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Ladislaus the Posthumous

Ladislaus the Posthumous
Anonymous painting, 1457
Duke of Austria
Reign 1440–1457
Predecessor Albert V
Successor Frederick V
Regent Frederick V (1440-1452)
King of Hungary and Croatia
contested by Vladislaus I between 1440 and 1444
Reign 1440 or 1444–1457
Coronation 15 May 1440
Predecessor Albert or Vladislaus I
Successor Matthias I
Regent Elizabeth of Luxembourg (1440-1442)
John Hunyadi (1446-1453)
King of Bohemia
Reign 1453–1457
Coronation 28 October 1453
Predecessor Albert
Successor George
Regent George of Poděbrady (1453-1457)
Born (1440-02-22)22 February 1440
Komárom (now Komárno in Slovakia)
Died 23 November 1457(1457-11-23) (aged 17)
Prague
Burial St. Vitus Cathedral, Prague
Dynasty Habsburg
Father Albert of Habsburg
Mother Elizabeth of Luxembourg
Religion Roman Catholic

Ladislaus the Posthumous, known also as Ladislas (22 February 1440 – 23 November 1457) (in Hungarian: László), was Duke of Austria, and King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia. He was the posthumous son of Albert of Habsburg and Albert's wife, Elizabeth of Luxembourg. Although Albert, who ruled Austria, Hungary (including Croatia), and Bohemia, bequeathed all his realms to his future son on his deathbed, only the Estates of Austria accepted his last will. Fearing of an Ottoman invasion, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates decided to offer the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland. In Bohemia, the Hussite noblemen and towns denied to acknowledge the hereditary right of the late king's descendants to the throne, but did not elect a new king.

After Ladislaus's birth, Queen Elizabeth flatly refused to cooperate with Vladislaus III of Poland. She had her infant son – known in Hungary as Ladislaus V – crowned king with the Holy Crown of Hungary in Székesfehérvár on 15 May 1440. However, the Diet of Hungary declared his coronation invalid and elected the Polish monarch king. A civil war broke out between the supporters of the two kings. Queen Elizabeth appointed her late husband's distant cousin, Frederick III, King of the Romans, Ladislaus's guardian. During the following years, Ladislaus lived in his guardian's court, mainly in Wiener Neustadt, where Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) wrote a treatise of his education.

After Queen Elizabeth died in late 1442, Ladislaus's interests were represented by a Prague in 1448. Frederick III attempted to prolong the period of guardianship, but the Estates of Austria forced him to resign and hand over Ladislaus to them in September 1452.

After John Hunyadi also resigned the regency in early next year, royal administration was restored in Hungary. However, Hunyadi controlled most royal castles and royal revenues even thereafter. Initially, Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II laid siege to Nándorfehérvár (now Belgrade in Serbia), but John Hunyadi relieved the fortress on 22 July 1456. Taking advantage of John Hunyadi's death, Ladislaus and Ulrich of Celje attempted to seize the royal castles and revenues from Hunyadi's son, Ladislaus. However, Ladislaus Hunyadi murdered Ulrich of Celje and forced the king to grant him an amnesty. With the consent of the royal council, the king had Ladislaus Hunyadi executed in March 1457. Hunyadi's relatives and supporters rebelled against Ladislaus who fled first to Vienna, then to Prague, where he died unexpectedly. He was the last male member of the Albertinian Line of the House of Habsburg.

Contents

  • Parentage and posthumous birth (until 1440) 1
  • Inheritance and civil war in Hungary (1440–1442) 2
  • Frederick III's ward (1442–1452) 3
  • Reign (1452–1457) 4
  • Family 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Sources 8

Parentage and posthumous birth (until 1440)

Ladislaus was the posthumous only son of Albert of Habsburg and Albert's wife, Elizabeth of Luxembourg.[1][2] Albert was the hereditary Duke of Austria;[3] his wife was the only child of Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor, who was also King of Bohemia and Hungary.[4] Sigismund was also Duke of Luxemburg, but he had mortgaged that duchy to his niece, Elizabeth of Goerlitz.[5] According to Emperor Sigismund's plans, Elizabeth and Albert should have jointly inherited Bohemia and Hungary, but the Estates of both realms refused to acknowledge the couple's hereditary right to the crown.[4] Instead, Albert was elected the sole king of Hungary nine days after his father-in-law's death in December 1437.[4][6] In Bohemia, Albert was unanimously elected king only after he defeated Casimir – the younger brother of Vladislaus III of Poland – who was supported by a group of Hussite lords and burghers.[7]

