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List of main infrastructure projects in Indonesia

The following is a list of some main infrastructure projects in Indonesia, including recently completed projects, activities reported to be under way, and main projects which have been announced as likely to start in the near future.

Contents

  • Summary list 1
  • Introduction 2
  • Recently completed (last five years) 3
  • Currently underway 4
  • Proposed 5
  • Postponed 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8

Summary list

Category Project Location Sector Estimated cost
($US bill)
Recently completed
Suramadu bridge (2010) East Java Road 0.5
Tanjung Jati power (2012) Central Java Electric power 1.0
Indramayu power (2011) West Java Electric power 0.9
Currently underway
Trans-Java toll road Java Road 5.5
Kalibaru port (Tanjung Priok) Jakarta Port 4.0
Central Java coal power Batang Electric power 4.0
Puruk Cahu-Bangkuang coal railway Central Kalimantan Rail 2.3 - 3.2
Jakarta MRT (mass rapid transit) Jakarta Rail 1.7
Trans-Java (Pantura) railway Java Rail 1.0
Proposed
Trans-Sumatra toll road Sumatra Road 36.1
Jakarta-Bandung super-express West Java Rail 6.7
Sumatra coal railway Southern Sumatra Rail 4.8
West Kutai - Balikpapan coal railway East Kalimantan Rail 2.4
Muara Wahau - Bengalon coal railway East Kalimantan Rail 1.0
Soekarno-Hatta airport links Jakarta Rail 0.2 + 2.0
Trans-Sumatra railway Sumatra Rail 5.5
Postponed
Sunda Strait Bridge Sunda Strait Road 15 - 20

Introduction

Three points may be noted about this list.

  • Individual projects. The list includes individual projects rather than broader programs which combine many projects. However the distinction between projects and programs is not always clear. For example, the Trans-Java toll road consists of many individual activities each of which might be considered as small individual projects. But the construction of the toll road is often referred to in the media and by government officials as a project. It has therefore been considered a single project for the purposes of this list. On the other hand, the Indonesian government has announced two 10,000 MW 'fast track' electricity generation investment programs. These programs clearly consist of a wide range of individual large and small projects and so the two fast track electricity programs have not been listed as individual projects here.
  • Delays. As in common in many countries, it is often the case in Indonesia that projects take longer than originally expected to get under way. And some projects do not proceed beyond an encouraging announcement phase. Projects listed below as 'proposed' are significant projects (broadly speaking, over US$ 1 billion) which appear to have some reasonable prospect of proceeding within the foreseeable future.
  • Masterplan. As a background to the list it should be noted that most projects listed here are mentioned in the significant Indonesian government's Masterplan 2011-2015[1] (MP3EI) released in May 2011. The Masterplan amounts to an outline of investment plans in the infrastructure sector. A comprehensive list of potential projects is listed in the appendix to the Masterplan although in most cases the source of investment funding is not specified.

Recently completed (last five years)

Suramadu Bridge

Estimated cost: around $US 450 million

The Suramadu Bridge is a bridge from Java (near the main town of Surabaya) across the Madura Strait to the nearby large island of Madura. The 5.4 km bridge is currently the longest bridge in Indonesia. Construction began in 2003. The bridge was opened for public use in June 2010. The estimated cost of the project has been put at around $US 450 million.

Tanjung Jati B power plant units 3 and 4

Estimated cost: $ 2 billion

The capacity of the Tanjung Jati B power plant in Jepara Regency in Central Java was increased to 2,640 MW with the addition of two new units, Unit 3 and Unit 4 (each with a capacity of 660 MW), in February 2012. Construction was carried out with the Sumitomo Corporation and Wasa Mitra Engineering as contractors. The total investment of $ 2.08 billion was supported with funds from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) and other commercial banks.[2]

West Java Indramayu power plant

Estimated cost: $ 870 million

The coal-fired 990 MW Indramayu West Java 1 power plant was inaugurated in October 2011. Construction began in 2007 and was managed by a consortium of contractors: China National Machinery Industry Corporation, China National Electric Equipment Corporation, and PT Penta Adi Samudra. The plant is one of the power plants in the Indonesian government's first 10,000 MW fast-track program. Funding was provided by a consortium of the China Construction Bank, the Perusahaan Listrik Negara (Indonesian State Electricity Corporation), and four main Indonesian banks (Bank Negara Indonesia, Bank Mandiri, Bank Rakyat Indonesia, and Bank Central Asia).[3]

