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Title: Mar-biti-apla-usur  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Nabû-mukin-apli, Samium, Sumu-la-El, Naplanum, Sabium
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


King of Babylon
Reign 984–979 BC
Predecessor Širikti-šuqamuna
Bīt-Bazi Dynasty
Successor Nabû-mukin-apli
Dynasty of E
House "Elamite" Dynasty

Mār-bīti-apla-uṣur, inscribed dDUMU-É-A-PAB on (presumably) contemporary inscriptions on Lorestān bronze arrowheads or dA-É-AxA-ŠEŠ in the Dynastic Chronicle and meaning “O Mar-bīti (a deity associated with Dēr with a sanctuary in Borsippa[1]), protect the heir,”[2]:165 reigned 984–979 BC and was the sole king of Babylon’s short-lived 7th or Elamite Dynasty.[i 1] According to the Synchronistic King List,[i 2] he was a contemporary of Assyrian king Aššur-reš-iši II.


The circumstances surrounding the fall of the previous (Bazi) dynasty and his ascendancy are unknown. His name was wholly Akkadian and he was described as a “remote? descendant of Elam,” šà.bal.bal ˹libir? NIMMA.KI (Akkadian: liplippi Elamti Labīru), in the Dynastic Chronicle.[i 3] There are no known rulers of Elam bearing Akkadian titles, but his reign coincides with a blank period in Elamite political history. Despite his ancestry, he does not seem to have been regarded as a foreign interloper by later ages. It records that his rule endured for six years and he was buried in the palace of “a legitimate king” or “Sargon”, depending on the interpretation of ina É-GAL LUGAL(-)GI.NA qé.bir, suggesting an interment suitable for a rightful king.[2]:155 The Eclectic Chronicle[i 4] records the month of Nisānu in his fourth year but the event is not preserved. It may be concerning the suspension of the Akitu festival due to Aramean incursions, as this is the typical subject of the chronicle.[3]

Four bronze arrowheads from Lorestān have been recovered inscribed with his name and the royal title šar kiššati, “king of the world.”[4] They were held as part of the Foroughi collection in Tehran.


  1. ^ Babylonian Kinglist A, BM 33332, iii 14.
  2. ^ Synchronistic King List, Ass 14616c (KAV 216), iii 8 and fragments VAT 11261 (KAV 10), ii 2 + Ass 13956dh (KAV 182), iii 5.
  3. ^ Dynastic Chronicle (ABC 18), column v lines 13 to 15.
  4. ^ Eclectic Chronicle (ABC 24) tablet BM 27859 line 16.


  1. ^ A. R. George (1993). House Most High: The Temples of Ancient Mesopotamia. Eisenbrauns. p. 167. 
  2. ^ a b J. A. Brinkman (1968). A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylonia 1158-722 B.C. (AnOr 43). Pontifium Institutum Biblicum. pp. 155, 165–166. 
  3. ^ J. A. Brinkman (1982). "Babylonia, c. 1000 – 748 B.C.". In John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, E. Sollberger. The Cambridge Ancient History (Volume 3, Part 1). Cambridge University Press. p. 297. 
  4. ^ J. A. Brinkman (1990). "Mār-bīti-apla-uṣur". In Erich Ebeling, Bruno Meissner and Dietz Otto Edzard. Reallexikon Der Assyriologie Und Vorderasiatischen Archãologie: Libanukšbas̆ - Medizin (Vol 7). Walter De Gruyter. p. 357. 
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