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Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski

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Title: Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski  
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Collection: 1892 Births, 1946 Deaths, Government Ministers of Poland, Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government Politicians, People from Kovno Governorate, People from Rokiškis District Municipality, Polish Exiles, Polish Legionnaires (World War I), Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie" Politicians, Presidents of Warsaw, Prime Ministers of Poland, Recipients of the Cross of Valour (Poland) Four Times, Recipients of the Military Order of the Cross of the Eagle, Class I, Silver Crosses of the Virtuti Militari
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Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski

Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski
Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski
Prime Minister of Poland
In office
13 October 1935 – 15 May 1936
Preceded by Walery Sławek
Succeeded by Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski
Interior Minister of Poland
In office
28 June 1934 – 12 October 1935
Preceded by Leon Kozłowski
Succeeded by Władysław Raczkiewicz
President of Warsaw
In office
2 March 1934 – 28 June 1934
Preceded by Zygmunt Słomiński
Succeeded by Stefan Starzyński
Personal details
Born (1892-03-16)16 March 1892
Pandėlys, Kovno Governorate, Russian Empire
Died 12 April 1946(1946-04-12) (aged 54)
Brookwood, United Kingdom
Nationality Polish
Political party Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie"
Occupation Politician, soldier
Religion Roman Catholicism

Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski (Polish pronunciation: ; 16 March 1892, Pandėlys, Kovno Governorate - 12 April 1946 near Woking) was a Polish politician and military officer who served as voivode of Białystok Voivodeship in 1930-1934, President of Warsaw in 1934 and Prime Minister of Poland from 1935 to 1936.

Contents

  • Early Years 1
  • 1918 - 1921 2
  • 1920s 3
  • 1930s 4

Early Years

Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski was born in his family’s real estate of Ponedel, located in northern part of the Kovno Region, Russian Empire (today it belongs to Lithuania), to Karol and Maria nee Budrewicz. He came from a noble background (see szlachta), his family used the Syrokomla coat of arms. In 1903, Marian went to Sankt Petersburg, where he attended middle and high school. After graduation (1910), he began studying at the local Neurological Institute. Also, he studied agriculture at Riga Technical University.

In 1911, Zyndram-Kościałkowski became a member of the nom de guerre Jerzy Orwid. On February 7, 1915, Józef Piłsudski promoted him to Podporucznik (Second Lieutenant). In the same year, he married fellow member of the POW, Anna Krysinska. In 1918, their son Witold was born, with Piłsudski as the godfather.

1918 - 1921

In late 1918, Zyndram-Kościałkowski joined the newly created Polish Army, and in 1919 he was transferred to the Second Department of Polish General Staff. He was actively involved in the activities of Polish intelligence in the areas of Suwalki and Wilno. In April 1919, he came to Wilno, and soon afterwards, Józef Piłsudski ordered him to carry out sabotage attacks in the rear of the Red Army.

In September 1920, Zyndram-Kościałkowski was named commandant of the Bieniakonie Group, which was part of Volunteer Division (Colonel Adam Koc). Together with this unit, he participated in Zeligowski's Mutiny, which resulted in creation of the Republic of Central Lithuania. In 1920 - 1922, Zyndram-Kościałkowski commanded Second Department (Intelligence) of the General Staff of Central Lithuania’s Armed Forces.

1920s

In 1922, Zyndram-Kościałkowski joined Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie", to be soon named leader of this party (until 1925). As a deputy of the Land of Wilno to the Polish Sejm, he was released from the military. Zyndram-Kościałkowski remained in the parliament until 1939.

In the early 1920s, he was a member of a Freemason’s Lodge “Tomasz Zan”, and in April 1925, after abandoning Polish People's Party "Wyzwolenie", he co-created the so-called Parliamentary Labour Club (Klub Pracy, later renamed into Labour Party), together with Kazimierz Bartel. Zyndram-Kościałkowski did not play any significant role in the 1926 May Coup. As key member of the Labour Party, he supported the Sanacja movement, and in May 1927 became a member of the Warsaw City Council. At the same time, he was a deputy chairman of the Association of Army Reservists, and leading member of Association of Polish Cities. In the Parliament, he was responsible for the budget of the Ministry of Military Affairs for the year 1927/28.

Following the Polish legislative election, 1928, Zyndram-Kościałkowski was again elected from the District of Wilno. In March 1928, he became deputy chairman of the Nonpartisan Bloc for Cooperation with the Government (BBWR), and in June, his Labour Party joined the BBWR, as autonomous organization.

Zyndram-Kościałkowski was regarded as an avid supporter of Józef Piłsudski. In defence of his policies, in 1922, he challenged General Józef Haller to a duel.

1930s

On July 20, 1930, Zyndram-Kościałkowski was named Voivode of Białystok Voivodeship, remaining there until late February 1934. He improved local administration, built sewer system and paved streets of Białystok. He also founded the unemployment committee and Agricultural Chamber. Due to his efforts, local entrepreneurs presented their products at the Northern Trade Fair in Wilno. Also, he was one of co-founders of sports club Jagiellonia Białystok. To honor his work, on September 4, 1935, Zyndram-Kościałkowski was named Honorary Citizen of Białystok, and a boulevard was named after him.

Following the Ukrainian National Democratic Alliance (UNDO), and as a result, the UNDO took place in the Polish legislative election, 1935.

After the death of Józef Piłsudski (May 12, 1935), the Sanacja camp was divided into two factions: those gathered around President Ignacy Mościcki, and the followers of Marshal Edward Śmigły-Rydz. In August 1935, Mościcki agreed with Minister Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski that changes must be made in the government of Walery Sławek. Kwiatkowski entered the cabinet, while Zyndram-Kościałkowski was appointed to the post of Prime Minister.

On October 13, 1935, Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski was nominated to the post of Prime Minister of Poland. His government excluded the so-called Kraków. The protest was broken by the riot police, with several people killed or injured. In Lwów, the police killed 9 people, wounding over 200. These social disturbances undermined the position of Zyndram-Kościałkowski and his cabinet.

On May 15, 1936, President Mościcki dismissed Zyndram-Kościałkowski, replacing him with Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski. Zyndram-Kościałkowski himself was appointed Minister of Labour in the new government, remaining in this post until September

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