World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Makaira

Article Id: WHEBN0005002366
Reproduction Date:

Title: Makaira  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Geography of Guam, Perciformes, Marlin, Atlantic blue marlin, Billfish, List of apex predators, Wildlife of Malaysia
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Makaira

Atlantic blue marlin
Male species
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Istiophoridae
Genus: Makaira
Lacépède, 1802
Species: M. nigricans
Binomial name
Makaira nigricans
Lacépède, 1802
The range of the Atlantic blue marlin
Synonyms

Genus:

  • Eumakaira Hirasaka & H. Nakamura, 1947
  • Marlina Hirasaka & H. Nakamura, 1947
  • Orthocraeros J. L. B. Smith, 1956

Species: (See Below)

The Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) is a species of marlin endemic to the Atlantic Ocean. The Atlantic blue marlin (hereafter, marlin) feeds on a wide variety of organisms near the surface. It uses its bill to stun, injure, or kill while knifing through a school of prey, then returns to eat. Marlin is a popular game fish. The relatively high fat content of its meat makes it commercially valuable in certain markets.

Blue marlin are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. A blue water fish that spends the majority of its life in the open sea far from land,[2] blue marlin prey on a wide variety of marine organisms, mostly near the surface, often using their bills to stun or injure their prey.

Females can grow up to four times the weight of males. The maximum published weight is 818 kg (1,803 lb) and length 5 m (16.4 ft).[3]

Adult blue marlin have few predators apart from man. Blue marlin are sought after as a highly prized game fish by anglers and are taken by commercial fishermen, both as a directed catch and as bycatch in major industrial tuna fisheries. Blue marlin are currently considered a threatened species by the IUCN due to overfishing.[1]

Some other historic English names for the Atlantic blue marlin are the Cuban black marlin, ocean gar, and ocean guard.[4]

Taxonomy and naming

The Atlantic blue marlin is placed in the genus Makaira. This name is derived from the Greek word machaira, meaning "a short sword or bent dagger", and the Latin machaera, "sword".[5][6] The specific epithet nigricans is Latin for "becoming black".[7] The Atlantic blue marlin is part of the billfish family Istiophoridae and is in the perch-like order Perciformes. In addition, it is in the suborder Xiphioidei and is a member of the subclass Neopterygii, which means "new wings". It is also in the class of Actinopterygii, which includes ray-finned fishes and spiny rayed fishes, and the superclass Osteichthyes, which includes all of the bony fishes.[8][9]

The classification of the Atlantic blue marlin (Makaira nigricans) and the Indo-Pacific blue marlin (Makaira mazara) as separate species is under debate. Genetic data suggests that, although the two groups are isolated from each other, they are both the same species, with the only genetic exchange occurring when Indo-Pacific blue marlin migrate to and contribute genes to the Atlantic population.[10] A separate study by V. P. Buonaccorsi, J. R. Mcdowell, and Graves indicated that both Indo-Pacific and Atlantic show "striking phylogeographic partitioning" of mitochondrial and microsatellite loci.[11]

Synonyms

Synonyms of Makaira nigricans are:[3]

  • Maikaira nigricans (sic) Lacepède, 1802
  • Makaira nigricans nigricans Lacepède, 1802
  • Xiphias ensis Lacepède, 1800 (ambiguous)
  • Makaira ensis (Lacepède, 1800) (ambiguous)
  • Tetrapturus herschelii J. E. Gray, 1838
  • Histiophorus herschelii (J. E. Gray, 1838)
  • Makaira herschelii (J. E. Gray, 1838)
  • Tetrapturus amplus Poey, 1860
  • Makaira ampla (Poey, 1860)
  • Makaira ampla ampla (Poey, 1860)
  • Makaira nigricans ampla (Poey, 1860)
  • Tetrapturus mazara D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1901
  • Istiompax mazara (D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
  • Makaira ampla mazara (D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
  • Makaira mazara (D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
  • Makaira nigricans mazara (D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1901)
  • Makaira bermudae Mowbray, 1931
  • Orthocraeros bermudae (Mowbray, 1931)
  • Eumakaira nigra Hirasaka & H. Nakamura, 1947
  • Makaira nigra (Hirasaka & H. Nakamura, 1947)
  • Makaira perezi F. de Buen, 1950
  • Istiompax howardi Whitley, 1954

Physical description

The biggest females are more than four times as heavy as the biggest males, which rarely exceed 160 kilograms (350 lb) in weight.[12] The longest females can reach a length of 5 m (16 ft) with the bill, from eye to tip, constituting about 20% of the total body length.