Currently underway

Trans-Java toll road

Estimated cost: Rp 51.6 tillion (around $US 5.5 billion) for 619 km.[4]

The idea of a trans-Java toll road stretching from the ports of Banyuwangi in the province of East Java to Merak in Banten province in the west of Java has been under discussion in Indonesia for many years. There were plans to get the project underway during the 1990s but work was put on hold following the impact of the 1997-98 Asian Financial Crisis in Indonesia. The length of the major highway road is mentioned, variously, at between 800 km to over 1,100 km depending on precisely which subsections of the overall activity are said to be included. There are usually at least 20 subsections listed as part of the overall project. The status of the subsections currently (early 2013) ranges from operational to still in the planning stage. Land acquisition is often a major problem. There are frequent reports in the national press of land acquisition programs for various sub-projects within the overall scheme.[5] The cost of constructing the major part of the toll road (619 km) is listed in the Indonesian government's Masterplan 2011-2015[6] (MP3EI, p. 199) as Rp 51.6 trillion (around $US 5.5 billion).

  • Sept 2012: Ministry of Public Works officials were reported in the national press as saying that land acquisition and associated financial problems were holding up various sub-projects within the total toll road. It was reported that of a planned 615 km under construction, land acquisition had been arranged for 53% of the total. In principle, the remaining time for project completion was two years but in some cases, the process of land acquisition was completely stalled.[7]
  • Mar 2013: The Public Works Minister, Djoko Kirmanto, said that construction of the nine main segments of the road would certainly not be finished by the end of 2014. He said that there were still various delays in implementing the project. Of the total length of 650 km planned for the road segments currently included in the overall project, only 62.3 km had so far been built.

Kalibaru Port

Estimated cost: $4 billion (first phase: $2.5 billion; later phases: $1.5 billion).

The Kalibaru Port project involves the large-scale development of new port facilities at the Jakarta port of Tanjung Priok. It is expected that the construction of the facilities will take place in three phases.

First phase. In the first phase the state-run port firm Pelindo II, also known as the Indonesian Port Corporation (IPC), will construct three container terminals with a total capacity of 4.5 million 20-foot equivalent units (TEUs) and two fuel berths. In early 2013 the Japanese firm Mitsui & Co. was awarded the tender to operate the first Kalibaru container terminal. Under the terms of the contract Mitsui is committed to begin operating ships in Kalibaru port in September 2014 with each ship having around 6,000 TEUs capacity.[8]

Second and third phase. The later stages are expected to include the construction of additional container terminals which are scheduled to have a total capacity of 3 million TUEs and commence operations in 2016.

  • Mar 2013: Tenders were opened for the operation of the second and third terminals.[9]
  • Mar 2013: President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono led the ground breaking ceremony. The facilities to be constructed in the first phase are expected to be completed by 2017.[10]

Central Java coal-power plant

Estimated cost: Around $ 4 billion. Listed in the Indonesian government MP3EI Masterplan (p. 197) at Rp 26 trill over the period 2013 to 2019.

The Indonesian firm PT Bhimasena Power Indonesia (BPI) is developing the project, an ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plant, in Batang Regency, near Pekalongan. The plant, which will have a capacity of 2,000 MW, is scheduled to begin commercial operations in 2017. A consortium of J-Power, Itochu Corporation of Japan, and the coal-mining firm PT Adaro Energy Tbk, will build the plant.[11] The plant will be an IPP (independent power producer) and power will be sold to the PLN. The project was initially due to be completed by end-2016. Initial planning work was done with support of the International Finance Corporation. The cost of the initial planning work is expected to be recouped from successful contractors. The state Indonesian Infrastructure Guarantee Fund[12] is reported to have agreed to provide financial guarantees to the investors covering financial risks if PLN fails to meet its financial obligations.[13]

