World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Jubilee line

Jubilee line
Type Deep Tube
System London Underground
Stations 27
Ridership 213.554 million (2011/12) [1] passenger journeys
Colour on map Grey [2]
Opened 1979
Depot(s) Neasden, Stratford Market[3]
Rolling stock 1996 Tube Stock
7 carriages per trainset
Line length 36.2 km (22.5 mi)
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Transport for London rail lines
London Underground
Hammersmith & City
Waterloo & City
Other lines
Docklands Light Railway
TfL Rail

The Jubilee line is a London Underground line. Opened in 1979, it is the newest line on the network (though some sections of track date back to 1932 and some stations to 1879). At its northern end, it took over what was previously the Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line, while the new build was completed in two major sections: initially in 1979 to Charing Cross tube station in central London; then extended in 1999 with the Jubilee Line Extension to Stratford station in east London. The later stations are larger and have special safety features, both aspects being attempts to future-proof the line. Following the extension into East London, serving areas once poorly connected to the Underground, the line has seen a huge growth in passenger numbers and is currently the third busiest on the network, with over 213 million passengers per year. Thirteen of the 27 stations served are below ground.

The Jubilee line is coloured silver/grey on the Tube map, to mark the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II after which the line was named.

Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park, the Jubilee line shares its route with the Metropolitan line and Chiltern Main Line. Between Canning Town and Stratford, the line runs parallel to the Stratford International extension of the DLR.


  • History 1
    • 1932 to 1939 1.1
    • 1939 to 1979, the Fleet line 1.2
    • Proposed extensions 1.3
    • Actual extension 1.4
  • Current Jubilee line 2
    • Station features 2.1
    • Rolling stock 2.2
    • 7th car upgrade 2.3
    • Signalling system 2.4
  • Future 3
    • Service Frequency 3.1
    • 24 hour weekend service 3.2
    • Thamesmead branch 3.3
    • West Hampstead Interchange 3.4
  • Map 4
  • Stations 5
    • Former stations 5.1
  • Depots 6
  • Gallery 7
  • Maps 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11


1932 to 1939

In 1932, the Metropolitan Railway built a branch from its main line at Wembley Park to Stanmore. The line, as with many others in the northwest London area, was designed to absorb commuter traffic from the new and rapidly expanding suburbs. The line presented the Metropolitan with a problem – so successful was the suburban traffic that, by the early 1930s, the lines into Baker Street were becoming overloaded, a problem which was exacerbated by the post-war flight from the City of London to the West End of London.

At first, the Metropolitan had advocated a new underground line roughly following the line of the Edgware Road between the tube station and a point near Willesden Green. Indeed, construction advanced as far as the rebuilding of Edgware Road station to accommodate 4 platforms of 8-car length. Things changed, though, with the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board (LPTB) and the subsequent absorption of the Metropolitan. The solution was now a new branch of the Bakerloo line from Baker Street to serve new stations at St. John's Wood and Swiss Cottage, thereby rendering the existing stations of Lord's, Marlborough Road and Swiss Cottage on the parallel route redundant, and negating the need for the Met's extension from Edgware Road station. It was originally proposed that Swiss Cottage (Metropolitan) would remain open during peak hours for interchange with the Bakerloo, and that Lord's station would open for special cricketing events, but both were closed permanently as wartime economies. The new line rose between the Metropolitan tracks at Finchley Road, providing cross-platform interchange with the Metropolitan line. Continuing north to Wembley Park, the new Bakerloo was to provide intermediate service on the Metropolitan line, allowing Metropolitan line trains to run non-stop between Finchley Road and Wembley Park, cutting seven minutes from journey times. At Wembley Park, the new Bakerloo would run on to serve Kingsbury, Queensbury, Canons Park and Stanmore, taking over the former Metropolitan branch. The Bakerloo extension, built as above, opened in 1939.

