of the first group of settlers to establish the City of Los Angeles, California. He and his daughter fell sick with smallpox while en route, and remained in Baja California for an extended time to recuperate. When they finally arrived in Alta California, it was discovered that Miranda Rodriguez was a skilled gunsmith. He was reassigned in 1782 to the Presidio of Santa Barbara as an armorer.[27][28]
  • 1796, The first American trading ship to reach Manila, the Astrea, was commanded by Captain Henry Prince.
  • 1814, During the War of 1812, Filipinos known as, "Manilamen", from Manila Village, near New Orleans, were among the "Baratarians", artillery gunners who fought against the British, under the command of Jean Lafitte and Andrew Jackson, in the Battle of New Orleans.[29]
  • 1861-1865, Approximately, 100 Filipinos and Chinese enlist, during the American Civil War, into the Union Army and Union Navy, as well as, serving, in smaller numbers, in the armed forces of the Confederate States of America.
  • 1870, Filipinos mestizos studying in New Orleans form the first Filipino Association in the United States, the "Sociedad de Beneficencia de los Hispanos Filipinos."[30]
José Rizal around the time of his visit to the United States
Philippine Village at the Pan-American Exposition in 1901
  • 1901, United States Navy begins recruiting Filipinos.[31]
  • 1902, Philippine–American War ends.
  • 1902, Philippine Bill of 1902 passed by the U.S. Congress.
  • 1903, First Pensionados, Filipinos invited to attend college in the United States on American government scholarships, arrive.[32]
  • 1906, First Filipino laborers migrate to the United States to work on the Hawaiian sugarcane and pineapple plantations, California and Washington asparagus farms, Washington lumber, Alaska salmon canneries. About 200 Filipino "pensionados" are brought to the U.S. to get an American education.
  • 1910, First Filipino, Vicente Lim, attends West Point.[33][34]
  • 1911, Nevada became the first state to include Filipinos, referring to them as "Malays", in their miscegenation law.[35]
  • 1912, Filipino Association of Philadelphia (Now known as Filipino American Association of Philadelphia, Inc./FAAPI) is founded by Agripino Jaucian; it is perhaps the oldest Filipino organization in continuous existence in the United States. The name change came about to include the growing number of American wives.[36][37]
  • 1913, On June 15 The Battle of Bud Bagsak ends the Moro Rebellion
  • 1917, Philippine National Guard mustered into federal service
  • 1919, On August 31 [38]
  • 1920s, Filipino labor leaders organize unions and strategic strikes to improve working and living conditions.
  • 1924, Filipino Workers’ Union (FLU) shuts down 16 of 25 sugar plantations.
  • 1927, Anti-Filipino riots occur in the Yakima Valley, Washington.[39][40]
  • 1928, Filipino Businessman Pedro Flores opens Flores yo-yos, which is credited with starting the yo-yo craze in the United States. He came up with and copyrighted the word yo-yo.[41] He also applied for and received a trademark for the Flores Yo-yo, which was registered on July 22, 1930.[41] His company went on to be become the foundation of which would latter become the Duncan yo-yo company.[41] Anti-Filipino riots occur in the Wenatchee Valley.[39][42]
  • 1929, Anti-Filipino riot occurs in Exeter, California.[40]
  • 1930, Anti-Filipino riots break out in Watsonville and other California rural communities, in part because of Filipino men having intimate relations with White women which was in violation of the California anti-miscegenation laws enacted during that time.[40][43][44]
  • 1930, the Stockton Filipino Center was bombed.[45]
  • 1933, After the Supreme Court of California found in Roldan v. Los Angeles County that existing laws against marriage between white persons and "Mongoloids" did not bar a Filipino man from marrying a white woman,[46] California's anti-miscegenation law, Civil Code, section 60, was amended to prohibit marriages between white persons and members of the "Malay race" (e.g. Filipinos).[47][48][49]
  • 1934, The Tydings–McDuffie Act, known as the Philippine Independence Act limited Filipino immigration to the U.S. to 50 persons a year (not to apply to persons coming or seeking to come to the Territory of Hawaii).[50]
  • 1936, Philippines becomes self-governing. Commonwealth of the Philippines inaugurated.
Company labor camp for Filipino farm laborers on Ryer Island in 1940
President Truman and members of his party pose on the north steps of the "Little White House," the President's residence in Potsdam, Germany during the Potsdam Conference, with their Filipino stewards.
