In geometry, an octagon (from the Greek ὀκτάγωνον oktágōnon, "eight angles") is an 8sided polygon or 8gon.
A regular octagon has Schläfli symbol {8} ^{[1]} and can also be constructed as a quasiregular truncated square, t{4}, which alternates two types of edges.
Contents

Properties of the general octagon 1

Regular octagon 2

Construction and elementary properties 3

Standard coordinates 4

Symmetry 5

Skew octagon 6

Dissection of regular octagon 7

Uses of octagons 8

Derived figures 9

Related polytopes 9.1

Petrie polygons 9.2

See also 10

References 11

External links 12
Properties of the general octagon
The diagonals of the green quadrilateral are equal in length and at right angles to each other
The sum of all the internal angles of any octagon is 1080°. As with all polygons, the external angles total 360°.
If squares are constructed all internally or all externally on the sides of an octagon, then the midpoints of the segments connecting the centers of opposite squares form a quadrilateral that is both equidiagonal and orthodiagonal (that is, whose diagonals are equal in length and at right angles to each other).^{[2]}^{:Prop. 9}
The midpoint octagon of a reference octagon has its eight vertices at the midpoints of the sides of the reference octagon. If squares are constructed all internally or all externally on the sides of the midpoint octagon, then the midpoints of the segments connecting the centers of opposite squares themselves form the vertices of a square.^{[2]}^{:Prop. 10}
Regular octagon
A regular octagon is a closed figure with sides of the same length and internal angles of the same size. It has eight lines of reflective symmetry and rotational symmetry of order 8. A regular octagon is represented by the Schläfli symbol {8}. The internal angle at each vertex of a regular octagon is 135°.
Area
The area of a regular octagon of side length a is given by

A = 2 \cot \frac{\pi}{8} a^2 = 2(1+\sqrt{2})a^2 \simeq 4.828\,a^2.
In terms of the circumradius R, the area is

A = 4 \sin \frac{\pi}{4} R^2 = 2\sqrt{2}R^2 \simeq 2.828\,R^2.
In terms of the apothem r (see also inscribed figure), the area is

A = 8 \tan \frac{\pi}{8} r^2 = 8(\sqrt{2}1)r^2 \simeq 3.314\,r^2.
These last two coefficients bracket the value of pi, the area of the unit circle.
The area can also be expressed as

\,\!A=S^2a^2,
where S is the span of the octagon, or the second shortest diagonal; and a is the length of one of the sides, or bases. This is easily proven if one takes an octagon, draws a square around the outside (making sure that four of the eight sides overlap with the four sides of the square) and then takes the corner triangles (these are 45–45–90 triangles) and places them with right angles pointed inward, forming a square. The edges of this square are each the length of the base.
Given the length of a side a, the span S is

S=\frac{a}{\sqrt{2}}+a+\frac{a}{\sqrt{2}}=(1+\sqrt{2})a \approx 2.414a.
The area is then as above:

A=((1+\sqrt{2})a)^2a^2=2(1+\sqrt{2})a^2 \approx 4.828a^2.
Expressed in terms of the span, the area is

A=2(\sqrt{2}1)S^2 \approx 0.828S^2.
Another simple formula for the area is

\ A=2aS.
More often the span S is known, and the length of the sides, a, is to be determined, as when cutting a square piece of material into a regular octagon. From the above,

a \approx S/2.414.
The two end lengths e on each side (the leg lengths of the triangles (green in the image) truncated from the square), as well as being e=a/\sqrt{2}, may be calculated as

\,\!e=(Sa)/2.
Construction and elementary properties
Building a regular octagon via folding of paper sheet
A regular octagon may be constructed as follows:

Draw a circle and a diameter AOB, where O is the center and A,B are points on the circumference.

Draw another diameter COD, perpendicular to AOB.

(Note in passing that A,B,C,D are vertices of a square).

Draw the bisectors of the right angles AOC and BOC, making two more diameters EOF and GOH.

A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H are the vertices of the octagon.
A regular octagon can be constructed using a straightedge and a compass, as 8 = 2^{3}, a power of two:
Each side of a regular octagon subtends half a right angle at the centre of the circle which connects its vertices. Its area can thus be computed as the sum of 8 isosceles triangles, leading to the result:

\text{Area} = 2 a^2 (\sqrt{2} + 1)
for an octagon of side a.
Standard coordinates
The coordinates for the vertices of a regular octagon centered at the origin and with side length 2 are:

(±1, ±(1+√2))

(±(1+√2), ±1).
Symmetry
Symmetry

The 11 symmetries of a regular octagon. Lines of reflections are blue through vertices, purple through edges, and gyration orders are given in the center. Vertices are colored by their symmetry position.

