World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Imperial and Royal

Article Id: WHEBN0000892544
Reproduction Date:

Title: Imperial and Royal  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Austria-Hungary, Cisleithania, Belvedere, Vienna, Kaiserjäger, Minister of War (Austria-Hungary)
Collection: Austria-Hungary, German Words and Phrases
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Imperial and Royal

The medium Imperial and Royal coat of arms of Austria-Hungary (as of 1915)
Map of imperial Austria (Cisleithania, in pink) and royal Hungary (Transleithania, in green), with Bosnia as a common condominium

The German phrase kaiserlich und königlich (pronounced , Imperial and Royal), typically abbreviated as k. u. k., k. und k., k. & k. in German (in all cases the "und" is always spoken unabbreviated), cs. és k. (császári és királyi) in Hungarian, c. a k. (císařský a královský) in Czech, C. i K. (Cesarski i Królewski) in Polish, c. in k. (cesarski in kraljevski) in Slovenian, c. i kr. (carski i kraljevski) in Croatian, and I.R. (imperial regio) in Italian, refers to the Court of the Habsburgs in a broader historical perspective (see below). Some modern authors restrict its use to the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918. During that period, it indicated that the Habsburg monarch reigned simultaneously as the Emperor of Austria and as the King of Hungary, while the two territories were joined in a real union (akin to a two-state federation in this instance). The acts of the common government, which only was responsible for the Imperial & Royal ("I&R") Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the I&R Ministry of War and the I&R Ministry of Finance (financing only the two other ministries), were carried out in the name of "His Imperial and Royal Majesty" and the central governmental bodies had their names prefixed with k. u. k.


  • Symbolic employment of und or u. 1
  • Other uses 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Symbolic employment of und or u.

Before 1867, the territories under the control of the Habsburg monarch in Vienna used kaiserlich und königlich[1][2][3][4] or the hyphenated kaiserlich-königlich interchangeably. Neither of the spellings defined a hierarchy among the Habsburg dynastic kingdoms, principalities, duchies, and other bodies politic. The Habsburg monarchs ruled the kingdoms of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia as their Kings. The title Emperor applied to their role as heads of the conglomerate of the mostly German states called the Holy Roman Empire until 1806. The same title, Emperor, came to identify their role as rulers of the newly named Austrian Empire that the Habsburgs attributed so from 11 August 1804.

After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Hungarians insisted on the und ("and"), not the hyphen, in all usage in line with the new autonomous status of the kingdom within the Habsburg lands. Use of the phrase "Kaiserlich und königlich" was decreed in a letter written by the Emperor on October 17, 1889[5] for the military, the navy and the institutions shared by both parts of the empire.[6] Subsequently, the abbreviation k.k. only referred to the institutions of the "Austrian" part of Austria-Hungary (Cisleithania). The abbreviation m.k. (Hungarian: magyar királyi), or kgl. ung. (German: königlich ungarisch), both meaning "Royal Hungarian", was applied in reference to the governmental bodies of the Kingdom of Hungary (Transleithania).

In official documents, the abbreviation used provides information on the lands targeted:

  • k.k. or k.-k., meaning "imperial (Austria) – royal (Bohemia)", pertains to the Austrian Empire before 1867 and to the Austrian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867–1918
  • k.u.k., meaning "imperial (Austria) and royal (Hungary)", pertains to the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867–1918

Other uses

The ubiquity of this phrase in all administrative matters made it a synonym for the Habsburg administration, sometimes referred to as the "k. u. k. monarchy" in Central European publications through the present. Other languages of the Habsburg Monarchy retained the German abbreviation or used it interchangeably with their own − c. i kr. in Croatian, c. a k. or c.-k. in Czech, cs. és kir. in Hungarian, I.R. in Italian, c. i k. or C.K. in Polish, often hyphenated (cezaro-crăiesc) in Romanian, c. a k. in Slovak, c. kr. in Slovenian.

The abbreviation k.k. gave rise to the noun Kakania (spelling out the letter K [kah] twice as well as reminiscent of caca in the Central European languages). It was intended to describe the Habsburg Monarchy as a state of mind, bureaucratic and with a highly stratified formal society. A discussion of Kakania became a highlight of the first volume of Robert Musil's novel The Man Without Qualities (1930).

See also


  1. ^ Franz Christoph von Scheyb, Heinrich Jasomirgott eine Lobschrift auf ihre kaiserliche und königliche Majestäten... Vienna, 1756.
  2. ^ Renatus Karl von Senkenberg and Karl Christian von Senkenberg, An Ihro Kaiserliche und Königliche Majestät allerunterthänigster Gegenbericht [...] unter dem 30. Mai 1796 eingegebenen Bericht. Giessen, 1797.
  3. ^ Ignaz Franz von Mosel, Geschichte der Kaiserliche und Königliche Hofbibliothek zu Wien. Vienna, 1835.
  4. ^ [s.n.], Historische Märsche und sonstige Compositionen für das kaiserliche und königliche Heer. Instrumentirt für vollständige Militär-Musik. Vom k. u. k. Reichs-Kriegs-Ministerium autorisierte Ausgabe. Vienna, 1845.
  5. ^ The given year 1889 could be a typing error; 1869 would be appropriate.
  6. ^ From the Otto's encyclopedia (published during 1888-1909), subject 'King', online in Czech.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.