  • Oct 2011: Official documents launching the project[14] were signed in a conference in the Office of the Coordinating Ministry of Economics on 6 October 2011 in the presence of a number of senior ministers and other senior officials representing relevant parties. It was announced that the plant was the first project to be implemented on the basis of Presidential Regulation No 67/2005 concerning Government Cooperation with Business Entities in Supplying Infrastructure.
  • Oct 2012: It was reported that the start of the project would be delayed because of an extended invironmental assessment and protests by local residents who oppose the plant. Availability of financing is expected to be delayed by at least one year thus pushing back the start up of the plant to end-2017.[15]
  • Jan 2013: Meetings were held at the ministerial level to try to overcome factors delaying the construction of the plant.[16]
  • May 2013: A senior official from the Office of the Coordinating Economic Ministry confirmed that the plant would go ahead despite strong protests from local groups. He said that 186 ha of the total of 226 ha needed had already been acquired and that negotiations for the remaining land needed were proceeding.[17]

Central Kalimantan Puruk Cahu-Bangkuang coal railway

Estimated cost: US$ 2.3 - 3.3 billion.

The activity is expected to be a 385 km rail project to connect mines in the north of Central Kalimantan (near Puruk Cahu in Murung Raya Regency) with a port at Batanjung in Kapuas Regency to the south of the town of Kuala Kapuas. Construction was originally expected to start end-2012 and be completed by early 2015 but latest reports suggest that the tender will be let to the market in late 2012 with the aim of announcing a winner by April 2013. The railroad will pass through five regencies (Murung Raya, North Barito, South Barito, Barito East, and Kapuas). Four consortiums are reported to be bidding for the project. The project has a guarantee from the infrastructure guarantee agency PT Penjaminan Infrastruktur Indonesia (PII), also known as the Indonesian Infrastructure Guarantee Fund.[18][19]

  • November 2012: it was announced that bidders had submitted proposals to the Central Kalimantan government and that the winner of the tender would be announced in early 2013. It was also announced that the scope of the project had been widened to include an additional rail link to Lupak Dalam in Kapuas Regency so that three coal centres would be linked into the railway. The expected completion date was extended to 2017.[20]

Jakarta MRT (Mass Rapid Transit)

Estimated cost: varies from Rp 15.5 trill (around US$ 1.7 billion) to Rp 23 trillion (around US$ 2.3 billion)

The Jakarta Mass Rapid Transit Project mainly consists of the planned construction of a series (three phases) of MRT rail links across Jakarta. The first phase will be a 15.5 kilometer North-South corridor with 13 stations. The plan is to construct a central MRT station with a line running from Lebak Bulus (South Jakarta) to the Hotel Indonesia traffic circle (Central Jakarta). Initial plans are for six underground stations and seven above-ground stations.[21] Ground breaking is expected to take place during 2013. The project was originally said to be targeted for completion in late 2016 although more recently a target date of 2018 has been mentioned. The project has support from the Japanese government and major Japanese construction firms have been showing interest in bidding for sections of the activity. Funding will be initially provided from a Yen 120 billion ($US 1.4 billion) soft loan from JICA.[22] In two later phases, it is expected that the line will be extended northwards (with an estimated length of around 8 km through Harmoni and Kota to Kampung Bandan in North Jakarta) and then later east-west (from Tangerang to Bekasi).

  • April 2012: One of the main firms involved in the project, PT Mass Rapid Transit Jakarta,[23] announced the letting of contracts for the procurement of rolling stock (96 cars).
  • Late 2012: After he took office in October, the new governor of Jakarta Joko Widodo put the MRT project on hold. The governor called for a review of the project. He argued that the project was over-priced and that if it went ahead, the Indonesian central government needed to provide additional financial support.[24] The governor also said that he wanted the two main consortiums bidding for the project—one mainly consisting of private sector firms and the other mainly made up of state-owned firms—to join together into a single consortium. However, previous attempts to arrange this sort of cooperation on the project had not been successful and some of the main firms indicated that they were not willing to adopt the governor's suggestion.[25]
  • December 2012: Jakarta Mayor Joko Widodo announced that after a review, the project would go ahead. He listed it as one of the priority projects in the Jakarta city budget for 2013.[26]
  • May 2013: Jakarta Mayor Joko Widodo officially launched further arrangements to build the MRT. It was announced that tenders for the first three out of a total of eight work packages had been awarded. A consortium consisting of Shimizu-Obayashi-Wijaya Karya-Java Konstruksi had won tenders to build two underground stations. A consortium consisting of Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Company-Hutama Karya had one the third tender.[27]

Trans-Java Pantura railway

Estimated cost: current sections around $US 1.04 billion.