  • 1946, The United States recognizes Philippine Independence through Treaty of Manila. Republic of the Philippines reclaims legacies from the Generation of 1898 including Philippine Flag and National Anthem. During the 1946 parade Emilio Aguinaldo marches with Filipino veterans of the War of Independence, carrying the flag he designed and originally unfurled after he declared Philippine Independence on June 12, 1898; America Is in the Heart by Carlos Bulosan published.[57] Filipino Naturalization Act allows naturalization of Filipino Americans,[58] granted citizenship to those who arrived prior to March 1943.[59]
  • 1948, California Supreme Court rules California's anti-miscegenation law unconstitutional in the case of Perez v. Sharp,[60] ending racially based prohibitions of marriage in the state (although it wasn't until Loving v. Virginia in 1967 that interracial marriages were legalized nationwide). Celestino Alfafara wins California Supreme Court decision allowing aliens the right to own real property.[61]
  • 1955, Peter Aduja becomes first Filipino American elected to office, becoming a member of the Hawai'i State House of Representatives.
  • 1956, Bobby Balcena becomes first Filipino American to play Major League baseball, playing for the Cincinnati Reds.
  • 1965, Congress passes Immigration and Nationality Act which facilitated ease of entry for skilled Filipino laborers, raises quota of Eastern Hemisphere countries, including the Philippines, to 20,000 a year.
  • 1965, Philip Vera Cruz, Larry Dulay Itliong, Benjamin Gines, Andy Imutan and Pete Velasco with mostly Filipino farm workers.
  • 1967, The Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor (PACE) founded by Filipino American students at San Francisco State College.[62]
  • 1969, Filipino Students Association (FSA) founded by Filipino American students at University of California, Berkeley during the Third World Movement; later renamed the Pilipino American Alliance(PAA).[63][64]
  • 1973, Larry Asera becomes the first Filipino American elected in the continental United States.[65]
  • 1974, Benjamin Menor appointed first Filipino American in a state's highest judiciary office as Justice of the Hawaiʻi State Supreme Court.
  • 1975, Governor John A. Burns (D-HI) convinces Benjamin J. Cayetano to run and win a seat in the Hawaiʻi State Legislature, despite Cayetano's doubts about winning office in a white and Japanese American dominated district; Kauai's Eduardo Enabore Malapit elected first Filipino American mayor.
The building where Domingo and Viernes were assassinated.
  • 1981, Filipino American labor activists Silme Domingo and Gene Viernes are both assassinated June 1, 1981 inside a Seattle downtown union hall.[66]
  • 1981, International Hotel in Manilatown, San Francisco is demolished.[67]
  • 1987, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Lt. Governor of a state of the Union.
  • 1990, Gene Canque Liddell becomes first Filipino American woman to be elected mayor serving the suburb of Lacey City.
  • 1992, Velma Veloria becomes first Filipino American and first Asian American elected to the Washington State Legislature.
  • 1993, Mario R. Ramil appointed Associate Justice to the Hawai'i Supreme Court, the second Filipino American to reach the court.
  • 1994, Benjamin J. Cayetano becomes the first Filipino American and second Asian American elected Governor of a state of the Union.
  • 1995, The nation's largest Filipino mural, Gintong Kasaysayan, Gintong Pamana (Filipino Americans: A Glorious History, A Golden Legacy) in Los Angeles is unveiled and dedicated with over 600 people attending.[68][69]
  • 1999, US Postal worker Joseph Ileto murdered in a hate crime by Aryan Nations member Buford Furrow.
  • 1999, First permanent museum display honoring a Filipino American, the Carlos Bulosan Memorial Exhibit opens in Seattle's Eastern Hotel in the International District, honoring Filipino American literary great Carlos Bulosan.[70]
  • 2000, Robert Bunda elected Hawai'i Senate President and Simeon R. Acoba, Jr. appointed Hawai'i State Supreme Court Justice.