Albert was planning to launch a military expedition against the Ottoman Turks, who had been making plundering raids in the southern regions of Hungary, but fell seriously ill during the preparations.[8][9] The dying king, who knew that his wife was pregnant, willed Austria, Bohemia and Hungary to his posthumous child if his wife gave birth to a son.[1] He also put his infant heir under the guardianship of his widow and his distant cousin, Frederick of Habsburg.[1][9] Albert died on 27 October 1439.[8][9]

In fear of a new Ottoman invasion of Hungary, the majority of the Hungarian lords and prelates refused to accept the deceased king's last will.[10][11] They decided to offer the crown to Vladislaus III of Poland and to persuade the pregnant queen dowager to marry the new king.[10][11] In Bohemia, the assembly of the Estates passed decrees in January 1440 to avoid that a new civil war broke out between the Hussites and the Catholics before a new king was elected.[12] In short, the Estates of Moravia passed a similar decree.[12]

Although the 31-year-old Elizabeth seemingly agreed to marry Vladislaus, who was only 16, she made preparations for his son's coronation after her physicians predicted that she would give birth to a son.[13] She ordered her chambermaid, Helene Kottanner, to steal the Holy Crown of Hungary from the castle of Visegrád.[14][15] Helene Kottaner and her accomplice seized the diadem and took it to the queen on the very day when the queen began labour, which was considered as a miracle by both the queen and her courtiers.[14] Queen Elizabeth gave birth to Ladislaus in Komárom (now Komárno in Slovakia) on 21 February 1440, almost four months after his father's death.[16][2] He was named for King St Ladislaus and Dénes Szécsi, Archbishop of Esztergom, baptised him.[14]

Inheritance and civil war in Hungary (1440–1442)

A crowned man with a moustache and blonde crowned lady on their knees, surrounded by other men and women on their knees
Ladislaus's parents, Albert of Habsburg and Elizabeth of Luxembourg pray

The Estates of the Duchy of Austria acknowledged Ladislaus's right to rule and made Frederick of Habsburg, who had meanwhile elected King of the Romans, regent in accordance with the last will of Ladislaus's father.[9][17] In Bohemia, only the Catholic lords, who were under the leadership of Oldřich of Rožmberg,[12] were willing to accept Ladislaus's hereditary right to rule.[17] Soon after the birth of her son, Queen Elizabeth sent envoys to Poland to persuade the delegates of the Hungarian Estates to break off their negotiations with Vladislaus III of Poland.[17] However, the Hungarian lords refused and elected Vladislaus king on 8 March 1440.[6][18] Before his election, Vladislaus had pledged that he would marry Queen Elizabeth and protect her infant son's interests in Austria and Bohemia.[6]

The queen refused to give her consent to the project and decided to have her son crowned king before Vladislaus came to Hungary.[19] She hastily took Ladislaus from Komárom to Székesfehérvár which was the traditional place of the royal coronations in Hungary.[19] After a young lord, Nicholas Újlaki, symbolically knighted the infant Ladislaus, Archbishop Dénes Szécsi anointed and crowned him king on 15 May.[19] During the lengthy ceremonies, his mother's cousin, Ulrich II, Count of Celje, held the crown over the head of Ladislaus who burst into tears while the coronation oath was being read out on his behalf.[19] Six days later Vladislaus III entered Buda.[20] Queen Elizabeth fled first to Győr, and from there to Sopron, taking the infant king with her.[21]

The most powerful lords – including Ladislaus Garai, Đurađ Branković, Frederick II and Ulrich II of Celje – and most towns remained faithful to the child-king, but most noblemen preferred Vladislaus's rule in the hope that he would be able to lead the defence of the kingdom against the Ottomans.[22][23] A civil war broke out between the partisans of the two kings which would last for years.[20] The Diet declared Ladislaus's coronation invalid on 29 June 1440, stating that "the crowning of kings is always dependent on the will of the kingdom's inhabitants, in whose consent both the effectiveness and the force of the crown reside."[10][23] Archbishop Dénes Szécsi crowned Vladislaus king with a crown taken from the tomb of King Saint Stephen, the first king of Hungary, on 17 July.[10][18]

