Law enforcement in the Philippines


Philippine National Police
Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas
Abbreviation PNP
Coat of Arms of the Philippine National Police
Motto "To Serve and to Protect"
Agency overview
Formed January 29, 1991
Preceding agencies
Legal personality Governmental: Government agency
Jurisdictional structure
National agency Philippines
General nature
  • Law enforcement
  • Local civilian police
Operational structure
Headquarters Camp Crame, Quezon City
Agency executive Alan L.M. Purísima, Police Director General
Parent agency Department of Interior and Local Government via National Police Commission

The Philippine National Police (Filipino: Pambansang Pulisya ng Pilipinas and abbreviated as PNP) is the civilian national police force of the Philippines.

The PNP was formed on January 29, 1991 when the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police were merged pursuant to Republic Act 6975, or the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990.[1] It is part of the Department of the Interior and Local Government. Its national headquarters is at Camp Crame in Quezon City, Metro Manila, and it has 140,000 personnel.

It is administered and controlled by the National Police Commission.


Passed on December 13, 1990, the Republic Act No. 6975, the Department of the Interior and Local Government Act of 1990, ended the existence of the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police and gave way to the creation of the Philippine National Police. R.A. 6975 was further amended by RA 8551, the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998, and by by RA 9708. The R.A. 8551 envisioned the PNP to be a community and service oriented Agency.


The PNP has the following branches included the following organizations"[2]

Criminal Investigation and Detection Group

The Criminal Investigation and Detection Group is a unit of the PNP that investigates major crime of a national scope, espescially those crimes committed by national criminal organizations

Internal Affairs Service

The PNP created a national Internal Affairs Service (IAS) on June 1, 1999. It is an organization within the structure of the PNP and one of its tasks is to help the Chief institute reforms to improve the image of the police force through assessment, analysis and evaluation of the character and behavior of the PNP personnel. It is headed by the Inspector General.

Philippine National Police Academy

The Philippine National Police Academy is located at Camp Gen. Mariano N. Castaneda, Silang, Cavite and is the premier training academy for the Philippine National Police, Bureau of Jail Management & Penology and Bureau of Fire Protection.

National Operations Center (NOC)

The National Operations Center (NOC) is at Camp Crame. Chief Superintendent Constante Azares Jr., chief of the PNP-NOC, explained that "the NOC is the hub and nerve center of all PNP operations and activities nationwide. All deployments, movement of troops and police operations are monitored, coordinated and directed from this facility."[3]


Recruitment and training

The PNP conducts regular recruitment programs, depending on the annual budget. The entry level for non-commissioned officers is the rank of Police Officer 1 or PO1. The new recruits will undergo Public Safety Basic Recruit Course for six months, and a Field Training Program for another six months. Prior for their actual duty, they are required to undergo the mandatory special training of PNP SCOUT or PNP Special Counter-insurgency Unit Training course for 45 days to 5 months to enhance them in militaristic/tactics for future assignment in the field whether in the Striking Force or in the Police Station.

Commissioned officers for the Philippine National Police are from the Philippine National Police Academy as well as through "lateral entry" for specialized disciplines and requirements such as criminologists in line-officers, lawyers, doctors, engineers, nurse, chaplain and other technical positions and also the rose-from-the-rank personnel who have reached the qualifications to be a commissioned officer.

Ranks of the Philippine National Police

This is a list of the ranks used by the PNP equivalent to the Army.

Commissioned officers

  1. Police Director General (P D/Gen.) - General
  2. Police Deputy Director General (P D/DGen.) - Lieutenant General
  3. Police Director (P Dir.) - Major General
  1. Police Chief Superintendent (P C/Supt.) - Brigadier General
  2. Police Senior Superintendent (P S/Supt.) - Colonel
  3. Police Superintendent (P Supt.) - Lieutenant Colonel
  4. Police Chief Inspector (P C/Insp.) - Major
  5. Police Senior Inspector (P S/Insp.) - Captain
  6. Police Inspector (P Insp.) - Lieutenant

Non-commissioned officers

  1. Senior Police Officer IV (SPO4) - Master Sergeant (MSg)
  2. Senior Police Officer III (SPO3) - Technical Sergeant (TSg)
  3. Senior Police Officer II (SPO2) - Staff Sergeant (SSg)
  4. Senior Police Officer I (SPO1) - Sergeant (Sgt)
  5. Police Officer III (PO3) - Corporal (Cpl)
  6. Police Officer II (PO2) - Private First Class (Pfc)
  7. Police Officer I (PO1) - Private (Pvt)