  • 2000, 'Price of Freedom' (100' x 30') US Veterans War Memorial mural near Vandenberg Air Force Base in Lompoc, California includes the Philippine–American War[71]
  • 2001, Bataan Death March Memorial, a federally funded project, was dedicated in Las Cruces, New Mexico.[72][73]
  • 2003, Philippine Republic Act No. 9225, also known as the Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 enacted, allowing natural-born Filipinos naturalized in the United States and their unmarried minor children to reclaim Filipino nationality and hold dual citizenship.[74][75]
  • 2006, Congress passes legislation that commemorates the 100 Years of Filipino Migration to the United States.;[76] Hawaii celebrates the centennial of Filipinos in Hawaii.[77]
  • 2006, First monument dedicated to Filipino soldiers who fought for the United States in World War II unveiled in Historic Filipinotown, Los Angeles, California.[78]
  • 2007, First American public park built with Filipino themed design features unveiled in LA's Historic Filipinotown.[79]
  • 2009, Steve Austria becomes "the first, first-generation Filipino to be elected to the United States Congress.".[80] Mona Pasquil becomes first Filipino- and Asian-American lieutenant governor of California.[81]
  • 2013, California passed legislation sponsored by Rob Bonta, that required that Filipino contributions to the state's history be included in the curriculum.[82]

See also


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  2. ^ "Filipino American History". Northern California Pilipino American Student Organization. California State University, Chico. January 29, 1998. Retrieved June 7, 2011. These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines. 
  3. ^ "Learn about our culture". Filipino Student Association. Saint Louis University. Retrieved June 7, 2011. These Filipino pioneers were known as the "manong generation" since most of them came from Ilokos Sur, Iloilo, and Cavite in the Philippines. 
  4. ^ Jackson, Yo (2006). Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE. p. 216.  
  5. ^ Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 450.  
  6. ^ Austin, Joe; Michael Willard (1998). Generations of youth: youth cultures and history in twentieth-century America. New York: NYU Press. pp. 118–135.  
  7. ^ a b c Hooker, J.S. (July 7, 2006). "Filipinos in the United States Navy". Navy Department Library.  
  8. ^ Le Espiritu, Yen (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 29.  
  9. ^ Ramon J. Farolan (July 21, 2003). "From Stewards to Admirals: Filipinos in the U.S. Navy". Asian Journal. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
  10. ^ Le Espiritu, Yen (2003). Home Bound: Filipino American Lives across Cultures, Communities, and Countries. University of California Press. p. 30.  
  11. ^ a b "California's Filipino Infantry". The California State Military Museum. Retrieved 2008-01-24. 
  12. ^ Posadas, Barbara Mercedes (1999). The Filipino Americans. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 26.  
  13. ^ Barkman, Elliot R. (1983). "Whom Shall We Integrate?: A Comparative Analysis of the Immigration and Naturalization Trends of Asians Before and After the 1965 Immigration Act (1951–1978)". Journal of American Ethnic History (University of Illinois Press) 3 (1): 29–57.  
  14. ^ Baldoz, Rick (2011). The Third Asiatic Invasion: Migration and Empire in Filipino America, 1898–1946. New York: NYU Press. p. 228.  
  15. ^ Daniels, Roger (2010). Immigration and the legacy of Harry S. Truman: Volume 6 of Truman legacy series. Truman State Univ Press. p. 103.  
  16. ^ Segal, Uma Anand (2002). A framework for immigration: Asians in the United States. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 149.  
  17. ^ Min, Pyong Gap (2006). Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press. p. 14.  
  18. ^ MC3 Rialyn Rodrigo (March 1, 2009). "Philippine Enlistment Program Sailors Reflect on Heritage". Navy News Service. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  19. ^ Service Officer (October 8, 2008). "USN Recruiters to Visit Philippines October 09, 2008". United States Military Activities Office Davao City, Philippines. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  20. ^ Daniels, Roger (2002). Coming to America: a history of immigration and ethnicity in American life. HarperCollins. p. 359.  
  21. ^ "Historic Site, During the Manila". Michael L. Baird. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  22. ^ Eloisa Gomez Borah (1997). "Chronology of Filipinos in America Pre-1989" (PDF). Anderson School of Management.  
  23. ^ Kevin Starr (22 June 2011). Coast of Dreams. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 158.  
    Sobredo, James (July 1999). "Filipino Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area, Stockton, and Seattle". Asian American Studies. California State University, Sacramento. Retrieved 28 December 2014. 
  24. ^ Rodis, Rodel (26 October 2013). "The Second Coming of Filipinos to America". Inquirer. Retrieved 24 November 2014. 
  25. ^ Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS". NAATA.  
  26. ^ Loni Ding (2001). "1763 FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA". NAATA.  