Body mass in the largest female specimens has been reported from 540 to 820 kg (1,190 to 1,810 lb), depending on the source (few large specimens are scientifically verified).[13] The largest blue marlin caught by IGFA angling rules is an Atlantic blue marlin from Vitoria, Brazil, which weighed 1,402 lb (636 kg).[14]

Both sexes have twenty-four vertebrae, of which eleven are precaudal and thirteen are caudal.[15]

The marlin has two dorsal fins and two anal fins. The fins are supported by bony spines known as rays. Its first dorsal fin has 39 to 43 rays from front to back.[15] Its second dorsal fin has 6 to 7 rays.[15] Its first anal fin, which is similar in shape and size to the second dorsal fin, has 13 to 16 rays,[15] and the second anal fin has 6 to 7 rays.[15] The pectoral fins, which have 19 to 22 rays,[15] are long and narrow and can be drawn in to the sides of the body. The pelvic fins are shorter than the pectorals, have a poorly developed membrane, and are depressible into ventral grooves. Its first anal fin, along with its pectoral and caudal fins, can be folded into grooves. This streamlines the fish and thereby reduces drag.

Blue marlin, like other billfish can rapidly change color, an effect created by pigment-containing iridophores and light-reflecting skin cells.[16]

Most often, however, the body is blue-black on top with a silvery white underside. It has about fifteen rows of pale, cobalt-colored stripes, each of which has round dots and/or thin bars, located on both sides of the fish.[15] The first dorsal fin membrane is dark blue or almost black and has no dots or marks. Other fins are normally brownish-black, sometimes with a hint of dark blue. The bases of the first and second anal fins have a hint of silvery white.

The body is covered with thick, bony, elongated scales that have one, two, or three posterior points, with one being the most common form.[15]

The bill is long and stout. Both the jaws and the palatines (the roof of the mouth) are covered with small, file-like teeth. The lateral line system is a group of neuromasts rooted in lateral line canals that can sense weak water motions and large changes in pressure.[17] It has the appearance of a net.[18] It is obvious in immature specimens but unclear in adults, becoming progressively embedded in the skin.[15] The anus is just in front of the origin of the first anal fin.

Range and migration

Blue marlin are found year-round in tropical oceanic waters of the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific. The range expands into temperate waters of the northern and southern hemispheres during the warmer months and contracts towards the equator during colder months.[19] Warm currents such as the Gulf Stream in the western Atlantic and the Agulhas Current in the western Indian Ocean have a major influence on their seasonal distribution.

In the Atlantic the blue marlin's latitudinal range extends from about latitude 45°N to about latitude 35°S. It is less abundant in the eastern Atlantic where it mostly occurs off Africa between the latitudes of 25°N and 25°S. The largest numbers are usually found in waters warmer than 24 °C (75 °F) but blue marlin have been found at surface water temperatures as high as 30.5 °C (86.9 °F) and as low as 21.7 °C (71.1 °F).[20]

Tagging studies, using conventional "spaghetti" tags and more recently pop-up satellite tags, have given researchers a glimpse into blue marlin migration patterns and habits. Recaptures of tagged fish have shown multiple movements between the Caribbean Islands and Venezuela and the Bahamas, as well as between the Caribbean Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands and West Africa as well inter-ocean travel. Most notably, an Atlantic blue marlin tagged off the coast of Delaware was recovered near the island of Mauritius off the southeast coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean – a voyage of 9,254 miles.[21] Blue marlin tagged in the Pacific have also been recovered in the Indian Ocean. Several fish have been recaptured in the same general area where they were tagged, implying reverse migration after/over several years, but there is insufficient data to accurately determine seasonality.[22]

Predators and parasites

Once blue marlin reach maturity they have few predators, with the most important probably being large pelagic sharks such as the shortfin mako and great white shark.[23] Other potential predators include toothed whales such as the false killer whale and killer whale.

Blue marlins have many parasites. They include parasites from the following groups; digenea (flukes), didymozoidea (tissue flukes), monogenea (gillworms), cestoda (tapeworms), nematoda (roundworms), acanthocephala (spiny-headed worms), copepods, barnacles, and cookiecutter sharks.

Remoras are commonly found attached to Blue marlins, often inside the opercula.

Life cycle

Growth and maturity

Atlantic blue marlin reaches sexual maturity at the age of two to four years. Males reach sexual maturity at a weight of 35–44 kilograms (77–97 lb) and females at 47–61 kilograms (104–134 lb).[24] Marlin breed in late summer and fall. Females may spawn as many as four times in one season. They often release over seven million eggs at once, each approximately 1 millimetre (0.039 in) in diameter. Few reach sexual maturity. The planktonic young drift freely in the ocean's pelagic zone. Larvae inhabit the west central Atlantic off Georgia, North Carolina, Florida, Jamaica, Bahamas, Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico and also the southwest Atlantic off Brazil.[12] The larvae may grow as much as 16 millimetres (0.63 in) in a day.[12] On their sides and dorsal surface they are blue-black in color, while ventrally they are white. Both the caudal fin and the caudal peduncle (the narrow part of the fish's body to which the caudal or tail fin is attached) are clear. There are two iridescent blue patches on the head, and some individuals have darker spots on their back. In adolescents, the first dorsal fin is large and concave, gradually reducing in proportion to body size with continued growth.[4] Males may live for 18 years, and females up to 27.

