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Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia

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Title: Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia  
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Subject: House of Bonaparte, Italian language, Congress of Vienna, Franz Joseph I of Austria, Pope Pius X, Italian unification, History of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, Crown jewels, Vicenza
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Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia

Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Regno Lombardo–Veneto (it)
Königreich Lombardo–Venetien (de)
Österreichisches Italien ("Austrian Italy")[1]

1815–1866
Flag Coat of arms
Outline of the Kingdom in 1852, superimposed on modern borders.
Capital Milan and Venice
(1815–1859)
Venice
(1859–1866)
Languages Italian, German
Religion Roman Catholic
Government Absolute monarchy
King
 -  1815–1835 Francis I
 -  1835–1848 Ferdinand I
 -  1848–1866 Francis Joseph I
Viceroy
 -  1815 Heinrich XV
 -  1857–1859 Ferdinand Joseph
History
 -  Congress of Vienna 9 June 1815
 -  Five Days of Milan 22 March 1848
 -  Treaty of Zürich 10 November 1859
 -  Austro-Prussian War 14 June 1866
 -  Peace of Prague 23 August 1866
 -  Treaty of Vienna 12 October 1866
Area
 -  1852 [2] 46,782 km² (18,063 sq mi)
Population
 -  1852 est.[2] 4,671,000 
     Density 99.8 /km²  (258.6 /sq mi)
Currency Lombardy-Venetia pound,
(1816–1860)
Lombardy-Venetia florin
(1860–1866)
Today part of  Italy


The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was created at the Congress of Vienna in recognition of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine's rights to Lombardy and the former Republic of Venice after the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy, proclaimed in 1805, had collapsed.[3] The kingdom was ruled day-to-day by viceroys appointed by the Imperial Court and resident in Milan and Venice.[2][4][5][6]

History

The Congress of Vienna combined the territories of Lombardy (which had been ruled by the Habsburgs since the 16th century, and by the Austrian branch of the family from 1713 to 1796) and Venetia (which had been under Austrian rule intermittently since 1797) into a single unit under the House of Habsburg-Lorraine.

Administratively the Kingdom comprised two independent governments in the two parts. Lombardy included the provinces of Milan, Como, Bergamo, Brescia, Pavia, Cremona, Mantova, Lodi-Crema, and Sondrio. Venetia included the provinces of Venice, Verona, Padova, Vicenza, Treviso, Rovigo, Belluno, and Udine.[7]

The Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia was first ruled by Francis I from 1815 to his death in 1835. Ferdinand I ruled from 1835 to 1848. In Milan on 6 September 1838 he became the last king to be crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. The crown was subsequently brought to Vienna after the loss of Lombardy in 1859, but was restored to Italy after the loss of Venetia in 1866.

After a popular revolution on 22 March 1848 (The Five Days of Milan), the Austrians fled from Milan, which became the capital city of the Governo Provvisorio della Lombardia (Lombardy Provisional Government). The next day, Venice also rose against the Austrians, forming the Governo Provvisorio di Venezia (Venice Provisional Government). The Austrians, after defeating the Sardinian troops at the Battle of Custoza (24–25 July 1848), entered Milan (6 August) and Venice (24 August 1849), and restored Austrian rule.

Francis Joseph I ruled over the Kingdom for the rest of its existence. His younger brother Maximilian (who later became Emperor of Mexico), served as his viceroy in Milan between 1857 and 1859.

Lombardy was annexed to the embryonic Italian state in 1859, by the Treaty of Zurich after the Second Italian War of Independence; Venetia was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy in 1866 in the aftermath of the Seven Weeks War, by the Peace of Prague.[7]

Rulers

Viceroys

Governors of Lombardy

  • Heinrich Johann Bellegarde 1814–1816
  • Francesco Saurau 1816–1818
  • Giulio Strassoldo di Sotto 1818–1830
  • Franz Hartig 1830–1840
  • Robert von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Raitz 1840–1841
  • Johann Baptist Spaur 1841–1848
  • Maximilian Karl Lamoral O'Donnell 1848 (acting)
  • Felix von Schwarzenberg 1848
  • Franz Wimpffen 1848 (acting)
  • Alberto Montecuccoli-Laderchi 1848–1849 (acting)
  • Karl Borromäus Philipp zu Schwarzenberg 1849–1850 (acting)
  • Michele Strassoldo-Grafenberg 1851–1857 (with the title of Lieutenant of Lombardy)
  • Friedrich von Burger 1857–1859

Governors of Venetia

  • Peter Goëss 1815–1819
  • Ferdinand Ernst Maria von Bissingen-Nippenburg 1819–1820
  • Carlo d'Inzaghi 1820–1826
  • Johann Baptist Spaur 1826–1840
  • Aloys Pállfy de Erdöd 1840–1848
  • Ferdinand Zichy zu Zich von Vasonykeöy 1848 (acting)
  • Laval Nugent von Westmeath 1848–1849 (military governor)
  • Karl von Gorzowsky 1849
  • Stanislaus Anton Puchner 1849–1850
  • Georg Otto von Toggenburg-Sargans 1850–1855
  • Kajetan von Bissingen-Nippenburg 1855–1860
  • Georg Otto von Toggenburg-Sargans 1860–1866 (second time)

Kings

Sources

External links

  • Flags of Lombardy–Venetia

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