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Nigerian braille

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Nigerian braille

Several braille alphabets are used in Nigeria. For English, Unified English Braille has been adopted. Three other languages have been written in braille: Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba. All three alphabets are based on English readings, with the addition of letters particular to these languages. Punctuation is as in English Braille.

Basic braille alphabet
⠁ (braille pattern dots-1) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12) ⠉ (braille pattern dots-14) ⠙ (braille pattern dots-145) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15) ⠋ (braille pattern dots-124) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245) ⠓ (braille pattern dots-125) ⠊ (braille pattern dots-24) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245) ⠅ (braille pattern dots-13) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123) ⠍ (braille pattern dots-134)
a b c d e f g h i j k l m
⠝ (braille pattern dots-1345) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135) ⠏ (braille pattern dots-1234) ⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345) ⠗ (braille pattern dots-1235) ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234) ⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236) ⠺ (braille pattern dots-2456) ⠭ (braille pattern dots-1346) ⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456) ⠵ (braille pattern dots-1356)
n o p q r s t u v w x y z

The letters of these languages beyond the basic Latin alphabet are as follows:

Hausa Braille

Hausa Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Hausa
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Hausa alphabet

Hausa includes

⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
kw
⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
sh
⠌ (braille pattern dots-34)
ts
⠫ (braille pattern dots-1246)
ɗ

from English q, sh, st, ed (international second d), and three derived letters:

Basic letter: ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b
⠅ (braille pattern dots-13)
k
⠽ (braille pattern dots-13456)
y
Derived letter: ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
ɓ
⠨ (braille pattern dots-46)
ƙ
⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
ƴ

Hausa is presumably written in braille in Niger as well, since Ethnologue 17 reports that Zarma is written in braille in that country. However, this need not mean it uses the same alphabet as Nigerian Hausa.

Igbo Braille

Igbo Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Igbo
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Igbo alphabet

Igbo Braille has

⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
kw
⠡ (braille pattern dots-16)
ch
⠣ (braille pattern dots-126)
gh
⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)
sh

from English q, ch, gh, sh, and six other letters with common international/African values:

Basic letter: ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e
⠊ (braille pattern dots-24)
i
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
u
Extended letter: ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
gb
⠢ (braille pattern dots-26)
⠔ (braille pattern dots-35)
⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)
⠞ (braille pattern dots-2345)
⠬ (braille pattern dots-346)
ŋ

(See Ewe Braille and Kabiye Braille for similar code assignments.)

Yoruba Braille

Yoruba Braille
Type
alphabet
Languages Yoruba
Parent systems
Braille
Print basis
Yoruba alphabet

Yoruba Braille also has

⠟ (braille pattern dots-12345)
kw
⠩ (braille pattern dots-146)

(from English q, sh), and three derived letters:

Basic letter: ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
b
⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
e
⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
o
Derived letter: ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
gb
⠢ (braille pattern dots-26)
⠪ (braille pattern dots-246)

The vowel assignments follow international conventions.

References

  • Braille Notation Booklet on the Hausa, Igbo, and Yoruba Orthographies: A Research Work on Standard Braille Codes for the Blind in Nigeria, March 1981 – April 1982
  • UNESCO (2013) World Braille Usage, 3rd edition.
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