  27. ^ "Original Settlers (Pobladores) of El Pueblo de la Reina de Los Angeles, 1781". Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  28. ^  
  29. ^ Nancy Dingler (June 23, 2007). "Filipinos made immense contributions in Vallejo". Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  30. ^ "Manila Village". Filipino American Heritage Website. Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Program. 2006. Retrieved April 28, 2011. On July 24, 1870, the Spanish-speaking residents of St. Malo founded the first Filipino social club called Sociedad de Beneficencia de los Hispano Filipinos to provide relief and support for the group's members, including the purchasing of a burial places for their deceased. 
  31. ^ Bureau of Naval Personnel (October 1976). "Filipinos in the United States Navy". Naval History & Heritage Command. United States Navy. Retrieved October 23, 2012. 
    David M. Reimers (2005). "Asians in Hawaii and the United States". Other Immigrants: The Global Origins of the American People. NYU Press. p. 68.  

    United States; United States. Judge-advocate-general's dept. (Navy); United States. Navy. Office of the Judge Advocate General (1922). "General Order No. 40". Compilation of navy: annotated. [Letters from the acting secretary of the navy transmitting pursuant to Senate resolution no. 262, Sixty-third Congress, a compilation of laws relating to the navy, Navy department, and Marine corps, in force March 4, 1921, with annotations, showing how such laws have been construed and applied by the Navy department, the comptroller of the Treasury, the attorney general, or the courts ... ]. Govt. print. off. p. 856. 
  32. ^ Bevis, Teresa Brawqner; Christopher J. Lucas (2007). International students in American colleges and universities: a history. New York: Macmillan. p. 75.  
  33. ^ Annual report of the Secretary of War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1915. p. 11. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  34. ^ Marc Lawrence. "Filipino Martial Arts in the United States" (PDF). South Bay Filipino Martial Arts Club. Retrieved April 27, 2011. In 1910 the U.S. began sending one outstanding Filipino soldier per year to West Point, and by 1941 some of these men had risen to the rank of senior officers. 
  35. ^ Elizabeth Reis (17 January 2012). American Sexual Histories. John Wiley & Sons. p. 198.  
    Peggy Pascoe (2009). What Comes Naturally: Miscegenation Law and the Making of Race in America. Oxford University Press. pp. 91–92.  
  36. ^ "Filipino American Association of Philadelphia, Inc.". Retrieved March 2011. 
  37. ^ "Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia Inc.". Asian Journal. February 1, 2012. Retrieved March 20, 2012. The organization drafted its constitution and by-laws and became charted in the city of Philadelphia and incorporated in the State of Pennsylvania in 1917. FAAPI is the oldest ongoing organization of Filipinos and Filipino-Americans in the Delaware Valley and perhaps in the U.S. 
  38. ^ Budnick, Rich (2005). Hawaii's Forgotten History: 1900-1999: The Good...The Bad...The Embarrassing. Honolulu, Hawaii: Aloha Press. p. 31.  
  39. ^ a b "IV. Timeline: Asian Americans in Washington State History". Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington. Retrieved April 27, 2011. 
  40. ^ a b c Lott, Juanita Tamayo (2006). Common destiny: Filipino American generations. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 21.  
  41. ^ a b c Lucky Meisenheimer, MD. "Pedro Flores". Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  42. ^ Jamieson, Stuart Marshall (1946). Labor unionism in American agriculture. Ayer Publishing. p. 211.  
  43. ^ "Remembering the Watsonville Riots". Archived from the original on May 3, 2005. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  44. ^ Starr, Kevin (2009). Golden dreams: California in an age of abundance, 1950–1963. New York: Oxford University Press US. p. 451.  
  45. ^ Perez, Frank Ramos; Perez, Leatrice Bantillo (1994). "The Long Struggle for Acceptance: Filipinos in San Joaquin County" (PDF). The San Joaquin Historian (The San Joaquin County Historical Society) 8 (4): 3–18. Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
  46. ^ Min, Pyong-Gap (2006), Asian Americans: contemporary trneds and issues, Pine Forge Press, p. 189,  
  47. ^ Irving G. Tragen (September 1944). "Statutory Prohibitions against Interracial Marriage". California Law Review 32 (3): 269–280.  , citing Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561.
  48. ^ Association of American Law Schools (1950). Selected essays on family law. Foundation Press. pp. 279. The second disttinct change came in 1933 when the word "Malay" was added to the prohibited class,. Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561. 