In need of financial resources to continue the war against Vladislaus, Queen Elizabeth signed a treaty with Frederick III, King of the Romans, in Wiener Neustadt on 22 November.[24][20] She did not only mortgaged Sopron to Frederick III, but also appointed him as her son's guardian and gave the Holy Crown of Hungary to him.[25] Thereafter Ladislaus lived in Frederick III's court, mainly in Wiener Neustatdt.[2]

Queen Elizabeth hired a Czech condottiere, John Jiskra of Brandýs, who took control of Kassa (now Košice in Slovakia) and a dozen other towns in Upper Hungary during the next months.[24][26] However, Vladislaus's two military commanders, Nicholas Újlaki and John Hunyadi, defeated the united army of the child Ladislaus's supporters from the central and southern parts of Hungary in the Battle of Bátaszék in early 1441.[20][27][24] During the next months, Vladislaus and his commanders took control of the western and eastern territories of Hungary, but Jiskra and Queen Elizabeth's other supporters continued to control Upper Hungary, along with Esztergom, Győr, Pressburg (now Bratislava in Slovakia) and other important towns.[28] Negotiations started and Queen Elizabeth and Vladislaus signed a peace treaty in Győr on 13 December 1442.[29][30] The queen recognized Vladislaus as king, but preserved her son's claim to the throne.[29][30] Three or four days later the queen suddenly died and Ladislaus became an orphan before his third birthday.[17][29][31]

Frederick III's ward (1442–1452)

After the death of Ladislaus's mother, his claim to rule in Hungary and Bohemia was primarily protected by Jan Jiskra and Oldřich of Rožmberg, respectively.[17] Most parts of Hungary remained under the rule of Ladislaus's rival, Vladislaus.[17] In Bohemia, the moderate Hussite lord, Hynce Ptáček of Pirkstein, administered the eastern territories, and the towns dominated by the radical Taborites were united in a league.[12] The Hussite Ctibor Tovačovský of Cimburk, who had assumed the title governor after Albert's death, continued to administer Moravia, closely cooperating with the towns and the Catholic Bishop of Olomouc.[12] Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, whom Elizabeth of Goerlitz made her heir, invaded Luxemburg on her behalf in 1443.[5] Frederick III authorized the Estates of Luxemburg to pay homage to Philip the Good, but he also stipulated that Ladislaus could buy back the duchy after Elizabeth of Goerlitz's death.[5] During Ladislaus's lifetime, the Luxembourgeoise Estates did not recognize Philip the Good as their legitimate sovereign.[32]

A seal depicting a raven
The seal of John Hunyadi with the inscription Ioanis de Huniad, Gubernatoris Regni Hungarie ("John Hunyadi, Governor of the Kingdom of Hungary")

Ladislaus's rival, Vladislaus, died fighting against the Ottomans in the Emeric Bebek, Michael Ország, Pancrace Szentmiklósi, and Jan Jiskra – to administer the kingdom.[37][38] Frederick III stormed into Hungary and captured a dozen fortresses along the western frontiers of Hungary, including Kőszeg, by the end of July.[37][38] The Counts of Celje, who were related to Ladislaus through his mother, invaded Slavonia and took control of the province before the end of the year.[37][39] As Frederick III refused to release Ladislaus, the Diet of Hungary elected John Hunyadi regent for the period of Ladislaus's minority on 6 June 1446.[38] John Hunyadi, who adopted the title governor, ruled most part of Hungary, but could not expand his authority over the regions under the rule of Frederick III, Jan Jiskra and the Counts of Celje.[36] The envoys of the Hungarian Estates and Frederick III signed a truce on 1 June 1446, which confirmed Frederick III's guardianship over Ladislaus.[40]