When complete, two tracks will span the Jakarta-Surabaya Pantai Utara (North coast or Pantura) corridor of over 700 km. Two sections of about 300 km (Jakarta-Cirebon and Brebes-Pekalongan) have already been completed. Bidding was opened in Dec 2011 for the remaining sections expected to cost around Rp 9.5 trillion (around $US 1.0 billion). The remaining sections (around 430 km) are Cirebon-Brebes (62 km), Pekalongan-Semarang (90 km), Semarang-Bojonegoro (175 km), and Bojonegoro-Surabaya (105 km). In October 2012, it was reported that the installation of double tracks was about 45% complete.[28] The sections are expected to be completed by 2013.[29] The completion of the double track system is expected to cut the travel time between Jakarta and Surabaya from the current time of 11 hours to under 9 hours and to increase capacity from 64 trains to 200 trains per day.

  • October 2012: Vice President Dr Boediono said on a visit to survey progress on the project said that construction of the double track from Jakarta to Semarang was expected to be complete by mid-2013. He said that the remaining segment to the east of Semarang, to Surabaya, was expected to be completed by end-2013 and be ready for operation in early 2014.
  • March 2013 A senior Transportation Ministry official said that the project is 75% complete and is expected to be completed by November 2013. He said that the new rail road will increase goods transport capacity from the present (March 2013) of 150,000 TEUs (twenty-food equivalent units) to 1 million TEUs per year.[30]

Proposed

Trans-Sumatra toll road

Estimated cost: Rp 351 trillion (around $US 36 billion)

The plan is to construct a trans-Sumatra toll road from Banda Aceh at the northern tip of Sumatra to the province of Lampung in the south, a distance of perhaps around 2,000 km or more (depending on the route chosen). The plan is to begin the large project with the construction of a 22-km stretch from Palembang to Indralaya in the province of South Sumatra beginning in March 2013. The state-owned construction firm PT Hutama Karya[31] has been appointed by the Ministry of State-Owned Enterprises][32] to begin work on the overall project of constructing the overall toll road.[33]

  • March 2013: It was announced that construction was expected to start during 2013. State-owned construction firm PT Hutama Karya was waiting for the government to issue an official regulation of appointment to carry out the project. Expected date of completion was said to be 2015.[34]
  • End 2013: Progress was reported to be slow. Officials were still waiting for the president to sign a Presidential Regulation (Keppres or Keputusan President) to speed up processes for construction of the project. Land acquisition, especially, had been very slow.

Jakarta-Bandung super express

Estimated cost: Rp 60 trillion, around $US 6.7 billion

The Japanese Government is reported to have agreed to fund a feasibility study into the possibility of constructing a super-express train to travel between Jakarta and Bandung (144 km) in as little as 30 minutes. The trip currently takes around three hours. The feasibility study is expected to take perhaps two years to prepare. The completion date of the project is mentioned as perhaps 2017 or 2018.[35]

Sumatra coal railway

Estimated cost: the reported cost varies depending on the source; a figure of $2.4 billion was reported in 2011.[36] Alternatively, the project was listed in the Indonesian government MP3EI Masterplan (p. 195) at Rp 15.3 trillion (about $1.5 billion) over period 2011 to 2015.