1939 to 1979, the Fleet line

The planning for the Tube network immediately before and after World War II considered several new routes. The main results of this study concerned two major routes: the south-to-northeast "line C" (later constructed as the Victoria line) and lines 3 and 4, new cross-town routes, linking the northeast suburbs to Fenchurch Street, Wapping and variously Lewisham and Hayes.

The Fleet line was mentioned in a 1965 Times article, discussing options after the Victoria line had been completed — suggesting that the Fleet line could take a Baker Street–Bond Street–Trafalgar Square–Strand–Fleet Street–Ludgate Circus–Cannon Street route, then proceeding into southeast London.[4]

Line C opened as the Victoria line, in stages, from 1968 to 1972. Work on the northeast–southwest route continued.

In 1971, construction began on the new 'Fleet line'. Economic pressure and doubt over the final destination of the line had led to a staged approach. Under the first stage, the Baker Street-to-Stanmore branch of the Bakerloo line was joined at Baker Street to a new 2.5-mile (4 km) segment into central London, with intermediate stops at Bond Street and Green Park and terminating at a new station at Charing Cross, thereby relieving pressure on the West End section of the Bakerloo line between Baker Street and Charing Cross and also allowing increased frequencies on the section north of Baker Street.

1983 Stock train at Kilburn in 1988

The new tube was to offer cross-platform interchange between the Bakerloo and Fleet at Baker Street, as pioneered on the Victoria line. The work was completed in 1979. As part of the works, Trafalgar Square (Bakerloo) and Strand (Northern) stations were combined into a single station complex, Charing Cross. The existing Charing Cross station on the sub-surface District and Circle lines was renamed Embankment.

The new line was to have been called the Fleet line[5] after the River Fleet (although it would only have crossed under the Fleet at Ludgate Circus; the central London section mostly follows the Tyburn). In 1975, when plans were under way to introduce the London Transport Silver Jubilee Bus fleet, the then Sales Manager of London Transport Advertising, Geoffrey Holliman, proposed to the Chairman of LTE, Kenneth Robinson, that the Fleet line should be renamed the Jubilee line. However, this idea was rejected because of the additional costs involved. Nevertheless, the project was subsequently renamed the Jubilee line for Queen Elizabeth II's 1977 Silver Jubilee following a pledge made by the Conservatives in the Greater London Council election of 1977. The original choice of battleship grey for the line's colour was based on the naval meaning of the word fleet; this became a lighter grey, representing the silver colour of the Jubilee itself.

The line was officially opened by the Prince of Wales on 30 April 1979, with passenger services operating from 1 May 1979.[6][7]

Proposed extensions

The Jubilee line of 1979 was to be the first of four phases of the project, but lack of funds meant that no further progress was made until the late 1990s.

An alternative plan was devised in the 1970s to extend the Jubilee line parallel to the River Thames: this would have taken the line from Fenchurch Street to Thamesmead via St Katharine Docks, Wapping, Surrey Docks North, Millwall (near to South Quay DLR station), North Greenwich, Custom House, Silvertown, Woolwich Arsenal, and thence to Thamesmead. The depot would have been at Beckton, roughly on the site of the current Docklands Light Railway depot. However the 'River line', as this extension was called, was deemed too expensive and construction of the extension never proceeded.

Actual extension

Changes in land use, particularly the urban renewal of the Docklands area, resulted in the project to extend the line beyond Charing Cross being changed considerably in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. The Jubilee Line Extension, as the eventual project became known, opened in three stages in 1999. It split from the existing line at Green Park, creating a one-station branch to Charing Cross which is now closed (though still maintained for reversing trains at times of disruption, and for occasional use as a film set). The line extends as far as Stratford, with ten intermediate stations. This section is unique on the London Underground because it is the only section to have special platform edge doors which open automatically when trains arrive.

There have been other proposals to extend the line serving the docks.[8]

Current Jubilee line

Having been open since 1979, the Jubilee line is the newest line of the London Underground network. The trains were upgraded in 1997 to the 1996 stock. In 1999, trains began running to Stratford instead of Charing Cross, serving areas once poorly connected to the London Underground network.

