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Navy of Taiwan

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Navy of Taiwan

Not to be confused with People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), the naval forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Republic of China Navy
中華民國海軍
Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn

Active 1924-present
Country  Republic of China
Size 38,000 personnel
4 Destroyers
22 Frigates
8 Minesweepers
2 Dock Landing Ships
9 Tank Landing Ships
4 Submarines
Website navy.mnd.gov.tw (English)
Commanders
Commander-in-chief, ROCN Admiral Chen Yeong-kang[1]
Insignia
Naval ensign
Naval jack

The Republic of China Navy (ROCN; Chinese: 中華民國海軍; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Hǎijūn) is the maritime branch of the Armed forces of the Republic of China. The ROC Navy's primary mission is to defend ROC territories and the sea lanes that surround Taiwan against a blockade, attack, or possible invasion by forces of the People's Republic of China. Operations include maritime patrols in the Taiwan Strait and surrounding waters, as well as counter-strike and counter-invasion operations during wartime. The Republic of China Marine Corps functions as a branch of the Navy.

The ship prefix for ROCN combatants is ROCS (Republic of China Ship); an older usage is CNS (Chinese Navy Ship).

Organization

  • Navy General Headquarters (海軍總司令部)
Navy GHQ is subordinate to the General Staff, the Minister of Defense, and the ROC President.
  • Internal units: Personnel, Combat Readiness & Training, Logistics, Planning, Combat Systems, General Affairs, Comptroller, Inspector General, Political Warfare.
  • Naval Fleet Command (艦隊司令部)
1st Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Kuang Hua VI class missile boat at Suao naval base
2nd Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Kuang Hua VI class missile boat
3rd Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Hai Ou class missile boat (Dvora class)
4th Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 10 Hai Ou class missile boat (Dvora class)
5th Hai Chiao Guided Missile Boat/Craft Squadron of 11 Kuang Hua VI class missile boat[2][3]
  • Hai Feng Shore Based Anti-ship Missile Group (海鋒大隊), operates 6 batteries of fixed/mobile HF-2 anti-ship missiles.
  • 7th Hai Feng Shore Based Anti-ship Missile Squadron (海鋒大隊第七中隊), Haulien, Eastern Taiwan.[4][5][6]
  • Aviation Command (operates from Pingtung, Tsoying, and Hualien AB)
  • Naval Aviation, at Pingtung, will receive 12 P-3C 2013/2014.
  • 1st ASW Aviation Group
  • 133rd Squadron: S-2T, at Pingtung.
  • 134th Squadron: S-2T, at Pingtung.
  • 2nd ASW Aviation Group
  • 701st Helicopter Squadron (Light), S-70C(M)-1, at Hualien.
  • 702nd Helicopter Squadron (Light), S-70C(M)-2, at Tsoying.
  • 501st Helicopter Squadron (Light), 500MD ASW, at Tsoying.
  • Maintenance Group
  • 1st Maintenance Squadron (Pingtung)
  • 2nd Maintenance Squadron (Tsoying)
  • 3rd Maintenance Squadron (Hualien)
  • Marine Corps Command (陸戰隊司令部)
  • Education, Training and Doctrine Command (教育訓練暨準則發展司令部)
  • Logistics Command (後勤司令部)
  • Naval Academy, Hydrographic & Oceanographic Bureau, Shipbuilding Development Center, Communication Systems, General Service.

Sources:[7][8][9]

History

Republic of China Navy

Leadership
Ministry of Defense
Commands
Republic of China Marine Corps
Personnel
Rank insignia
Equipment
Ships
History and Traditions
Naval history of China
Orders, Decorations and Medals
List of orders, decorations and medals
Order of Blue Sky and White Sun

1911–1949

See also Naval history of China.

The precursor to the modern ROC Navy was established as the Ministry of the Navy in the Provisional Government of the Republic of China in 1911 following the overthrow of the Qing dynasty. During the period of warlordism that scarred China in the 1920s and 1930s the ROCN remained loyal to the Kuomintang government of Sun Yat-sen instead of the warlord government in Beijing. During that time and throughout World War II, the ROCN concentrated mainly on riverine warfare as the poorly equipped ROCN was not a match to Imperial Japanese Navy over ocean or coast.[10]

Following World War II, a number of Japanese destroyers and scrapped U.S. ships were transferred to the ROC Navy. During the Chinese Civil War, the ROCN was involved in the protection of supply convoys and the withdrawal of the ROC Government and over 1+ million refugees to Taiwan in 1949. The subsequent reorganization and reestablishment of the Navy after evacuation to Taiwan is referenced in the lyrics of the post 1949 ROC Navy Song "The New Navy" (新海軍).