The regular octagon has Dih_{8} symmetry, order 16. There are 3 dihedral subgroups: Dih_{4}, Dih_{2}, and Dih_{1}, and 4 cyclic subgroups: Z_{8}, Z_{4}, Z_{2}, and Z_{1}, the last implying no symmetry.
On the regular octagon, there are 11 distinct symmetries. John Conway labels full symmetry as r16.^{[3]} The dihedral symmetries are divided depending on whether they pass through vertices (d for diagonal) or edges (p for perpendiculars) Cyclic symmetries in the middle column are labeled as g for their central gyration orders. Full symmetry of the regular form is r16 and no symmetry is labeled a1.
Example octagons by symmetry
r16

d8

g8

p8

d4

g4

p4

d2

g2

p2

a1

The most common high symmetry octagons are d8, a isogonal octagon constructed by four mirrors can alternate long and short edges, and p8, an isotoxal octagon constructed with equal edge lengths, but vertices alternating two different internal angles. These two forms are duals of each other and have half the symmetry order of the regular octagon.
Each subgroup symmetry allows one or more degrees of freedom for irregular forms. Only the g8 subgroup has no degrees of freedom but can seen as directed edges.
Skew octagon
A skew octagon is a skew polygon with 8 vertices and edges but not existing on the same plane. The interior of such an octagon is not generally defined. A skew zigzag octagon has vertices alternating between two parallel planes.
A regular skew octagon is vertextransitive with equal edge lengths. In 3dimensions it will be a zigzag skew octagon and can be seen in the vertices and side edges of a square antiprism with the same D_{4d}, [2^{+},8] symmetry, order 16.
Dissection of regular octagon
Coxeter
states that every parallelsided 2mgon can be divided into m(m1)/2 rhombs. For the octagon, m=4, and it can be divided into 6 rhombs, with one example shown below. This decomposition can be seen as 6 of 24 faces in a Petrie polygon projection plane of the tesseract.^{[4]}
Regular octagon dissected
With 6 rhombs

Tesseract

Uses of octagons
The octagonal floor plan, Dome of the Rock.
The octagonal shape is used as a design element in architecture. The Basilica of San Vitale (in Ravenna, Italia), Castel del Monte (Apulia, Italia), Florence Baptistery, Zum Friedefürsten church (Germany) and a number of octagonal churches in Norway. The central space in the Aachen Cathedral, the Carolingian Palatine Chapel, has a regular octagonal floorplan. Uses of octagons in churches also include lesser design elements, such as the octagonal apse of Nidaros Cathedral.
Other uses


The famous Bukhara rug design incorporates an octagonal "elephant's foot" motif.

The street & block layout of Barcelona's Eixample district is based on nonregular octagons




The trigrams of the Taoist bagua are often arranged octagonally


Classes at Shimer College are traditionally held around octagonal tables

Derived figures
Related polytopes
The octagon, as a truncated square, is first in a sequence of truncated hypercubes:
As an expanded square, it is also first in a sequence of expanded hypercubes:
Petrie polygons
The octagon is the Petrie polygon for these higherdimensional regular and uniform polytopes, shown in these skew orthogonal projections of in A_{7}, B_{4}, and D_{5} Coxeter planes.
See also
References

^ Wenninger, Magnus J. (1974), Polyhedron Models, Cambridge University Press, p. 9, .

^ ^{a} ^{b} Dao Thanh Oai (2015), "Equilateral triangles and Kiepert perspectors in complex numbers", Forum Geometricorum 15, 105114. http://forumgeom.fau.edu/FG2015volume15/FG201509index.html

^ John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim GoodmanStrauss, (2008) The Symmetries of Things, ISBN 9781568812205 (Chapter 20, Generalized Schaefli symbols, Types of symmetry of a polygon pp. 275278)

^ Coxeter, Mathematical recreations and Essays, Thirteenth edition, p.141
External links


Listed by number of sides


1–10 sides



11–20 sides



21...100 sides



100+ sides



Star polygons
(5–12 sides)



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