Station features

Jubilee line stations north of Baker Street were not built specifically for the Jubilee line. St. John's Wood and Swiss Cottage stations were opened in 1939 on the then-new Bakerloo line branch and have more traditional tube station features. Stations north of Finchley Road were opened by the Metropolitan Railway (now the Metropolitan line), but they became part of the Bakerloo in 1939, with only Wembley Park being shared with the Metropolitan. Then, the Jubilee line took over the whole of the Bakerloo line service between Baker Street and Stanmore. The only 'new' stations built for the original Jubilee line were the Baker Street westbound platform (eastbound opened in 1939), Bond Street, Green Park and the now-closed Charing Cross.

Stations on the Jubilee Line Extension feature:

The platform screen doors were introduced primarily to prevent draughts underground and to assist in air flow. They also prevent people from falling or jumping onto the track.

Rolling stock

1996 tube stock driving car
1996 tube stock trailer car
1996 tube stock at Stratford Station

When the Jubilee line was opened, it was operated by 1972 stock. In 1984 this was partially replaced by the new 1983 stock: the displaced 1972 stock was transferred to the Bakerloo line. The 1983 stock proved to be unreliable and troublesome in service, with single-leaf doors making passenger loading and unloading a slower process than on other stock with wider door openings. With the construction of the Jubilee line Extension, the opportunity was taken to introduce new trains, and today the line is worked by 1996 stock, which has an exterior similar to the 1995 stock in use on the Northern line but (in spite of the confusing naming) is technically less advanced. The new stock has internal displays and automated announcements to provide passengers with information on the train's route. At first the displayed text was static and showed only the destination of the train, but later showed also the name of the next station and interchanges there. Subsequent modifications introduced scrolling text. The 1996 stock uses a different motor from the 1995 stock and has a motor design similar to Class 465 and Class 466 Networker trains.

7th car upgrade

The Jubilee line closed for a five days from 26 December 2005 in order to add an extra car to each six-car train.[9] The line had to be closed as six-car and seven-car trains could not run in service at the same time, because the platform-edge doors at Jubilee Line Extension stations could not cater for both train lengths simultaneously. The signalling system was also modified to work with the longer trains.

Previously, an extra four complete 7-car trains had been added to the fleet, bringing the total to 63. This enabled the period during which a full service could be run to be increased. The full fleet will not be required to be available until full advantage is taken of the new signalling system.

The result of the 7th-car upgrade was a 17% increase in capacity, allowing 6,000 more passengers per hour to use the line. Work was completed and the line reopened two days ahead of schedule, on 29 December 2005.

Signalling system

The Jubilee line has been converted to automatic train operation, using the Thales S40 moving block system. The new system enables London Underground to run more frequent trains, increase capacity by a further 33 per cent, and cut journey times by around 22 percent.[10] Equipment installation and testing for the new systems began in late 2006, and the line upgrade work required the closure of sections of the Jubilee line each weekend during 2009. Although the project was due for completion in March 2010, the closures continued through 2010, and the upgrade was not finished until spring 2011. The new signalling system finally came into full operation on 26 June 2011. As a result, services began operating at the new higher frequency of 27 trains per hour from late July 2011, and this should increase to 30 per hour in 2012.[11]

Under automatic operation, the on-train computer instructs the train what to do. The underlying protection and control system is called TBTC, which stands for Transmission-Based Train Control. The computer does everything except opening and closing the doors, starting the train at every station, mending faults and dealing with passengers. If ATO fails but TBTC is still operational, the trains can still be manually driven at line speed under PM (Protected Manual) conditions. Due to the fact that the train receives lots of updates in a short time, it is considered impossible for the driver to drive in this mode in regular service, and the train will be taken out of service and moved off the line as quickly as possible. If TBTC fails on an individual train then it would be put into Restricted Manual mode, which means that the train operator can drive the train at 5–10 mph (8–16 km/h) to the next station, where the train would be taken out of service until the fault is mended by technicians. If the whole TBTC system fails the line can still operate at a top speed of 16 km/h using an auxiliary signal and track circuit system. The signals and track circuits only activate when the TBTC system has failed, and are normally dark.