1949–Present

Following the relocation of the ROC government to Taiwan, the ROCN was involved in a number of commando attack escorts, evacuation and transport of more displaced soldiers and later to provide patrols and resupply operations to Kinmen and Matsu in the Taiwan Strait and South China Sea offshore islands.

Since the 1990s the Navy has grown in importance as the emphasis of the ROC's military doctrine moves towards countering a possible PRC blockade, as well as offshore engagement. The ROCN has been working hard to expand its capability in electronic and anti-submarine warfare, as well as the replacement of its current antiquated fleet.[8] However local shipbuilder CSBC still lacks the technology to build modern submarines.[11]

Equipment

Traditionally, most ROCN equipment is purchased from the United States, though several ships have been built domestically under licence or through domestic development. The ROCN has also purchased Lafayette class frigates from France and Zwaardvis class submarines from the Netherlands as well as well as four U.S. Kidd class (renamed Keelung) destroyers originally intended for Iran.

Despite the ROCN refurbishing and extending the service life of its vessels and equipment, it has suffered from procurement difficulties due to pressures exerted by the PRC. It has only two useful submarines. The U.S. has approved sales of eight new diesel powered submarines but lacks the manufacturing capability to make the engines; at the same time, threats from the PRC prevent the necessary technology transfer from other countries. Furthermore, the Legislative Yuan did not approve the budget and thereby slowed the opportunity to procure the badly needed underwater defense capability.

in 2003 the US Government suggested buying four Nazario Sauro-class refurbished submarines from Italy, that reportedly agreed to sell them plus an additional four other submarines, following their decommissioning by the Italian Navy. However, Taipei rejected the offer, saying it wanted new submarines

On September 12, 2007, an arms notification was sent to the U.S. Congress concerning an order for 12 P-3C Orion patrol aircraft and 3 "spare aircraft", along with an order for 144 SM-2 Block IIIA surface-to-air missiles.[12] A contract was awarded to Lockheed Martin to refurbish the 12 P-3C Orion aircraft for the ROC on March 13, 2009, with deliveries to start in 2012.[13]

On August 26, 2008, an arms notification was sent to Congress for an order for 60 air-launched Harpoon Block II missiles for the 12 P-3C.[14]

On October 3, 2008, an arms notification was sent to Congress for an order for 32 submarine-launched Harpoon Block II missiles.[15][16] At least a portion of these missiles will be installed on the navy's Hai-Lung class submarines.

On January 29, 2010, the U.S. government announced 5 notifications to the U.S. Congress for arms sales to the ROC. In the contracts total 6.392 Billion USD, ROC Navy will get 2 Osprey class mine hunters for 105 million USD, 25 Link 16 terminals on ships for 340 millions, 10 ship- and 2 air-launched Harpoon L/II for 37 million USD.[17][18]

The ROC Navy already has 95 older Harpoon missiles in its inventory for the 8 Knox frigates, 22 newer RGM-84L for the 4 Kidd DDGs, 32 sub-launched Harpoon II on order for the 2 Zwaardvis/Hai Lung submarines, and with 60 air-launched Harpoon Block II anti-ship missile on order for the 12 P-3C, plus the newly announced 10 ship-launched and 2 air-launched Harpoon II/L sales.[19]

On August 31, 2010, it was announced for next year's defense budget, ROCN plans to lease 1 or 2 more Newport LSTs from US, but the 900 ton stealth corvette plan has been put on hold, due to lack of budget.[20]

On September 29, 2010, the U.S. Congress passed a resolution, authorizing U.S. Government for sales of 1 more Osprey class mine hunter to the ROC.[21]

Other ongoing local upgrade programs include locally designed and built Ching Chiang class of 12 patrol ships that were designed back in 1990s to carry 4 HF-1 anti-ship missiles on board but only the lead ship of the class had them. Since 2006, 7 ships of this class were upgraded to carry 4 HF-2/3 with W-160 fire control radar from Wu Chin III program (as well as Honeywell H-930 MCS CDS stripped from 7 retired Yang class Wu Chin 3 AAW DDGs). In 2010 more ships of this class were undergoing this same upgrade program but using CSIST produced fire control radars instead. Currently 4 different variants exist within this class, the original Ching Chiang patrol ship with 4 HF-1 (1 existing in this configuration), remaining of unknown number (originally the rest of the 11 patrol ships in this class) that were built without any sort of anti-ship missiles on board, at most 7 upgraded with Wu Chin III program's radars and 2x2 subsonic HF-2 anti-ship missiles, and 2+ is spotted with 2x2 HF-3 supersonic anti-ship missiles with new unknown CSIST search and fire control radar.