Major activities and functions

International Peace Support Operations and Humanitarian Relief Missions

On 3 April 1992, fifteen months into its reconstitution, the PNP began sending its international contingent to peace support operations and humanitarian relief missions in conflict areas around the world. Although most of these endeavors were under the United Nations, there were some deployments made under the "lead-nation" concept or as an initiative of the national government of the Philippines. As of 30 June 2010, the PNP has sent over 1,600 officers on UN and other international peace support operations and humanitarian relief missions. (Several police officers have been deployed more than once in their careers.) It has delivered an estimated minimum of 3.5 million (wo)man-hours in the mission areas. PNP peacekeepers have had no fatalities under hostile fire. The 1993 deaths of Senior Police Officers 4 Winston Zerrudo and Edilberto Evangelista, both UNTAC Police, were due to non-hostile causes.


UN Peace Support Operations requiring UN Civilian Police services may be armed or unarmed peacekeeping, peace-building, or specialized efforts.

The PNP's deployments have included

  • CAMBODIA: 1992-93 -- United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (UNTAC)
  • HAITI: 1994-95; 2004–present -- Operation Uphold Democracy in Haïti - International Police Monitors component; UN Mission in Haïti (UNMIH); la Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti; UN Stabilization Mission in Haïti (MINUSTAH)
  • EAST TIMOR: 1999-2002 -- UN Mission in East Timor (UNAMET); UN Transitional Administration in East Timor (UNTAET)
  • TIMOR-LESTE: 2002–present -- UN Mission of Support in East Timor (UNMISET); UN Office in Timor-Leste (UNOTIL): UN Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)
  • KOSOVO: 1999-2009 -- UN Interim Administration Mission in (UNMIK)
  • IRAQ: 2003-04 -- Philippine Humanitarian Contingent in Iraq (PHCI)
  • LIBERIA: 2004–present -- UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
  • AFGHANISTAN: 2004–09 -- UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA)
  • THE SUDAN (Southern): 2005–present -- UN Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS)
  • Ivory Coast: 2005-07 -- l'Opération des Nations Unies en Côte d'Ivoire; UN Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (ONUCI)
  • NEPAL: 2007-08 -- UN Mission in Nepal (UNMIN)
  • GEORGIA: 2007–09 -- UN Observer Mission in Georgia (UNOMIG)
  • LEBANON: 2008 -- UN Independent International Investigation Commission in Lebanon (UNIIIC)
  • THE SUDAN (Western): 2008–present -- UN-African Union Hybrid Mission in Darfur (UNAMID).[5]


Manila blackmail incident

Further information: 1998 Manila blackmail incident

A blackmail case occurred in Binondo Manila when police officers abducted and blackmailed 7 Chinese citizens suspected of drug trafficking on December 30, 1998.[6] After many months of detainment and torture, two Hong Kong citizens were killed off when the ransom money was not met.[7] One police superintendent who knew of the operation was also killed.[6]

Euro Generals scandal

Further information: Euro Generals scandal

The Euro Generals scandal involves Eliseo de la Paz and several Philippine National Police officials who went to Russia on October 2008 to attend the Interpol conference. De la Paz was detained for carrying a large sum of undeclared money. A House panel investigating the scandal concluded that the six police officials who attended the conference had made the trip illegally.[8] In 2010, the Office of the Ombudsman filed graft charges against twelve former and active ranking PNP officials for their alleged involvement in the incident.[9][10]

Parañaque shootout

On December 5, 2008, ten suspected criminals, one policeman, and five civilians, a total of sixteen people, including a seven year old girl, were killed in a bloody shootout in Parañaque. Several others were wounded, including a ranking officer of the Highway Patrol Group, two members of the Special Action Force, a village watchman, and a security guard, said Director Leopoldo Bataoil, head of the Metro Manila regional police.[11] The head of the Internal Affairs Service of the PNP said, "We failed in our mission to protect the civilians. [Because] during the conduct of operation [many civilian lives were lost],"[12] On July 29, 2009, it was reported that the Department of Justice (DOJ) had filed multiple murder charges against 29 policemen, including three generals, in connection with the shootout following the filing of a complaint-affidavit by Lilian de Vera, who lost her husband and daughter 7, in the incident.[13] On January 11, 2010, the Commission on Human Rights recommended the filing of criminal and administrative charges against 26 policemen[14] In March, it was reported that after two witnesses had said De Vera and his daughter were not killed in the shootout,that policemen already had complete control of the area where the two were killed, the Department of Justice filed two counts of murder charges against 25 policemen for the killings.[15]