The planned project is for a rail line of around 300 km from Tanjung Enim in South Sumatra to Bandar Lampung (Lampung Port) in the province of Lampung passing through eight regencies and one city. Construction is expected to start in 2013. Operations are planned to start in 2016.[37]

In November 2011, loan financing of $1.3 billion was arranged between PT Bukit Asam Transpacific Railways (BATR) and the China Development Bank. Three other Chinese lenders participating in the $1.3 billion syndicate were the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC), Bank of China and China Exim Bank. The rest of the $700 million financing was said to be expected to come from equity and from the initial paid-up capital from shareholders. The BATR company is reportedly controlled by the Rajawali group, owned by Indonesian businessman Peter Sondakh, and includes other shareholders. The project is expected to be part of an integrated plan consisting of coal mining, coal transportation, and port logistics. Around 50% of the coal transported on the rail link is expected to be purchased by Chinese companies, 30% by other international buyers, and 20% by domestic buyers including the Indonesian state-owned electricity company (PLN).

  • In late 2012 issues surrounding the acquisition of land for the project were the subject of public comment when a law expert from Lampung province warned that care needed to be taken to ensure that local community conflict did not occur over land issues during the construction of the project.[38]

West Kutai - Balikpapan coal railway

Estimated cost: around $2.4 billion.

Plans have been announced for Russian Railways to support the construction of a rail line in East Kalimantan for the transport of coal. The governor of East Kalimantan is reported to have said that the Russian Joint Stock Company will build a railway of around 240 km (at a cost of about $2.4 billion) in two stages.[39] First, there will be a link of about 183 km from an area near Balikpapan to West Kutai regency in East Kalimantan (expected cost about $1.8 billion). The second link (about 60 km) will extend onwards to Murung Raya Regency in Central Kalimantan (expected cost around $600 million).[40]

Funding is expected to be provided from private investors and the Russian state development bank Vnesheconombank. In late 2012 the project was reported as being in the feasibility stage. Construction was expected to start in 2013 and operations were set to begin in 2017.[41] By late 2013, however, start of construction had been reportedly delayed until 2014.

Muara Wahau - Bengalon coal railway

Estimated cost: $1.0 billion.

In late 2009 plans were announced for a group of private investors from the United Arab Emirates (UAR) to build the first-ever private railways in Indonesia in cooperation with MEC Holdings.[42] The project, expected to cost around $1 billion, was expected to be part of the development of a large $5 billion integrated industrial facility in East Kalimantan.[43] Under the agreement, MEC Holdings[44] in cooperation with the Ras Al Khaimah Investment Authority would develop a 130 km railway to transport coal and other materials in and out of East Kutai regency. The line was expected to link a coal mine in Muara Wahau to a port at Bengalon on the east coast of Kalimantan. In 2009, it was suggested that work on the project would begin very soon. However, since that time, progress seems to have been slow.

  • In mid-2012 the governor of East Kalimantan, Awang Faroek, said that plans for the project were in the pipeline. He said that the railway was part of a larger scheme which included plans for a coal terminal, a coal power plant (1,250 MW), and a smelter (with a capacity of 500,000 tons),[45] the total cost of which would come to Rp 45 trillion (around US$ 4.76 billion).[46] The governor said that he hoped the projects would all be complete by 2014.

Soekarno-Hatta International Airport railway links

There are two projects—a commuter line and an express line.

  • Commuter line

Estimated cost: $ 250 million (around Rp 2.25 trillion).

The first, a southern commuter line which will mainly use existing lines with double tracks, is expected to be built during 2013 and be operational by mid-2014. This line will run from the existing Manggarai railway station to link up (through Tanah Abang, Grogol, Tanah Tinggi and Tangerang) to the Soekarno-Hatta airport. The trip is expected to take around 60 mins. In December 2011 the president director of the state-owned railway company Kereta Api Indonesia (KAI), Ignasius Johan, said that the link was expected to cost Rp 2.25 trillion (around US$ 250 million). In November 2011, president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono signed a regulation (Presidential Regulation No 83/2011) to facilitate the construction of the rail link by KAI which, amongst other things, provided KAI with certain legal immunities for the project.[47]

  • Express line

Estimated cost (2012): US$ 2.0 billion (Rp 18.9 trillion).