On December 29, 2010, 2 LST (中肇、中治戰車登陸艦) and 4 remaining of Adjutant class coastal mine hunters were retired.[22]

On October 31, 2011, all 8 PCL in 124th Fleet, retired.[23]

On December 28, 2011, the 2 Lung Jiang (PSMM Mk5) Missile Guided Patrol boats (PGG 601 and 602) in the 131st Fleet retired from ROC Navy service, after entering service in 1978 and 1981.[24]

Taiwan is going to study building their own submarine fleet.[25]

Combatants


Type Class Number Builder Notes
Destroyer Kee Lung Class 4 Ingalls Shipbuilding

 United States

ex-Kidd class
Frigate Cheng Kung Class 8 CSBC Corporation

 Republic of China

long hull Oliver Hazard Perry Class design
Frigate Chi Yang class frigate 8 Lockheed/Avondale

 United States

ex-Knox class
Frigate Kang Ding Class 6 DCNS

 France

La Fayette class variant


Submarines

Class Number Builder Origin
Hai Lung class submarine (Zwaardvis class) 2 Rotterdam Dockyard Company Submarines  Netherlands
Hai Shih class submarine (Tench class) 2 Portsmouth Naval Shipyard  United States

Fast Attack Missile Craft and Patrol Ship

Class Number Builder Origin
Ching Chiang class patrol ship 12 CSBC Corporation  Republic of China
Kuang Hua VI class missile boat 31 CSBC Corporation  Republic of China
500 ton stealth corvette 12 on order with first to be delivered in 2014, will carry up to eight Hsiung Feng III as well as eight Hsiung Feng IIs Lung Teh Shipbuilding Co  Republic of China

Minesweepers

Class Number Builder Origin
Yung Yang class minesweeper (Aggressive class) 4 J.M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp.  United States
Yung Feng class coastal minehunter (MMW50 class) 4 (Ordered under guise as civilian oil drilling support ships) Abeking & Rasmussen  Germany
Yung Ching class minehunter (Osprey class) 2, ex-USN USS Oriole and USS Falcon Intermarine USA  United States

Amphibious

Class Number Builder Origin
Hsuhai class dock landing ship (ex-USS Pensacola LSD-38) 1 General Dynamics-Quincy  United States
Chung Cheng class dock landing ship (ex-USS Comstock LSD-19) 1 Newport News Shipbuilding  United States
Chung Ho class tank landing ship (Newport class) 2 Philadelphia Naval Shipyard  United States
Chung Hai class (LST-1) 7 Newport News Shipbuilding  United States
Mei Chin class (LSM-1) 4 Charleston Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Co.  United States

Support

Class Number Builder Origin
Wu Yi class AOE Fleet Underway Replenish Ship 1 CSBC Corporation  Republic of China
Ta De class (ARS-556) salvage tug (ex-USS Recovery ARS-43) 1 Basalt Rock Inc.  United States
Tai Hu class (ARS-552) salvage tug (ex-USS Grapple ARS-7) 1 Basalt Rock Inc.  United States
Ta Tung class (ATF-548) fleet tug (ex-USS Chickasaw AT-83) 1 Charleston Shipbuilding and Drydock Co.  United States
Ta Kuan oceanographic research ship 1 Fincantieri, Muggiano, La Spezia, Italy  Italy
Chung Bai class coastal logistics tankers (ex-USS Pecatonica AOG-57) 2 Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corp.  United States
Wu Kang class coastal transports 2 CSBC Corporation  Republic of China
Wan An coastal transport 1 CSBC Corporation  Republic of China
Tai Wu coastal transport 1 CSBC Corporation  Republic of China

Aircraft

Aircraft Origin Type Versions In service[26] Notes
Grumman S-2 Tracker  United States Maritime patrol aircraft S-2T Turbo Tracker 26, half operational Originally 32 were upgraded to T version, but only 27 were converted
Lockheed P-3C Orion  United States Maritime patrol aircraft P-3C Orion 1 12 Ordered, plus 3 spare airframes, first in service in Nov 2013, 3 more in Dec 2013, 8 by 2015[27]
Sikorsky S-70 Seahawk  United States Naval utility/ASW helicopter S-70C(M)-1/2 Thunderhawk 19 Out of 10+11 ordered
Hughes 500MD/ASW Defender  United States ASW helicopter Hughes 500MD/ASW Defender 9 Out of original 13 ordered

Planned Acquisition

  • Hsun Hai (Swift Sea) program
  • 2 ex USN Oliver Hazard Perry class frigates by 2015.[28]

See also

References & notes

External links

  • ROC Navy website
  • Globalsecurity.org report on the ROC Navy
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