In Bohemia,

Ladislaus the Posthumous
Born: 22 February 1440 Died: 23 November 1457
Regnal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Albert (V)
Archduke of Austria
1440–1457
Succeeded by
Frederick V
King of Bohemia
1453–1457
Succeeded by
George
Preceded by
Vladislaus I
King of Hungary and Croatia
1444–1457
Succeeded by
Matthias I
  • Agnew, Hugh (2004). The Czechs and the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. Hoover Institution Press.  
  • Bak, János (1994). "The late medieval period, 1382–1526". In Sugár, Peter F.; Hanák, Péter; Frank, Tibor. A History of Hungary. Indiana University Press. pp. 54–82.  
  • Beller, Steven (2006). A Concise History of Austria. Cambridge University Press.  
  • Bartl, Július; Čičaj, Viliam; Kohútova, Mária; Letz, Róbert; Segeš, Vladimír; Škvarna, Dušan (2002). Slovak History: Chronology & Lexicon. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers, Slovenské Pedegogické Nakladatel'stvo.  
  • Bijvoet, Maya C. (1987). "Helene Kottanner: The Austrian Chambermaid". In Wilson, Katharina M. Women Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation. University of Georgia Press. pp. 327–349.  
  • Engel, Pál (2001). The Realm of St Stephen: A History of Medieval Hungary, 895–1526. I.B. Tauris Publishers.  
  •  
  • Kontler, László (1999). Millennium in Central Europe: A History of Hungary. Atlantisz Publishing House.  
  • Kubinyi, András (2008). Matthias Rex. Balassi Kiadó.  
  •  
  • Newcomer, James (1995). The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg: The Evolution of Nationhood. Editions Emile Borschette; Le Bon Livre.  
  • Pálosfalvi, Tamás (2002). "V. László". In Kristó, Gyula. Magyarország vegyes házi királyai [The Kings of Various Dynasties of Hungary] (in Magyar). Szukits Könyvkiadó. pp. 139–150.  
  • Šmahel, František (2011). "The Hussite Revolution (1419-1471)". In Pánek, Jaroslav; Tůma, Oldřich. A History of the Czech Lands. Charles University in Prague. pp. 149–187.  
  • Solymosi, László; Körmendi, Adrienne (1981). "A középkori magyar állam virágzása és bukása, 1301–1526 [The Heyday and Fall of the Medieval Hungarian State, 1301–1526]". In Solymosi, László. Magyarország történeti kronológiája, I: a kezdetektől 1526-ig [Historical Chronology of Hungary, Volume I: From the Beginning to 1526] (in Magyar). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 188–228.  
  • Spiesz, Anton; Caplovic, Dusan; Bolchazy, Ladislaus J. (2006). Illustrated Slovak History: A Struggle for Sovereignty in Central Europe. Bolchazy-Carducci Publishers.  
  • Tringli, István (2012). "V. László". In Gujdár, Noémi; Szatmáry, Nóra. Magyar királyok nagykönyve: Uralkodóink, kormányzóink és az erdélyi fejedelmek életének és tetteinek képes története [Encyclopedia of the Kings of Hungary: An Illustrated History of the Life and Deeds of Our Monarchs, Regents and the Princes of Transylvania] (in Magyar). Reader's Digest. pp. 138–139.  