Diet and feeding

The larvae feed upon a variety of zooplankton along with drifting fish eggs and other larvae. They progress to feeding on a wide range of fishes, particularly scombrids such as mackerel and tuna; squid; and also, especially near oceanic islands and coral reefs, on juvenile inshore fish. Studies of stomach contents in both the Atlantic and Pacific have found that smaller schooling scombrids such as frigate mackerel, bullet tuna, and skipjack tuna make up a substantial proportion of their diet. Squid and deep-sea fishes such as pomfret and snake mackerel are also important prey items in certain areas. Blue marlin have been recorded to take prey as large as white marlin, as well as yellowfin and bigeye tuna in the 100 pounds (45 kg) range. Conversely, they are also capable of feeding on small but numerous prey such as filefish and snipefish.

Scientists and fishermen have long debated the extent to which blue marlin and other billfish use their elongated upper jaw in feeding. A 2007 Japanese study of stomach contents of fish captured in a commercial trolling fishery found that 130 undigested prey items obtained from 227 blue marlin had spearing, slashing and other injuries that were judged to have been inflicted by the bill.[25]

Economic importance


Commercial fishery

Marlin has commercial value throughout the world, with landings totalling 3,064 metric tons in 2000.[12] It is particularly valued in Japan for sashimi.[12] In Hawaii, blue marlin meat is sometimes smoked and sold by roadside vendors.

Blue marlin are often caught as bycatch in tuna longline fisheries.

Recreational fishery

Sport fishermen first encountered Atlantic blue marlin in the Bahamas in the 1920s and early 1930s, when pioneering big game fishermen such as Van Campen Heilner and Kip Farrington began exploring the waters offshore of Bimini and Cat Cay. In the Pacific, blue marlin (then known as silver marlin or often misidentified as the related black marlin) were caught by author/angler Zane Grey in Tahiti in the 1930s. Since then, blue marlin have been renowned as one of the world's greatest game fishes. The sportfishing pursuit of marlin and other billfish has developed into a multi-million dollar industry that includes hundreds of companies and thousands of jobs for boat operators, boat builders, marinas, dealerships, and fishing tackle manufacturers and dealers.

The most established sport fisheries for Atlantic blue marlin are found along the eastern seaboard and the Gulf Coast of the United States, Bermuda, the Bahamas and several other Caribbean islands (notably St Thomas and Puerto Rico). Recreational fishing for Atlantic blues also takes place in Brazil, Venezuela and the Atlantic coast of Mexico, particularly the Yucatan peninsula. In the eastern Atlantic, blue marlin sport fisheries exist from the Algarve coast of Portugal in the north to Angola in the south and include the islands of the Azores, Canaries, Cape Verde, Madeira and Ascension Island.

The IGFA (International Game Fish Association) all-tackle world record for Atlantic blue marlin currently stands at 1,402 pounds 2 ounces (636 kg).[4] This fish was captured in Vitoria, Brazil.

Conservation

The Atlantic blue marlin is under intense pressure from longline fishing. In the Caribbean region alone, Japanese and Cuban fishermen annually take over a thousand tons. All vessels within 200 miles (320 km) of the U.S. coastline are required to release any billfish caught. However, the survival rate of released fish is low because of damage during capture.[4]

The Atlantic blue marlin is listed as a threatened species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).[1] In 2010, Greenpeace International added the Atlantic blue marlin to its seafood red list. "The Greenpeace International seafood red list is a list of fish that are commonly sold in supermarkets around the world, and which have a very high risk of being sourced from unsustainable fisheries."[26]

Sport fishermen have been at the forefront of efforts to conserve blue marlin populations. The initial efforts to develop electronic tags for tracking highly migratory fish were carried out on marlin in Hawaii, in collaboration with anglers in the Hawaiian International Billfish Tournament.[21]

In popular culture

Both Zane Grey and Ernest Hemingway, who fished for blue marlin off the Florida Keys, Bahamas and most famously in Cuba, wrote extensively about their pursuit.

In Ernest Hemingway's novella The Old Man and the Sea a fisherman named Santiago battles an Atlantic blue marlin for three days off the coast of Cuba.[2][27]

See also

Notes

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.