World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Kanazukai

Article Id: WHEBN0008720934
Reproduction Date:

Title: Kanazukai  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Yotsugana, Hiragana, Japanese irregular verbs, Sanuki dialect, Ibaraki dialect
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Kanazukai

Kanazukai (仮名遣, "kana usage/use") are the orthographic rules for spelling Japanese in kana. All phonographic systems (of which kana is an example) attempt to account accurately the pronunciation in their spellings. However, pronunciation and accents change over time and phonemic distinctions are often lost. Various systems of kanazukai were introduced to deal with the disparity between the written and spoken versions of Japanese.

Historical systems

The former mainstream kana usage, or the Kyū-Kanazukai (旧仮名遣, "old kanazukai"), is based on classical texts, especially man'yōgana. Created by Keichū in the early Edo period, it is also known as the Keichū Kanazukai. It was the mainstream kanazukai until the Gendai Kanazukai was introduced in 1946.

There were other minor systems throughout history that are now defunct:

  • Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai: a modified Man'yōgana where /e, ye/ are distinct.
  • Teika Kanazukai: created by Fujiwara no Teika, it distinguishes between /wo, o/, /i, hi, wi/, /e, we, he/, and also (to a lesser degree) /e, ye/. /wo, o/ were used to express high and low accent, respectively.
  • Gyōa Kanazukai (Kanamojizukai): created by Minamoto no Chikayuki and Gyōa, which expanded on the Teika Kanazukai by distinguishing between /ho/, /wa, ha/, /u, hu/, and /mu/. /wo, o/ are still used to distinguish between high and low accent. However, the distinction between /e, ye/ is obliterated.

Gendai Kanazukai

Derived from the Kyū-Kanazukai, it is a revision to better approximate modern pronunciation that is still used currently. As an adaption of the Kyū-Kanazukai, it is still not entirely phonetic, especially in respect to long vowels and particles.

See also

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.