Sources

  1. ^ a b c Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 139.
  2. ^ a b c d Tringli 2012, p. 138.
  3. ^ Beller 2006, p. 33.
  4. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 279.
  5. ^ a b c Newcomer 1995, p. 111.
  6. ^ a b c Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 257.
  7. ^ Šmahel 2011, p. 163.
  8. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 280.
  9. ^ a b c d Beller 2006, p. 34.
  10. ^ a b c d Engel 2001, p. 281.
  11. ^ a b Bijvoet 1987, p. 327.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Šmahel 2011, p. 164.
  13. ^ Bijvoet 1987, pp. 327-328.
  14. ^ a b c Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 140.
  15. ^ Bijvoet 1987, p. 328.
  16. ^ Pálosfalvi 2002, pp. 139-140.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 143.
  18. ^ a b Bartl et al. 2002, p. 48.
  19. ^ a b c d Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 141.
  20. ^ a b c d Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 260.
  21. ^ Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 142.
  22. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 281-282.
  23. ^ a b Kontler 1999, p. 113.
  24. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 282.
  25. ^ Engel 2001, p. 142.
  26. ^ Spiesz, Caplovic & Bolchazy 2006, p. 54.
  27. ^ Bak 1994, p. 63.
  28. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 282-283.
  29. ^ a b c Bartl et al. 2002, p. 49.
  30. ^ a b Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 262.
  31. ^ Engel 2001, p. 283.
  32. ^ Newcomer 1995, p. 113.
  33. ^ Engel 2001, p. 287.
  34. ^ Bak 1994, pp. 64-65.
  35. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 264.
  36. ^ a b c Kontler 1999, p. 116.
  37. ^ a b c Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 265.
  38. ^ a b c Engel 2001, p. 288.
  39. ^ Fine 1994, p. 551.
  40. ^ Engel 2001, p. 289.
  41. ^ Agnew 2004, p. 51.
  42. ^ a b c d  
  43. ^ a b c d e Mureşanu 2001, p. 174.
  44. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 292.
  45. ^ Beller 2006, p. 143.
  46. ^ a b Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 145.
  47. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 269.
  48. ^ Bartl et al. 2002, p. 50.
  49. ^ a b c d e f Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 270.
  50. ^ a b Kontler 1999, p. 117.
  51. ^ a b c d e f Engel 2001, p. 293.
  52. ^ a b c d e f Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 146.
  53. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 179.
  54. ^ a b Engel 2001, p. 294.
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tringli 2012, p. 139.
  56. ^ a b c d e f Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 147.
  57. ^ Bak 1994, p. 68.
  58. ^ a b c Bak 1994, p. 69.
  59. ^ a b Šmahel 2011, p. 165.
  60. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 271.
  61. ^ Engel 2001, p. 295.
  62. ^ a b c d Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 272.
  63. ^ Engel 2001, pp. 295-296.
  64. ^ Fine 1994, p. 560.
  65. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 187.
  66. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 189.
  67. ^ Mureşanu 2001, p. 190.
  68. ^ a b c d e f Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 148.
  69. ^ Spiesz, Caplovic & Bolchazy 2006, p. 55.
  70. ^ Engel 2001, p. 296.
  71. ^ a b c d e f Engel 2001, p. 297.
  72. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 26.
  73. ^ a b c Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 273.
  74. ^ a b c d Kubinyi 2008, p. 27.
  75. ^ Bak 1994, p. 70.
  76. ^ a b c d Pálosfalvi 2002, p. 149.
  77. ^ Solymosi & Körmendi 1981, p. 274.

References

See also

[77] After his arrival in Prague in autumn 1457, Ladislaus asked for the hand of [76] Ladislaus never married.

Family

From Vienna, Ladislaus went to Prague where he unexpectedly died on 23 November 1457.[74][55] His contemporaries suspected that the young king was poisoned.[55] However, the examination of his skeleton suggest that he fell victim either to bubonic plague[74][55] or to leukemia.[76] He was buried in the St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.[55]

From Temesvár, Ladislaus went to Buda.[72] He soon realized that the majority of the Hungarian barons were hostile towards Ladislaus Hunyadi.[72][68] Upon Ladislaus Garai's advice, the king convinced Ladislaus Hunyadi, who had also arrived in the capital, to persuade his younger brother, the fourteen-year-old Matthias, to join him in Buda.[74] As soon as Matthias arrived on 14 March 1457, Ladislaus had the two Hunyadis imprisoned.[68][71] Sitting in the royal council, the barons of the realm condemned the Hunyadi brothers to death for high treason, and Ladislaus Hunyadi was beheaded on 16 March.[71][74] The Hunyadi brothers' mother, Elizabeth Szilágyi, and her brother, Michael Szilágyi, rebelled against the king, which caused a civil war between the lords loyal to the king and the supporters of the Hunyadi family.[75] Ladislaus appointed John Jiskra to be the commander of the royal army and left Hungary for Vienna, dragging the captive Matthias Hunyadi with him in early June.[68][73]

Ladislaus returned to Hungary in September.[62] Ulrich of Celje accompanied him at the head of an army of German crusaders who had assembled near Vienna.[68] Ladislaus made Ulrich of Celje "captain general".[68] They also decided to reclaim all royal castles and revenues that Hunyadi had held from his son, Ladislaus Hunyadi.[70] The young Hunyadi seemingly yielded to the king at their meeting in Futak (now Futog in Serbia) and invited Ladislaus and Ulrich of Celje to Nándorfehérvár.[71] However, after the king and the Count of Celje entered the fortress, Hunyadi's soldiers attacked and murdered the count on 9 November.[71] The royal army soon disbanded, and the king found himself captive.[72] He accompanied Hunyadi to Temesvár (now Timișoara in Romania), which was an important center of the Hunyadi domains.[72][71] Hunyadi only allowed the king to leave Temesvár after Ladislaus made him captain general and pledged that he would not take revenge for Ulrich of Celje's murder.[71][73]

A blond boy lying on the bed takes the hands of an older man
On his deathbed, Ladislaus the Posthumous offers his thanks to George of Poděbrady (a painting by Jan Škramlík)

