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Hungary–Romania relations

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Title: Hungary–Romania relations  
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Hungary–Romania relations

Hungarian-Romanian relations
Map indicating locations of Hungary and Romania

Hungary

Romania

Hungarian-Romanian relations are foreign relations between Hungary and Romania. Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1920. Even so, historic conflicts still living inside both nations as they still claim its territory as their territory, notable is Transylvania.

Bilateral relations

Hungary has an embassy in Bucharest, three general consulates (in Cluj-Napoca, Miercurea-Ciuc and Constanța) and three honorary consulates (in Constanța, Iași and Drobeta-Turnu Severin).[1] Romania has an embassy in Budapest and two general consulates (in Gyula and Szeged). The two countries share 443 km of common border. Both are full members of NATO and of the European Union.

Romania has developed strong relations with Hungary, with the latter playing a key role in supporting Romania's bid to join the EU. Romania's ethnic Hungarian party also participated in all the government coalitions between 1996 and 2008 and from 2009. In 1996, Romania signed and ratified a basic bilateral treaty with Hungary that settled outstanding disagreements, laying the foundation for closer, more cooperative relations.

Business

In 2012, the total amount of international trade between Romania and Hungary was 7.3 billion euro, of which exports from Romania were 2.4 billion euro, whereas exports from Hungary were 4.9 billion euro.[2] Hungary ranks as the third of Romania's trade partners, after Germany and Italy.[3]

MOL Group and OTP Bank, two of Hungary's largest companies,[4] are present in Romania since 2003 and 2004 respectively.[5][6] MOL Group operates (as of August 2013) a network of 138 fuel stations in Romania, which accounts for approximately 10 percent of the total network. OTP Bank has a widespread network of branches in Romania, with presence in every county.[7]

Wizz Air is a low-cost airline from Hungary, which operates flights from several airports in Romania (Bucharest, Cluj-Napoca, Târgu Mureș, Sibiu, Timișoara and Craiova) to various destinations in Europe.[8] It is the largest low-cost airline operating in Romania,[9] and in 2013 it carried 3.2 million passengers on its over 72 local routes.[10]

RCS & RDS, Romania's leading company in internet and cable and satellite television services, is arguably the second or third company on the television market in Hungary, with (as of August 2013) around 22.4 percent of market share.[11]

Sports

In ice hockey, teams from the two countries, as well as from Slovakia, compete in the MOL Liga. The competition was established in 2008 and comprises four teams from Hungary, two from Romania and one from Slovakia.[12]

Conflict

Despite having a relationship, many Hungarians still believe that Romania did not deserve the current territory. Hungarian people in Transylvania consider that its belonged to Hungary. Some of Hungarian-Romanian conflicts still happen when in Transylvania some Hungarian families still raise the flag of Hungary. But it was still in nominal. In history, Hungary, as part of Austria-Hungary, invaded Romania in 1916 and controlling Bucharest until the collapse of the Empire in 1918.

Hungarian-Romanian War

Hungarian-Romanian War started in 1918 when the communist Hungarians threatened Transylvania under Romanian rule. Romania launched the invasion and finally defeated Hungary. Romanian troops stayed in Budapest until moving out in 1919, but it was the paining signs for every Hungarian people.

World War II

In the World War II, Hungary and Romania were allies against Soviet Union. But after Hungarians got North-Transylvania back (with the help of Nazi Germany), Romania betrayed Hungary.

Revival of Hungarian nationalism

In 2009, Fidesz - a nationalist party, gained huge victory in Hungary. The Fidesz leaders rebuilt the Hungarian nationalism back to every Hungarians in the world, including Transylvania. It started threatening to Romania when Hungarians started to vote for an independence Transylvania out from Romania. After the 2014 Crimean crisis which Crimea later annexed by Russia, Hungarians in Transylvania began for "voting for Transylvania independence". It's becoming a threat for Romania.

Football incidents

In 2014 World Cup qualifying, Romania and Hungary for the first time shared same in one group. Romania eventually drew 2-2 in Budapest before smashing Hungary 3-0 at home. In the match held in Ferenc Puskas Stadium, FIFA had banned fans come to the stadium to avoid the conflict. But in Arena Nationala, Hungarians booed Romanian anthem and burned flares in everywhere. Meanwhile Romanians also did the same. After Hungary lost 0-3, Hungarian fans were quickly transported back home to prevent any conflict, but Hungarian fans clashed with both Romanian fans and polices.

In UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying, they were drawn to the same group, again. And like the WC qualifying, Hungarians and Romanians threw flares, booed its anthem. But like the previous meeting, the fans from two teams started fighting and making violence in the stadium.

Romanian fans famous action when facing Hungary was raising the sign "1918", meant the year when Romania got Transylvania out from Hungary, and also Hungary's defeat.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.mae.ro/bilateral-relations/1748
  2. ^ http://www.business24.ro/macroeconomie/exporturi/exporturile-romaniei-catre-ungaria-s-au-dublat-in-ultimii-patru-ani-dar-raman-la-jumatatea-importurilor-1532009
  3. ^ http://www.dce.gov.ro/Comunicate/com_2013/26_nov_ung.htm
  4. ^ http://www.zf.ro/business-international/top-500-companii-europene-in-functie-de-capitalizarea-bursiera-opt-sunt-poloneze-trei-din-cehia-si-doua-din-ungaria-niciuna-din-romania-11146281/
  5. ^ http://www.zf.ro/companii/mol-a-alocat-12-mil-euro-pentru-integrarea-statiilor-shell-2891691/
  6. ^ http://www.otpbank.ro/ro/despre-noi/otp-bank-romania/istoric/
  7. ^ http://www.otpbank.ro/ro/despre-noi/retea-interna/lista-sucursale/sucursale/index.html
  8. ^ https://wizzair.com/ro-RO/Country/RO
  9. ^ http://www.wall-street.ro/tag/wizz-air.html
  10. ^ http://www.zf.ro/companii/wizz-air-a-transportat-anul-trecut-3-2-mil-pasageri-din-si-spre-romania-in-crestere-cu-14-11862392
  11. ^ http://www.wall-street.ro/articol/IT-C-Tehnologie/152401/cum-arata-piata-de-tv-din-ungaria-o-tara-in-care-noul-sef-al-liderului-in-domeniu-este-romanca-severina-pascu.html
  12. ^ http://eurohockey.com/league/409-mol-liga.html

External links

  • Hungarian embassy in Bucharest
  • Hungarian general consulate in Miercurea-Ciuc
  • Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Hungary
  • Romanian embassy in Budapest
  • Romanian general consulate in Szeged (in Romamian only)
  • Romanian general consulate in Gyula
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