  49. ^ University of California; Berkeley. School of Law; University of California; Berkeley. School of Jurisprudence (1944). California law review. School of Jurisprudence of the University of California. pp. 272. All marriages of white persons with Negros, Mongolians, members of the Malay race, of mulattos are illegal and void. 
  50. ^ "The Philippine Independence Act (Tydings-McDuffie Act)". Chanrobles Law Library. March 24, 1934. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  51. ^ "Filipino Americans". Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs. Archived from the original on September 23, 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  52. ^ Mark L. Lazarus III. "An Historical Analysis of Alien Land Law: Washington Territory & State 1853–1889". Seattle University School of Law.  
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  55. ^ "An Untold Triumph". Asian American Studies. California State University, Sacramento. Retrieved April 27, 2011. Facing discrimination and hard times here in California and all along the west coast, thousands of Filipinos worked in agricultural fields, in the service industry, and in other low paying jobs. The war provided the opportunity for Filipinos to fight for the United States and prove their loyalty as Americans. 
  56. ^ a b Espiritu, Yen Le (1995). Filipino American lives. Temple University Press. p. 17.  
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  59. ^ "20th Century – Post WWII". Asian American Studies.  
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  62. ^ "Philippine American Collegiate Endeavor". Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  63. ^ Pilipino American Alliance ~ UC Berkeley
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  66. ^ "Filipino labor activists Gene Viernes and Silme Domingo are slain in Seattle on June 1, 1981". Archived from the original on Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  67. ^ Sterngass, Jon (2006). Robert D. Johnston, ed. Filipino Americans. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 71.  
  68. ^ "Sunday, 24 April 2011 Login Edit Feedback Historic Filipinotown With Mural/ Adobo Nation's La Chika". TFC. Retrieved January 2011. 
  69. ^ "Famous Fil Am Muralist Returns to Filipinotown". INQUIRER. June 22, 2006. Retrieved April 25, 2011. 
  70. ^ "Bulosan Memorial Exhibit". Retrieved October 1999. 
  71. ^ "Major Commissioned Murals: The Price of Freedom". 
  72. ^ Gutierrez, Ricardo (April 10, 2009). "AMEDDC&S NCOs honor WWII heroes". Fort Sam Houston (United States Army). Retrieved June 26, 2009. 
  73. ^ Wilcox, Laura (May 24, 2008). "Veteran lobbies for Bataan Death March memorial". The Herald-Dispatch (Champion Publishing Inc.). Retrieved June 26, 2009. 
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  79. ^ Montoya, Carina Monica (2009). Los Angeles's Historic Filipinotown. Arcadia Publishing. p. 96.  
  80. ^ "AUSTRIA STATEMENT FOR EVENT AT PHILIPPINES EMBASSY". Official House of Representatives website of Rep. Steve Austria. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  81. ^ "Mona Pasquil named interim Lt. Governor of CA". Asian Pacific Americans for Progress. November 6, 2009. Retrieved January 25, 2011. 
  82. ^ Pimentel, Joseph (9 October 2013). "California writing Filipino Americans into the history books". Public Radio International (Minneapolis, Minnesota). Retrieved 23 April 2015. 

Further reading

  • John Wenham (1994). Filipino Americans: Discovering Their Past for the Future (VHS).  
  • Lim, Tyrone; Pangan-Specht, Dolly (2010). Filipinos in the Willamette Valley. Images of America.  
  • Alamar, Estrella Ravelo; Buhay, Willi Red (2001). Filipinos in Chicago. Images of America.  
  • Choy, Catherine Ceniza (2003). Empire of Care: Nursing and Migration in Filipino American History.  
  • Orpilla, Mel (2005). Filipinos in Vallejo. Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. p. 128.  
  • Bautista, Veltisezar B. (2008). The Filipino Americans: (1763–present) : their history, culture, and traditions.  

External links

  • Filipino Home
  • History of Filipino Americans in Seattle
  • "City of Los Angeles declares Historic Filipinotown". Archived from the original on January 27, 2007. 
  • Filipino Cannery Unionism Across Three Generations 1930s–1980s, Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project
  • Manilamen: The Filipino Roots in America (archived from the original on 2008-05-14)
  • Pinoy in the War of 1812
  • Filipino Veterans of War of 1812 and American Civil War (archived from the original on 2007-02-06)
  • History of Filipino Americans in Chicago
  • Census 2000 Brief: The Asian Population: 2000
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