World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Markovo, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Article Id: WHEBN0023942201
Reproduction Date:

Title: Markovo, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Anadyr River, List of airports by IATA code: K, Chuvans, List of airports by ICAO code: U, Haplogroup A (mtDNA), Haplogroup D (mtDNA), Haplogroup Y (mtDNA), Haplogroup G (mtDNA), ALSIB, Dmitry Pavlutsky
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Markovo, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Markovo (Russian: Марково) is a rural locality (a selo) in Anadyrsky District (Raion) of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located near the head of small-boat navigation of the Anadyr River. Population: [4]

Municipally, Markovo is incorporated as Markovo Rural Settlement.[2] Although now a small village, but still quite large by Chukotkan standards, the village has historically been an important settlement in the region and was a hub for trade during the early period of Cossack exploration.

History

The village is comparatively large for the region, with a population of 865 as of 2005 down from 1170, reported in 2003[8] and around 2,000 reported for 1993,[9] making it one of the more important small settlements in Chukotka. Having formerly been a Cossack settlement, it was one of the first Russian speaking settlements in the Okrug.[8]

The date of founding of the settlement is not known, though it is considered to be one of the first settlements in Chukotka. It is known that crew from Semyon Dezhnev's expedition wintered close to the site of the current settlement and that Anadyrsk was founded on the site at a later date as a base for exploring Chukotka and potential routes to Kamchatka. The Cossacks were followed by others looking for business opportunities and those who did not wish to continue being serfs. It is thought that the settlement as it is today evolved in the middle of the 18th century and was named either after an early settler called Markov or that it was consecrated by the local Saint Mark.[10]

A century ago, Markovo was the cultural centre of the Markovsky District (which was later split into Anadyrsky District and Bilibinsky District in 1958) [10] and was the location of the first parochial school in Chukotka, construction of which began in 1862.[8] The cultural significance of the village continues today, as it is the home town of the Markovskiye Vechiorki Chorus, who specialise in old Cossack songs.[8] The historical cultural significance of the town means that it also plays an important role in the general day to day life of the region as a whole, as it is the location of a boarding High School and cultural centre, with a new hospital also under construction.[8]

During World War II an airfield was built here for the Alaska-Siberian (ALSIB) air route used to ferry American Lend-Lease aircraft to the Eastern Front.[11]

In 1998, Markovo was reclassified as a village (selo).[12]

Demographics

The population in 2010 was 809,[3] of whom 403 were men and 406 women,[4] a decrease from a June 2005 estimate, according to an environmental impact report prepared for the Kupol Gold Project, of 865,[13] itself a reduction of 207 since 2000 where it was estimated at 1072.[9] Demographically the village was organised thus in 2000:

Demographic Composition - 2000
Indigenous People Number in Village Percentage of Population
Russian

625

58%

Chuvan

299

28%

Chukchi

62

6%

Evens

60

6%

Yukaghir

26

2%

Total

1072

100%

Source:[9]

Of all the families in the village, regardless of ethnicity, only 5% had a regular monthly income, with most families living below the poverty line.[14] In 2000, the monthly living salary in Chukotka was 3800 rubles, in Markovo the minimum salary was 350-80 rubles per month with an additional pension of between 700 and 1100 rubles plus welfare payments of around 160 rubles.[14] There were however, salaries of several managers reported at around 15,000 rubles.[14] By 2005, the population of 865 contained 476 people of indigenous origin.[15]

Climate

Markovo has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification Dfc), which is quite varied. Although it can be below freezing from September through to the end of the following May, and regularly below −20 °C (−4 °F) from November through to the end of the following April, the short summer running from June to August are usually quite temperate, with record temperatures achieved during these months which are some of the warmest for the Okrug.