The second project is for an express link along a dedicated line going straight to the airport (via Pluit in the north of Jakarta). The project was originally expected to be offered for tender in 2013 and start in 2014.[48] However, the project has been delayed because the feasibility study took longer than expected.[49] The project is expected to be tendered to a private company under public-private investment arrangements supported by the state-owned infrastructure funding company PT Sarana Multi Infrastruktur. This is the second attempt to build the project; earlier plans were abandoned in 2005 due to a range of problems such as land acquisition and financing.[50]

  • Trans-Sumatra railway

Estimated cost (2014): US$ 5.5 billion (Rp 65 trillion)

It was announced (November 2014) that the Transportation Ministry was preparing plans for a 2,168 km rail link from Aceh in the northern tip of Sumatra to Lampung at the southern tip. A feasibility study was expected to be prepared during 2015. In the first stages, selected segments of the proposed Sumatran rail link (such as a link between Pekanbaru and Dumai in the province of Riau) would be given priority.[51]

Postponed

Sunda Strait Bridge

Estimated cost: perhaps between $US 15 - 20 billion

The Sunda Strait Bridge is an ambitious road and railway megaproject between the two Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java. In October 2007, after years of discussion and planning, the Indonesian government gave the initial go-ahead for a project which included several of the world’s longest suspension bridges, across the 27 km (17 mi) Sunda Strait. The project remained at the the prefeasibility stage during the period of the administration of president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono although senior government figures, including the president, repeatedly said that the project would begin before the end of his administration in 2014. A number of ministerial meetings were held in the period 2010 - 2014 to discus steps needed to support the project. However, in November 2014, the incoming Joko Widodo government announced that plans to build the bridge would be shelved.[52]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.ekon.go.id/media/filemanager/2011/07/06/m/p/mp3ei-english_final.pdf
  2. ^ Rangga D. Fadillah, Tanjung Jati power plants begin operation, The Jakarta Post, 7 February 2012.
  3. ^ Rangga D. Fadillah, W. Java power plant now fully operational, The Jakarta Post, 13 October 2011.
  4. ^ Other estimates put the cost considerably higher. A figure of Rp 160 trillion, almost $US 17 billion, has been mentioned in media reports. See Raras Cahyafitri, RI risks falling into middle-income trap, The Jakarta Post, 13 October 2012.
  5. ^ Dion Bisara and April Aswadi, Trans-Java Toll Project Faces Gaps in Land Acquisition, The Jakarta Globe, 3 August 2009.
  6. ^ http://www.ekon.go.id/media/filemanager/2011/07/06/m/p/mp3ei-english_final.pdf
  7. ^ Thomas Mola and Mia Chitra Dinisari, 'Proyek tol terhambat lahan & dana' [Toll road projects: hampered by land & funding problems], Business Indonesia, 26 September 2012.
  8. ^ Nurfika Osman, Mitsui to operate Kalibaru, The Jakarta Post, 5 March 2013.
  9. ^ Nurfika Osman, Pelindo II opens tender for Kalibaru's 2nd, 3rd terminals, The Jakarta Post, 22 March 2013.
  10. ^ Nurfika Osman, Yudhoyono kicks off RI's largest port project, The Jakarta Post, 23 March 2013.
  11. ^ Faisal Maliki, Adaro Energy, Japanese Firms to Build $3.2b Power Plant, The Jakarta Globe, 25 May 2011.
  12. ^ http://www.iigf.co.id/Website/Home.aspx
  13. ^ Bimasena named to build Central Java plant, The Jakarta Post, 7 October 2011. See also Rangga D. Fadillah, $3.3b power plant gets state guarantee, The Jakarta Post, 18 January 2011.
  14. ^ http://www.esdm.go.id/news-archives/electricity/46-electricity/5220-pltu-central-java-2x1000mw-operates-by-the-end-of-2016.html