The system uses two track loops, one to send instructions to the train, and the other to send updates from the train to the control centre. The two loops cross over approximately every 25m, and each 25m section is subdivided into 4 further sections, effectively creating 1600 virtual 'blocks' in every kilometre of track. These loops create mild interference that allows the train to tell when it has passed over one, but not to the extent that the system may be compromised. The system allows trains to get up to 50m away from each other while both are moving at very low speeds, but does not allow bi-directional or "wrong way running". A train has to be put into restricted manual to run the wrong way along a track. There are exceptions, such as the sidings north of Wembley Park and West Hampstead, and a small area around Stratford Market Depot where the track becomes "locked out" to any other train but the one given a movement authority. Trains constantly receive speed instructions based on the train's odometers presumed position, however they receive definite instructions once they report and have passed over a track loop. S40 does not allow speeds higher than 108 km/h, and the 1996 stock had to be upgraded slightly so it could use the new equipment, the most significant of which was a new Vehicle On Board Computer.

The programme of temporary closures for engineering work had been criticised by local politicians[12] as well as by the management of venues such as Wembley Stadium and The O2 because visitors to major concerts and sporting events have had to travel by rail replacement bus.[13][14] The management of the project by Tube Lines has been criticised by London TravelWatch for its delayed delivery date,[15] and a report by the London Assembly referred to the weekly line closures as "chaotic".[16][17]


Service Frequency

When the Jubilee line was upgraded with a new signalling system allowing Automatic Train Operation on the line, the service frequency increased from 24tph to 30tph for 90 minutes during the peak period. London Underground now plans to increase the frequency to 36tph by 2019, enabling one train every 100 seconds between North Greenwich and West Hampstead, with 27tph in off-peak periods between Willesden Green and Stratford. This will allow the line to handle the additional passengers expected to use the line particularly from the West End, City and Docklands and the Stratford area.[18]

24 hour weekend service

It was planned that from Saturday 12 September 2015, there would be a 24-hour service on Friday and Saturday nights on the entire Jubilee line as part of the new Night Tube service pattern.[19] However this has been postponed due to an ongoing dispute between Transport for London and rail unions.

Thamesmead branch

When North Greenwich tube station was opened, it was built to enable a branch extension to be built eastwards to Thamesmead. At present there are no plans to construct this branch route.

West Hampstead Interchange

Plans were put forward in 1974 and again in 2004 for a West Hampstead interchange, to connect the three West Hampstead stations in one complex, but plans were put on hold in 2007 owing to uncertainty over the North London Line rail franchise.[20] While no connections in the form of railway infrastructure exist, the three stations at West Hampstead form part of an "out of station" interchange in the Oyster system thus continuing similar (but little-publicised) interchange arrangements in existence since before nationalisation.


