Language regulator

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling, for example.

Many world languages have one or more language academies, but the degree of control that the academies exert over them does not render them controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (eg, Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are; they retain their wild nature to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages in the sense that Attempto Controlled English, for example, is. But they have a degree of standardization that allows them to functions as standard languages (for example, standard French).

Natural languages

Language Territory Regulator(s)
Afrikaans South Africa Die Taalkommissie
Akan Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian Albania Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
Arabic Algeria
Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية) Algeria, Syria, Egypt, Somalia, Jordan, Morocco, Iraq, Tunisia, Sudan, Israel
Arabic Language International Council
Aragonese Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain
Armenian Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Assamese Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturian Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani Azerbaijan Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Bengali (Bangla) Bangladesh Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)
West Bengal Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Basque Basque Country Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bosnian Bosnia and Herzegovina and Sandžak University of Sarajevo
Berber or Tamazight Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture (IRCAM)
Algeria HCA
Bulgarian Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese Burma Myanmar Language Commission
Catalan Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters
Mandarin Chinese People's Republic of China National Commission on Language and Script Work (国家语言文字工作委员会)
Republic of China (Taiwan) National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian Croatia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
Czech Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) — Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky)
Danish Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Dari Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Divehi Maldives Dhivehi Academy
Dutch Netherlands
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission
Estonian Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language
Finnish Finland Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
French France Académie française (French Academy)
Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega, official)

Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Center for the Greek language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Haitian Creole Ministère de l'éducation nationale et de la formation professionnelle (Haitian department of education)
Hebrew The Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Hmar Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)
Hungarian Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Foras na Gaeilge

Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)
Kannada Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian Commission of the Kashubian Language (Radzëzna Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka)
Kazakh Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Korean The National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원)
Kven Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kyrgyz National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Ladino Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino (National Authority of Ladino) [1]
Latin Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (Latin in the Roman Catholic Church)[3]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Macedonian Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" (Институт за македонски јазик „Крсте Мисирков“, Institut za makedonski jazik „Krste Misirkov“)
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
Malayalam Kerala Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government of Kerala
Maltese National Council for the Maltese Language (
Manx Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori Māori Language Commission
Mirandese Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Mongolian Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[4]
Nepali Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk) Norwegian Language Council

Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language)[2]
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy

Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
Polish Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego)
Portuguese Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
Quechua High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Romanian Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Russian Russian Academy (1783–1841)
Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[5] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.[6]
Scottish Gaelic Bòrd na Gàidhlig maintains the national plan for Gaelic, to promote its use and make Gaelic culture accessible
Secwepemctsín Stk'wemiple7s re Secwepemctsin, are the group of people supported by the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society who develop new words.
Serbian and Montenegrin
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi Sindhi Language Authority [3]
Sinhala Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali Somalia Ministry of Education, Culture and Higher Education
Sorbian Serbski institut [4]

Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (constituted by the Real Academia Española plus 21 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world)
Swahili Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
Tatar Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
Telugu Andhra Pradesh Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai Royal Institute of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสถาน)
Turkish Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
National Language Authority, Pakistan
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo Urhobo Studies Association
Võro Võro Institute
Waray-Waray Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)
West Frisian Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)

YIVO [5]
Yoruba The Yoruba Academy

Auxiliary languages


The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies.

Constructed languages

Languages such as Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and developed by communities of users. Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.

Language Regulator(s)
Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Klingon Marc Okrand
Lojban Logical Language Group
Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

See also


  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:
  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ... 
  3. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis - Index". 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  4. ^ [6]
  5. ^ Scots language Centre
  6. ^ Scottish Language Dictionaries
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