Climate data for Markovo
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
3.9
(39)
5.0
(41)
7.8
(46)
21.2
(70.2)
32.4
(90.3)
33.3
(91.9)
28.9
(84)
22.2
(72)
15.0
(59)
7.2
(45)
10.0
(50)
33.3
(91.9)
Average high °C (°F) −21.7
(−7.1)
−20.5
(−4.9)
−16.7
(1.9)
−8.6
(16.5)
3.0
(37.4)
16.3
(61.3)
19.5
(67.1)
15.9
(60.6)
8.6
(47.5)
−4.4
(24.1)
−15
(5)
−21.3
(−6.3)
−3.7
(25.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.1
(−15)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−14
(7)
−1
(30)
11.0
(51.8)
14.2
(57.6)
10.8
(51.4)
3.8
(38.8)
−8.5
(16.7)
−19.1
(−2.4)
−25.4
(−13.7)
−8.49
(16.72)
Average low °C (°F) −31.3
(−24.3)
−30.7
(−23.3)
−28.4
(−19.1)
−20.4
(−4.7)
−5.7
(21.7)
5.0
(41)
8.3
(46.9)
5.4
(41.7)
−0.8
(30.6)
−12.7
(9.1)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−30.3
(−22.5)
−13.8
(7.2)
Record low °C (°F) −59.5
(−75.1)
−57.9
(−72.2)
−54.8
(−66.6)
−43
(−45)
−34.3
(−29.7)
−6.5
(20.3)
−3.4
(25.9)
−7.2
(19)
−17.8
(0)
−38.9
(−38)
−51.7
(−61.1)
−53.9
(−65)
−59.5
(−75.1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 30.7
(1.209)
21.2
(0.835)
19.9
(0.783)
18.8
(0.74)
17.2
(0.677)
29.3
(1.154)
45.1
(1.776)
57.6
(2.268)
37.5
(1.476)
34.6
(1.362)
39.6
(1.559)
29.0
(1.142)
380.5
(14.981)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 15.9 14.2 16.0 12.8 12.9 13.6 12.4 14.5 15.0 16.4 18.9 16.5 179.1
 % humidity 77.6 74.8 77.5 77.2 74.3 65.9 71.9 79.7 79.3 81.4 82.4 78.3 76.69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 26.4 109.0 203.1 267.0 277.5 303.0 282.1 198.4 135.0 103.9 46.5 9.3 1,961.2
Source: climatebase.ru[16]

Economics

The economy is driven mainly by subsistence reindeer herding,[8] and fishing a result of the large proportion of indigenous people, living in the village.[17]

In 2000, 531 of the reported 1072 population were employed in Markovo village.[17] Of these, 276 were employed either in Housing and communal services or in various federal organisations[17] However, many of the employment opportunities in the village were staffed by incoming Russians, leaving the indigenous people with a level of responsibility that did not reflect their proportion of the population. The indigenous population made up just under half of the population, but it was only in the federal organisations, education and agriculture sectors that they held just under half the positions.[17] Many other sections were dominated by immigrant Russians including Communications, Trading, Police, Fire Department, Forestry, Meteorology, Fisheries and Airport sectors,[17] as well as Construction and Banking, where the indigenous people held no influence at all.[17]

People from Markovo were the founders of the village of Ust-Belaya around the beginning of the 20th century, also located along the banks of the Anadyr River.[8]

Transport


Air

The village is served by the adjacent Markovo Airport.

Road

Markovo is not connected to any other settlement by road however, a small network of streets exists within the village including the following:[18]

  • улица Березкина (Berezkina Street)
  • улица Берзина (Berzin Street)
  • улица Больничная (Hospital Street)
  • улица Вокзальная (Vokzalnaya Street)
  • улица Дежнева (Dezhnyov Street)
  • улица Коммунальная (Municipal Street)
  • улица Набережная (Quay Street)
  • улица Новый Еропол (New Yeropol Street)
  • улица Полярная (Polar Street)
  • улица Портовая (Port Street)
  • улица Совхозная (Sovkhoz Street)
  • улица Строительная (Construction Street)

See also

References

Notes

Sources

  • Bema Gold Corporation, Environmental Impact Assessment, Kupol Gold Project, Far East Russia June 2005.
  • Chereshev, E and Shestakov, A. (2003) Anadyr River Watershed, Rapid Assessment Report, Institute of biological Problems of the North, Wild Salmon Centre.
  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №33-ОЗ от 30 июня 1998 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №55-ОЗ от 9 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Чукотского автономного округа "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня его официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №7 (28), 14 мая 1999 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #33-OZ of June 30, 1998 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #55-OZ of June 9, 2012 On Amending the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication.). (Russian)
  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №148-ОЗ от 24 ноября 2008 г. «О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Анадырского муниципального района Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №24-ОЗ от 1 апреля 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Приложение 2 к Закону Чукотского автономного округа "О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Анадырского муниципального района Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №46/1 (373/1), 28 ноября 2008 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #148-OZ of November 24, 2008 On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Anadyrsky Municipal District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #24-OZ of April 1, 2011 On Amending Appendix 2 of the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Anadyrsky Municipal District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication date.). (Russian)
  • Lebedev, Igor Aviation Lend-Lease to Russia Nova Publishers (1997) pp. 44–49
  • M Strogoff, P-C Brochet, and D. Auzias (2006). "Avant-Garde" Publishing House.

External links

  • Panorama of the settlement
  • Markovo photo gallery
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 



Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.