Sultan Mehmed II laid siege to Nándorfehérvár (now Belgrade in Serbia) in early July 1456.[50] With the assistance of thousands of commoners whom John of Capistrano, a Franciscan friar, had stirred up to join the crusade against the Ottomans, John Hunyadi prevented the besiegers from completing the blockade and relieved Nándorfehérvár on 22 July.[58] Two weeks later, Hunyadi died of an epidemic which broke out in Nándorfehérvár.[58][69]

The newly elected Pope Callixtus III declared a crusade against the Ottoman Turks, who had occupied the greater part of Serbia.[63][64] News of Sultan Mehmed II's preparations for invasion reached Hungary in autumn 1455.[65] Ladislaus came to Hungary in February 1456.[62] He held a Diet which proclaimed general mobilization and consented to an extraordinary tax to cover the expenditures of the defense of the country in March.[62][66] In April, Ladislaus borrowed 8,000 florins from Hunyadi, because the king had to pay off the half of his former debt to Ulrich of Celje.[67] Before the sultan's army reached the southern border of Hungary, Ladislaus left Hungary and returned to Vienna.[68]

Ladislaus left Prague in late November 1454.[56] He visited Silesia and Moravia where the local Estates paid homage to him.[56][59] After Ladislaus arrived in Moravia, Ctibor Tovačovský himself appointed Czech Catholic noblemen as royal officials, ensuring their loyalty towards him.[59] Ladislaus returned to Vienna on 16 February 1455.[60] Taking advantage of Ulrich Eytzinger's growing unpopularity among the Austrian noblemen, Ulrich of Celje persuaded Ladislaus to restore him in his court.[56] Ladislaus visited Buda and persuaded Hunyadi to resign a part of the royal revenues and withdraw his garrisons from Buda, Diósgyőr and other royal castles.[61] Ulrich of Celje also renewed his alliance with Ladislaus Garai and Nicholas Újlaki on 7 April.[62]

Ladislaus was crowned king of Bohemia in Prague on 28 October 1453, which put an end to the long interregnum.[12][55] Ulrich Eytzinger, John Hunyadi, and George Poděbrady, who all were present at Ladislaus's coronation, signed a treaty.[56] Ladislaus stayed in Prague during the next twelve months.[56] George Poděbrady hindered him from consulting with his Austrian and Hungarian advisors and even the royal seal was taken from Ladislaus.[56] At the next Diet of Hungary, Bishop John Vitéz submitted a proposal on the king's behalf to the Estates, demanding the centralization of the administration of royal revenues, but the Diet refused the proposal which would have limited John Hunyadi's authority.[54] According to the document prepared by the bishop on this occasion, Ladislaus's cash revenues amounted to 216,000 florins.[57] Historian János M. Bak writes that that amount would have only covered about 85% of the expenses of a military expedition against the Ottoman Turks, who had captured Constantinople and planned to invade Hungary.[58]

Ladislaus returned to Vienna shortly after the Diet was closed.[52] During the next months, Ulrich of Celje was Ladislaus's most influential advisor.[52] Celje signed a treaty with George of Poděbrady on 16 April and persuaded Ladislaus to confirm Poděbrady's position as governor in Bohemia.[49][52] Ulrich of Celje also signed a treaty with Archbishop Dénes Szécsi, Ladislaus Garai, Nicholas Újlaki, and other Hungarian lords on 13 September, who promised to support him against his opponents.[49][53] Their league was implicitly formed against John Hunyadi and Ulrich Eytzinger, the head of the Estates in Austria, who had for long been hostile towards Ulrich of Celje.[52][54] Fifteen days later, Ulrich Eytzinger persuaded Ladislaus to expel Ulrich of Celje from his court at an assembly of the Estates of Austria.[52][49]

On 29 January 1453 in Pressburg, the Diet of Hungary acknowledged Ladislaus's position as the lawful king without a formal election or a new coronation.[49][36] He declared an amnesty for those who had supported Vladislaus against him.[51] Although all grants that Queen Elizabeth and Vladislaus had made were annulled, Ladislaus issued new charters of grant for the grantees to confirm their proprietary rights.[51] The greater chancellery and the secret chancellery (two important offices of central administration, which had not functioned for a decade) were restored under the direction of Archbishop Dénes Szécsi and John Vitéz, Bishop of Várad (now Oradea in Romania).[51] The central courts of justice (the Court of Royal Special Presence and the Court of Personal Presence) also started functioning again.[51]