  15. ^ Japan-Indonesia team delay $4b Central Java plant, The Jakarta Globe, 12 October 2012.
  16. ^ Amahl S. Azwar, , 10 January 2013.The Jakarta PostDevelopment of RI's biggest power plant stymied,
  17. ^ Satria Sambijantoro, Biggest power project goes on despite protests, The Jakarta Post, 11 May 2013.
  18. ^ http://www.iigf.co.id/Website/Home.aspx
  19. ^ PII to guarantee $2.3b railway project in C. Kalimantan, The Jakarta Post, 1 December 2011.
  20. ^ Nurfika Osman, Central Kalimantan's $2.8b coal railway to kick off early next year, The Jakarta Post, 14 November 2012.
  21. ^ Andreas D. Arditya, MRT construction to begin with underground work, The Jakarta Post, 2 August 2012.
  22. ^ Andreas D. Arditya, MRT project begins next year: City, The Jakarta Post, 13 December 2011.
  23. ^ jakartamrt.com
  24. ^ Ary Hermawan, MRT plan hanging by a thread as traffic apocalypse looms, The Jakarta Post, 8 December 2012.
  25. ^ Andreas D. Arditya, Jokowi tells bidders to work together on monorail project, The Jakarta Post, 8 December 2012.
  26. ^ Andreas D. Arditya, Jakarta finally goes ahead with MRT plan, The Jakarta Post, 21 December 2012.
  27. ^ Sita W. Desi, MRT project finally kicks off, sort of, The Jakarta Post, 3 May 2013.
  28. ^ Nurfika Osman, Southern Java track to be revamped, The Jakarta Post, 20 October 2012.
  29. ^ Cirebon-Surabya railway project ready for auction, The Jakarta Post, 23 November 2011.
  30. ^ Nurfika Osman, Trans Java double track set to operate in November, The Jakarta Post, 9 March 2013.
  31. ^ http://www.hutama-karya.com/en
  32. ^ bumn.go.id
  33. ^ Ansyor Idrus, Trans-Sumatra turnpike project set to start, The Jakarta Post, 3 November 2012.
  34. ^ Nurfika Osman, Hutama expects to start Trans Sumatra highway project this year, The Jakarta Post, 6 March 2013.
  35. ^ Tri Listiyarini and Kunradus Aliandu, Plans to Build Indonesia's First High-Speed Rail Line Gather Steam, The Jakarta Post, 19 March 2012.
  36. ^ Janeman Latul and Neil Chatterjee, Special report: The missing BRIC in Indonesia's wall, The Jakarta Post, 21 January 2012
  37. ^ Esther Samboh, China to channel US$1.3b for Sumatra coal railway, The Jakarta Post, 19 November 2011. See also Janeman Latul and Neil Chatterjee, Special report: The missing BRIC in Indonesia's wall, The Jakarta Post, 21 January 2012, and PTBA expects to start railroad project later this year, The Jakarta Post, 13 March 2012.
  38. ^ Oyos Saroso H.N., Mining company warned over railway project, The Jakarta Post, 3 December 2012.
  39. ^ Russian firms signs MOU to build $2.4 billion railway, The Jakarta Post, 8 February 2012.
  40. ^ Russian Railways to Build $2.4b Coal Line in Indonesia, The Jakarta Globe, 7 February 2012.
  41. ^ Linda Yulisman, Russia plans to invest billions in smelters in RI, The Jakarta Post, 6 September 2012.
  42. ^ http://www.mec-holdings.com/press/201010_indonesias_first_railway.html
  43. ^ Indonesia's first private railway project ready for construction, The Jakarta Post, 16 December 2009.
  44. ^ http://www.mec-holdings.com/index.html
  45. ^ http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/business/kalimantans-56b-smelter-to-operate-in-2012-official/455640
  46. ^ Coal, aluminum firms to invest $4.76 billion in East Kutai, The Jakarta Post, 12 July 2012.
  47. ^ Andreas D. Arditya, op. cit.
  48. ^ Airport train project to start from scratch, The Jakarta Post, 11 November 2011.
  49. ^ Nurfika Osman, Jakarta-Airport railway delay expected, The Jakarta Post, 1 August 2012.
  50. ^ Andreas D. Arditya, KAI: Airport train ready in 2013, The Jakarta Post, 9 December 2011.
  51. ^ Nadya Natahadibrata, 'Trans-Sumatra railway in sight', The Jakarta Post', 27 November 2014.
  52. ^ Satria Sambijantoro, 'No more Sunda Strait Bridge plan', The Jakarta Post, 3 November 2014. See also 'New Government Will Not Prioritize Sunda Strait Bridge Project', Global Indonesian Voices, 2 November 2014.
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