Geographical path of the Jubilee line


Jubilee line
Stanmore sidings
Canons Park
Metropolitan line
Wembley Park
Dollis Hill
Willesden Green
West Hampstead
Finchley Road
Metropolitan line
Swiss Cottage
St. John's Wood
link to Bakerloo line
southbound tunnel
Baker Street
link from Bakerloo line
northbound tunnel
Bond Street
Green Park
Charing Cross
Line ends short of Aldwych
River Thames
London Bridge
Canada Water
River Thames
Canary Wharf
River Thames
North Greenwich
provision for branch to the
Royal Docks and Thamesmead
River Thames
Canning Town
West Ham
Stratford Market depot
Notice explaining about step-free access. This can be found inside every Jubilee line train.
Station Image Opened Additional information
Stanmore Handicapped/disabled access 10 December 1932
Canons Park 10 December 1932 Opened as Canons Park (Edgware); renamed 1933
Queensbury 16 December 1934
Kingsbury Handicapped/disabled access 10 December 1932
Wembley Park[1] Handicapped/disabled access 14 October 1893 Change for the Metropolitan line
Neasden[2] 2 August 1880
Dollis Hill[2] 1 October 1909
Willesden Green[2] 24 November 1879
Kilburn[2] Handicapped/disabled access 24 November 1879 Opened as Kilburn & Brondesbury; renamed 25 September 1950
West Hampstead[2] 30 June 1879
Finchley Road[2] 30 June 1879 Change for the Metropolitan line
Swiss Cottage 20 November 1939
St. John's Wood 20 November 1939
Baker Street 1 May 1979 Change for the Bakerloo, Circle, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines
Bond Street 1 May 1979 Change for the Central line
Green Park Handicapped/disabled access 1 May 1979 Change for the Piccadilly and Victoria lines
Westminster Handicapped/disabled access 22 December 1999 Change for the Circle and District lines
Waterloo Handicapped/disabled access 24 September 1999 Change for the Bakerloo, Northern and Waterloo & City lines
Southwark ( Waterloo East) Handicapped/disabled access 20 November 1999
London Bridge ( Trains to Gatwick) Handicapped/disabled access 7 October 1999 Change for the Northern line
Bermondsey Handicapped/disabled access 17 September 1999
Canada Water Handicapped/disabled access 17 September 1999 Change for the London Overground East London Line
Canary Wharf Handicapped/disabled access 17 September 1999 Change for the Docklands Light Railway
North Greenwich Emirates Air Line Handicapped/disabled access 14 May 1999 Change for the Emirates Air Line from Emirates Greenwich Peninsula
Canning Town[3] Handicapped/disabled access 14 May 1999 Change for the Docklands Light Railway
West Ham[3] Handicapped/disabled access 14 May 1999 Change for the District and Hammersmith & City lines and Docklands Light Railway
Stratford[3] Handicapped/disabled access 14 May 1999 Change for the Central line, the London Overground North London Line, TfL Rail and Docklands Light Railway
  1. ^ At Wembley Park, there are six tracks, but Jubilee line trains only use the two innermost tracks.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Between Finchley Road and Wembley Park, the Jubilee line right of way widens to four tracks. Jubilee line trains run on the two inner tracks. Flanking the Jubilee line are tracks used by the Metropolitan line. Metropolitan line trains run non-stop from Finchley Road to Wembley Park, skipping West Hampstead, Kilburn, Willesden Green, Dollis Hill and Neasden stations. Willesden Green and Neasden stations have platforms on the Metropolitan line tracks, but Metropolitan line trains call there only when normal working is disrupted or on irregular occasions when local events can cause a heavy increase in use of the stations.
  3. ^ a b c From Canning Town to Stratford low level, the Jubilee line right-of-way widens to four tracks. The Jubilee line trains use the two western tracks. Directly parallel to the line is the Docklands Light Railway Stratford International extension. Jubilee line trains make stops at Canning Town and West Ham, but bypass Star Lane, Abbey Road and Stratford High Street stations.

Former stations

The Jubilee line platforms at Charing Cross are still used during service suspensions. For example, - when the service is suspended between Green Park and Stratford, trains will terminate (and passengers alight) at Green Park before going to Charing Cross and using a scissors crossover to reverse back westbound. The platforms are a popular set for films and television because the platforms are contemporary and the trains used are current ones that appear in normal passenger service.


The Jubilee line is currently served by Stratford Market Depot between the Stratford and West Ham stations.[21]

Trains can also be stabled in Neasden Depot - sharing it with the Metropolitan line.