Ulrich of Celje accompanied Ladislaus to Vienna but only after "washing the Styrian filth off him" to symbolize Ladislaus's liberation from the "Styrian" Frederick III's influence.[46] Ladislaus Garai and Nicholas Újlaki visited Ladislaus in Vienna in October, and John Hunyadi also joined them before the end of the year.[49] Hunyadi resigned from the governorship in early next year.[49] Ladislaus made Hunyadi "captain general of the kingdom", authorizing him to retain all royal castles that were in his possession at the time of his resignation and to continue administering royal revenues.[50][51] Hunyadi was only to pay 24,000 gold florins to the sovereign in each year.[51] During a debate between the representatives of the Austrian and Hungarian Estates about his future seat, Ladislaus declared that he was Hungarian and wanted to live in Hungary, according to Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini.[52]

A man with a shaven face wearing a cap
John Vitéz, Bishop of Várad (now Oradea in Romania), who was Ladislaus's secret chancellor in Hungary

A seal depicting three coat of arms held by two armored men
The seal of Ulrich II, Count of Celje, who was Ladislaus's kisman and close advisor

Reign (1452–1457)

[48][17] The rebellious Austrian lords laid siege Wiener Neustadt, forcing Emperor Frederick III to hand over Ladislaus to Ulrich of Celje on 4 September.[12] The Austrian lords tried to prevent Ladislaus from accompanying his guardian to [45][17] Their agreement stirred up discontent among the Austrian Estates, because the age of majority was twelfe or sixteen, according to local customs.[44][43] They agreed that Ladislaus would remain under Frederick III's guardianship until his eighteenth birthday and during Ladislaus's minority Hunyadi would administer Hungary.[44][43] John Hunyadi signed a peace treaty with Frederick III on 22 October 1450.

As regards a boy's physical training, we must bear in mind that we aim at implanting habits which will prove beneficial through life. So let him cultivate a certain hardness which rejects excess of sleep and idleness in all its forms. Habits of indulgence – such as the luxury of soft beds, or the wearing of silk instead of linen next the skin – tend to enervate both body and mind. ... Childish habits of playing with the lips and features should be early controlled. A boy should be taught to hold his head erect, to look straight and fearlessly before him and to bear himself with dignity whether walking, standing, or sitting. ... Every youth destined to exalted position should further be trained in military exercises. It will be your destiny to defend Christendom against the Turk. It will thus be an essential part of Your education that you be early taught the use of the bow, of the sling, and of the spear; that you drive, ride, leap and swine. These are honourable accomplishments in everyone, and therefore not unworthy of the educator's care. ... Games, too, should be encouraged for young children – the ball, the hoop – but these must not be rough and coarse, but have in them an element of skill. ... In respect of eating and drinking the rule of moderation consists in rejecting everything which needlessly taxes digestion and so impairs mental activity. At the same time fastidiousness must not be humoured. A boy, for instance, whose lot it may be to face life in the camp, or in the forest, should so discipline his appetite that he may eat even beef. The aim of eating is to strengthen the frame; so let vigorous health reject cakes or sweets, elaborate dishes of small birds or eels, which are for the delicate and the weakly. ... As regards the use of wine, remember that we drink to quench thirst, and that the limit of moderation is reached when the edge of the intellect is dulled. A boy should be brought up to avoid wine; for he possesses a store of natural moisture in the blood and so rarely experiences thirst.
— Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini: On the Education of Children[42]

Ladislaus had a good education in Frederick III's court.[17] A Latin grammar was completed especially for him.[2] Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini (the future Pope Pius II) summarized his advice on education in a letter that he addressed to the ten-year-old Ladislaus in 1450.[17][42] Piccolomini suggested that Ladislaus should read both classical authors (including Archimedes, Cicero, Livy and Vergil) and the Bible.[17][42] He also emphasized the importance of physical training, stating that "both mind and body ... must be developed side by side".[17][42]

[12] Early next year, Oldřich of Rožmberg and other Catholic lords entered into a formal league against Poděbrady.[41][12] who had started negotiotions of the moderate Hussites' union with the Catholic Church.Meinhard of Neuhaus He captured Prague on 3 September 1448 and imprisoned [12]

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