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King of Portugal and the Algarves

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Title: King of Portugal and the Algarves  
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Subject: Afonso III of Portugal, Afonso IV of Portugal, Afonso V of Portugal, Afonso VI of Portugal, 1707, Pedro I of Brazil, Manuel I of Portugal, John II of Portugal, John V of Portugal, John IV of Portugal
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King of Portugal and the Algarves

King of Portugal and the Algarves
Former Monarchy
Royal Coat of arms
El-Rei D. Manuel II
First monarch D. Afonso I
Last monarch D. Manuel II
Style Style of the Portuguese sovereign
Appointer Hereditary
Monarchy began 25 July 1139
Monarchy ended 5 October 1910
Current pretender(s) Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza

The Monarchs of Portugal ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of Portugal, in 1139, to the deposition of the Portuguese monarchy and creation of the Portuguese Republic with the 5 October 1910 revolution.

Through the nearly 800 years which Portugal was a monarchy, the kings held various other titles and pretensions. Two Kings of Portugal, Ferdinand I and Afonso V, also claimed the crown of Castile. When the House of Habsburg came into power, the Kings of Spain, and Naples, also became Kings of Portugal. The House of Braganza brought numerous titles to the Portuguese Crown, including King of Brazil and then Emperor of Brazil.

After the demise of the Portuguese monarchy, in 1910, Portugal almost restored its monarchy in a revolution known as the Monarchy of the North, though the attempted restoration only lasted a month before destruction. With Manuel II's death, the Miguelist branch of the House of Braganza became the pretenders to the throne of Portugal. They have all been acclaimed King of Portugal by their monarchist groups. This is purely symbolic and no one can have a place among the Kings of Portugal unless they were acclaimed by the Portuguese state and parliament. The Portuguese government states that the current representative of the House of Braganza, Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, is the legitimate successor to the Kings of Portugal, but only recognizes him as Duke of Braganza and not King.

The monarchs of Portugal all came from a single ancestor, Afonso I Henriques, but direct lines have sometimes ended. This has led to a variety of royal houses coming to rule Portugal, though all having Portuguese royal lineage. These houses are:

House of Burgundy (1139–1383)

The House of Burgundy, known as the Afonsine Dynasty, was the founding house of the Kingdom of Portugal. Prior to the independence of Portugal, the house ruled the feudal County of Portugal, of the Kingdom of Galicia. When Afonso I Henriques declared the independence of Portugal, he turned the family from a comital house to royal house which would rule Portugal for over two centuries. When Ferdinand I died, a succession crisis occurred and Ferdinand's daughter Beatrice of Portugal was proclaimed queen and her husband John I of Castile proclaimed king by the right of his wife. Her legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.[1][2]

House of Aviz (1385-1580)

The House of Aviz, known as the Joanine Dynasty, succeeded the House of Burgundy as the reigning house of the Kingdom of Portugal. The house was founded by John I of Portugal, who was the Grand Master of the Order of Aviz. When King John II of Portugal died without an heir and the throne of Portugal passed to his cousin, Manuel, Duke of Beja. When King Sebastian I of Portugal died and the throne passed to his uncle, Henry I of Portugal. When Henry I died, a succession crisis occurred and António, Prior of Crato was proclaimed António I of Portugal. His legitimacy as a monarch is disputed.

House of Habsburg (1581–1640)

The House of Habsburg, known as the Philippine Dynasty, is the house that ruled Portugal from 1581 to 1640. The dynasty began with the acclamation of Philip II of Spain as Philip I of Portugal in 1580, officially recognized in 1581 by the Portuguese Cortes of Tomar. Philip I swore to rule Portugal as a kingdom separate from his Spanish domains, under the personal union known as the Iberian Union.

House of Braganza (1640–1910)

The House of Braganza, known as the Brigantine Dynasty, came to power, in 1640, when John II of Braganza became the reigning house of Portugal and deposed the House of Habsburg in the Portuguese Restoration War.

House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1853–1910)

The House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is the designation given to the house of the last four Kings of Portugal. The house's existence is debated, as Portuguese historians and the monarchs themselves styled themselves as members of the House of Braganza and not cadet members of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha.

See also

Portugal portal

References

  • Jiří Louda & Michael Maclagan (1981), "Portugal", in Lines of Succession. Heraldry of the Royal families of Europe, London, Orbis Publishing, pp. 228–237. ISBN 0-85613-672-7. (revised and updated edition by Prentice Hall College Div - November 1991. ISBN 0-02-897255-4.)
  • Luís Amaral & Marcos Soromenho Santos (2002), Costados do Duque de Bragança, Lisboa, Guarda-Mor Edições.
  • Afonso Eduardo Martins Zuquete (dir.)(1989), Nobreza de Portugal e Brasil, vol. I, Lisboa, Editorial Enciclopédia.
  • Jacob Wilhelm Imhof, Stemma Regum lusitanicum sive Historia genealogica Familiae Regiae Portugallicae, Amsterdam, 1708 (reprint http://www.orsinidemarzo.com/en/index.php?m0=pubblicazioni_dettaglio&articolo_id=192&articolo_tipo=ODM).

External links

  • Kings of Portugal genealogy in a Portuguese genealogical site

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