Interior of a 1996 Stock train on the Jubilee line 
1996 tube stock units stabled at Stratford Market Depot 
A Jubilee line train calls at Canary Wharf station 
The ticket hall of Canary Wharf station 

Additional images are available from the Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) case studies for the stations at Canary Wharf,[22] North Greenwich,[23] Southwark,[24] and Stratford.[25]


  • ^map 1 Stanmore –
  • ^map 2 Canons Park –
  • ^map 3 Queensbury –
  • ^map 4 Kingsbury –
  • ^map 5 Wembley Park –
  • ^map 6 Neasden –
  • ^map 7 Dollis Hill –
  • ^map 8 Willesden Green –
  • ^map 9 Kilburn –
  • ^map 10 West Hampstead –
  • ^map 11 Finchley Road –
  • ^map 12 Swiss Cottage –
  • ^map 13 St. John's Wood –
  • ^map 14 Baker Street –
  • ^map 15 Bond Street –
  • ^map 16 Green Park –
  • ^map 17 Westminster –
  • ^map 18 Waterloo –
  • ^map 19 Southwark –
  • ^map 20 London Bridge –
  • ^map 21 Bermondsey –
  • ^map 22 Canada Water –
  • ^map 23 Canary Wharf –
  • ^map 24 North Greenwich –
  • ^map 25 Canning Town –
  • ^map 26 West Ham –
  • ^map 27 Stratford –
  • ^map 28 Neasden Depot –
  • ^map 29 Stratford Market Depot –

See also


  1. ^ "LU Performance Data Almanac".  
  2. ^ Corporate Grey (Pantone 430)
  3. ^ "London Underground Key Facts". Transport for London. Retrieved 21 May 2008. 
  4. ^ "More Tube lines discussed: Easing travel load". The Times (London). 27 April 1965. p. 7. 
  5. ^ Willis, Jon (1999). Extending the Jubilee Line: The planning story. London Transport.  
  6. ^ "Jubilee Line, Dates". Clive's Underground Line Guides. Retrieved 12 February 2008. 
  7. ^ Rose, Douglas (1999). The London Underground, A Diagrammatic History. London: Douglas Rose/Capital Transport.  
  8. ^ "Starting from scratch: The development of transport in London Docklands". London Docklands Development Corporation. 1997. 
  9. ^ "Travel advice for the festive season" (Press release). Transport for London. 19 December 2005. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  10. ^ "Tube upgrade plan: Jubilee line". Transport for London. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 
  11. ^ "More trains are finally running on LU's Jubilee Line". Rail (Peterborough). 10 August 2011. p. 17. 
  12. ^ "Don't close our community off at the weekends, please". Ed Fordham blog. 19 August 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009. 
  13. ^ Murray, Dick (9 October 2009). "Jubilee line closures to go on next year". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  14. ^ Barney, Katharine; Singh, Amar (20 May 2009). "O2 not thrilled as Jubilee line shuts for Michael Jackson's big tour". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  15. ^ "Comment on Jubilee Line delays". London TravelWatch. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  16. ^ "'"Tube crowds 'at shocking levels. BBC News. 1 December 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2009. 
  17. ^ "Too close for comfort: Passengers' experiences of the London Underground" (PDF). London Assembly Transport Committee. December 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 4 December 2009. 
  18. ^ "Jubilee Line World Class Capacity" (PDF). TfL. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2015. 
  19. ^ TfL Night Tube Map
  20. ^ Chambers, Charlotte (15 March 2007). "Station interchange plans put on hold". Camden New Journal (London). Retrieved 29 July 2008. 
  21. ^ "Jubilee line facts".  
  22. ^ "Canary Wharf Underground Station". Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE). Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  23. ^ "North Greenwich Underground Station". Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE). Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  24. ^ "Southwark Underground Station". Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE). Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 
  25. ^ "Stratford Station". Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE). Archived from the original on 18 January 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2008. 

External links

  • "Photographic Archive". London Transport Museum. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
    • Official opening of Jubilee line
  • "Jubilee line facts". Transport for London. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  • "Jubilee Line". Clive's Underground Line Guides. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  • Saint, Andrew (20 January 2000). "The Jubilee Line Extension". London Review of Books. Retrieved 11 July 2008. 
  • "Jubilee line extension". Retrieved 11 July 2008.  (photo gallery)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.