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King of Sardinia

The following is a list of rulers of Sardinia.

Early medieval rulers


Judges

Main article: Giudicati

Before the Kingdom of Sardinia was founded, the rulers of the island were known as archons (ἄρχοντες in Greek) or judges (iudices in Latin and Sardinian, giudici in Italian).[1][2] The island was organized into one "judicatus" from the 9th century on. After the Muslim conquest of Sicily, in the 9th century, the Byzantines, who ruled Sardinia before, couldn't manage to defend their far west province. Probably, a local noble family acceded to the power, still identifying themselves as vassal of the Byzantines, but independent "de facto" as communications with Constantinople were very difficult. We known only two names of those rulers:

Turcoturiu (Tουρκοτουρίου)

Salusiu (Σαλουσιου)

(Κύριε βοήθε ιοῦ δού λού σου Tουρκοτουρίου ἅρχωντοσ Σαρδινίας καί τής δού ληςσου Γετιτ / Tουρκοτουριου βασιλικου προτοσπαθαριου (Protospatharios) και Σαλουσιου των ευγενεστατων άρχωντων.[3][4][5][6]), who probably reined between the 10th and the 11th century.

In the early 11th century an attempt to conquer the island was made by Muslims based in Spain.[7] The only records of that war are from Pisan and Genoese chronicles.[8] The Christians won, but after that, the previous Sardinian kingdom was totally undermined and divided into four small judicati: Cagliari, Arborea, Gallura, Torres or Logudoro.

List of judges of Arborea, c. 1070–1410 List of judges of Cagliari, c. 1060–1258 List of judges of Gallura, c. 1070–1288 List of judges of Logudoro, c. 1060–1259

Some of these rulers occasionally took the style of king (rex): 1113–1128 Constantine I, Judge of Torres 1128–1150 Gonario II, Judge of Torres

Nominal kings of Imperial appointment


Some rulers of the time obtained the title of King of Sardinia (Rex Sardiniae) by grant of the Holy Roman Emperor:

Barisone II of Arborea,[9] 1164–1165 (by Emperor Frederick I, who officially renounced in a peace treaty with the other judices in 1165);

Enzo of Logudoro Hohenstaufen, 1238–1245 (iure uxoris Adelasia of Torres, recognised by Emperor Frederick II, his father, who died in Bologna after a 26 years imprisonment)

None of these rulers had effective authority over the whole island.




Kings of Sardinia and Corsica

James II of Aragon received royal investiture from Pope Boniface VIII in 1297 as Rex Sardiniae et Corsicae. The Aragonese did not take actual possession of the isle until 1323, after a victorious military campaign against the Pisans. However, Sardinian royal title never had a specific line of succession, and all kings used their own primary numeral title.


House of Barcelona (Aragon), 1323–1410

Main articles: Kings of Aragon and Crown of Aragon

|- ||Barcelona
aged 60 |- | Barcelona
aged 37 |- | Barcelona
aged 68 |- | Foixà
aged 46 |- | Barcelona
aged 54 |- |}

Between 1410 and 1412 there was an interregnum.


House of Trastámara, 1412–1516

|- | Igualada
aged 36 |- | Naples
aged 52 |- |}

Kings of Sardinia

|- | Barcelona
aged 81 |- | Madrigalejo
aged 54 |- |}

House of Habsburg (Spanish branch), 1516–1700

|- | Isabella of Portugal
10 March 1526
3 children ||21 September 1558
Yuste
aged 58 |- | Madrid
aged 71 |- | Madrid
aged 42 |- | Madrid
aged 60 |- | Madrid
aged 38 |- |}


House of Bourbon (Spanish branch) 1700–1714

|- | Madrid
aged 62 |- |} At the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, by the Treaty of Rastatt, Sardinia was ceded to Austria


House of Habsburg (Austrian branch), 1714–1720

| Vienna
aged 55 |- |} Spanish forces invaded the kingdom in 1718 during the War of the Quadruple Alliance. Emperor Charles VI ceded it to the Duke of Savoy by the Treaty of The Hague.


House of Savoy, 1720–1946

The monarchs of the House of Savoy ruled from their mainland capital of Turin but styled themselves primarily with the royal title of Sardinia as superior to the original lesser title of Duke of Savoy. However, their numeral order continued the Savoyard list. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel II became king of Italy: however, the sovereigns continued to use all their former titles. | Moncalieri
aged 66 |- | Turin
aged 72 |- | Moncalieri
aged 70 |- | Marie Clotilde of France
1775
No children||6 October 1819
Rome
aged 68 |- | Moncalieri
aged 65 |- | Turin
aged 66 |- | Porto
aged 50 |- | Rosa Vercellana
1869
2 children||9 January 1878
Rome
aged 57 |- |}

In 1861, after the annexation of all the others states of the Italian peninsula, the parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia voted a bill (Legge N° 4671 of 17 marzo 1861) to change the name of the State and the title of the King. Since then there were no more Kings of Sardinia but Kings of Italy. Nowadays the Savoy family is still the pretender of the Kingdom of Italy.

Notes

et:Sardiinia kuningriik#Sardiinia kuningad (1297–1861)
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