Binayug torture case

Inspector Joselito Binayug, chief of the Asuncion police community precinct in Tondo arrested Darius Evangelista on March 5, 2009 for alleged robbery. A torture video was leaked to the media and shown on television showing a police officer whipping and cursing the suspect and pulling on a rope that was tied to the victim’s genitals. The incident allegedly happened inside the Asuncion police precinct in Tondo. Binayug was arrested for violating the Anti-Torture act of 2009. Separate charges were filed for Evangelista being tortured to death.[16][17]

Maguindanao massacre

Main article: Maguindanao massacre

On November 24, 2009, Senior Superintendent Abusana Maguid, the police chief of Maguindanao province, was reported to have been relieved of his duties after witnesses reported seeing three of his officers at the scene of the Maguindanao massacre in which 57 people, including journalists, lawyers, aides, and motorists who were witnesses were killed.[18] On 25 November Maguid and Chief Inspector Sukarno Dikay were reported to have been relieved from post and placed under restrictive custody.[19] On November 26, Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) Secretary Ronaldo Puno announced that Maguid, Dikay, and others were suspected of involvement in the massacre.[20] On 19 December, Maguid, Dikay, and others were reported to have been recommended for summary dismissal by the PNP high command.[21] On April 16, 2010, the National Police Commission ordered a 90-day suspension against Maguid, Dikay, and 60 other police personnel for their possible involvement in the killings.[22] On July 10, it was reported that Dikay had applied to become state witness, saying that he is confident that his testimony will pin down the masterminds of the killing.[23]

Failed hostage rescue operation

Further information: 2010 Manila hostage crisis

The Philippine National Police conceded that in the 2010 Manila hostage crisis they made blunders in ending a bus hijacking, as outrage grew over the bloody assault played out on live television that left eight Hong Kong tourists dead. The Hong Kong Economic Journal was reported to have accused the PNP of having an "appalling professional standards" and "...[a] lack of strategic planning".[24]


The standard issue sidearm of the PNP is the Glock 17 Gen 4 semi-automatic pistol while the Special Action Force also gain the M1911 pistol in .45 ACP for more firepower.

Heavy arms are always available to the officers, such as the Heckler & Koch MP5, IMI Uzi and FN P90 sub-machine guns, Remington 870 shotguns 、M4 carbine, AK-47 and M16 rifle or other weapons required for missions.


Aircraft Origin Type Active Notes
Eurocopter AS350[25]  France utility helicopters 3[26] more stored awaiting re-activation
MBB Bo 105[27]  Germany utility helicopter unknown more stored awaiting re-activation
Robinson R-44  United States training helicopter unknown total 124 units ordered, 40 delivered in February 2003[28]

List of chiefs

# Name Term of Office
Start End
1 Cesar P. Nazareno[29] 31 March 1991 28 August 1992
2 Raul S. Imperial[29] 28 August 1992 6 May 1993
3 Umberto Rodriguez[29] 6 May 1993 8 July 1994
4 Recaredo Arevalo Sarmiento II[29] 8 July 1994 1997
5 Santiago L. Aliño[30] 1997 1998
6 Roberto T. Lastimoso[30] 1998 1999
7 Edmundo L. Larozza[30] 1999 (acting) 1999
8 Panfilo Morena Lacson[30] November 1999 January 2001
9 Leandro Ramos Mendoza[30] 16 March 2001 2002
10 Hermogenes Edejer Ebdane, Jr.[31] July 2002 23 August 2004
11 Edgar B. Aglipay[31][32] 23 August 2004 March 6, 2005
12 Arturo Lomibao[32][33] March 13, 2005 August 29, 2006
13 Oscar Castelo Calderon[33][34] August 29, 2006 October 1, 2007
14 Avelino Ignacio Razon, Jr.[34] October 1, 2007 September 27, 2008
15 Jesus Ame Verzosa[35] September 27, 2008 September 14, 2010
16 Raul Macalalad Bacalzo September 14, 2010 September 8, 2011
17 Nicanor Ancheta Bartolome September 8, 2011 December 17, 2012
18 Alan La Madrid Purisima December 17, 2012 Present

See also


External links

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