World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ni (cuneiform)

Article Id: WHEBN0046810184
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ni (cuneiform)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Amarna letter EA 26, Amarna letter EA 100, Amarna letter EA 15, Superlative, Akkadian language
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Ni (cuneiform)

Cuneiform ni.
(digitized form ni)
Amarna letter EA 367-(titled: "Pharaoh to a Vassal").
A common Amarna letter that uses cuneiform ni.

The cuneiform sign ni, is a common-use sign of the Amarna letters, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and other cuneiform texts. It has a secondary sub-use in the Amarna letters for addressing the Pharaoh, from the vassal states of Canaan. The address to the Pharaoh is often 'King-Lord-Mine': LUGAL, EN-ia which has many varieties of expression. "LUGAL" is Akkadian language for "Šarru", English "king", and EN in Akkadian is bēlu,[1] for "Lord", (thus "King, Lord-Mine"). In some Amarna letters the sub-use of ni is , for spelling "bēlu", be-lí often .

There are other sub-uses of ni (see Epic of Gilgamesh usage below). It is also found in some Amarna letters, EA 9, and EA 252, for example where ni or is scribed in a "flourish" format (an over-lengthened version of the 2-horizontals that construct the sign), similar to tab, . In EA 9 especially, there is a 'scribe margin line', both left and right on the clay tablet obverse. For the right margin, some words in the lower paragraphs of the obverse (Para 4-7), some words ending with ni/, have the sign lengthened, and sitting upon the right margin line-(the cuneiform texts read: left-to-right).

Epic of Gilgamesh usage

The ni sign usage in the Epic of Gilgamesh is as follows: -(5) times, -(42), ni-(326), ṣal-(8), zal-(1), Ì-(9) times. Ì, the sumerogram is Akkadian language "šamnu", for English "oil".[2]

Because of its multiple usages in the Epic, ni, or , can be used as a syllabic for " "ne", "ni", or "li"/"lí", etc. It also can be used as a syllabic for combinations related to: "sal", "ṣal", or "zal"; (in Akkadian many consonants, or the 4-vowels, a, e, i, u can be interchanged, for performing the final Akkadian language 'dictionary word').


  1. ^ Parpola, 197l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Glossary, pp. 119-145, bēlu, šarru, p. 122, p. 141.
  2. ^ Parpola, 197l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Sign List, pp. 155-165, no. 231, p. 159.

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.