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Přemyslid

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Přemyslid

Přemyslid dynasty
Country Kingdom of Bohemia
Titles

Founder Borivoj I
Final sovereign Wenceslaus III of Bohemia
Current head

None, last heads according to legitimacy:

  • Royal branch: Wenceslaus III
  • Opavian branch: Valentin the Hunchbacked
Founding 867
Cadet branches

In order of seniority:

  • Conradian:
    • Znojmo branch (1035 - 1191)
    • Brno branch (1035 - 1200)
  • Olomouc branch (1045 - 1227)
  • Děpoltian branch (1123 - 1247)
  • Opavian branch (1255 - 1521)

The Přemyslids (Czech: Přemyslovci, German: Premysliden, Polish: Przemyślidzi), were a Bohemian (Czech) royal dynasty which reigned in Bohemia and Moravia (9th century–1306), and partly also in Hungary, Silesia, Austria and Poland. Subsequently, the ruling House of Luxembourg (1310 - 1437) claimed title to the crown of Bohemia through relation to Přemyslids. The House of Habsburg (ruling 1526 - 1918) claimed title to the crown from its relation to all previously ruling houses, including the House of Přemysl.

The origins and growth of Přemyslid Dynasty

Dynasty beginnings date back to the 9th century[1] when Přemyslids ruled a tiny principality around Prague and gradually conquered the region of Bohemia, conveniently located in the Bohemian basin where it was not threatened by expansion of the Frankish Empire. The first historically-documented Premyslid Duke was Bořivoj I (867).[1] In the following century, Přemyslids also ruled over Silesia and founded the city of Wroclaw (German: Breslau), derived from the name of a Bohemian duke Vratislaus I, father of Saint Wenceslaus. Under reign Prince Boleslaus I cruel (935) and his son Boleslaus II the Pious (972), the Přemyslids ruled territory stretching to today's Belarus.[1] They controlled important trade routes. In this time Czech Lands and Prague was an important seat for trading where merchants from all of Europe settled, including many Jews, as recalled in 965 by the Hispano-Jewish merchant and traveller Ibrahim ibn Ya'qub. He Wrote "Prague is a city from the stone, the richest of all states north of the Alps." After their prominent rise, however, internal struggles within the family began a decline in power, and, in 1002, the Polish king Boleslaus the Brave occupied Prague.[1]Boleslav III, son of Boleslav II, escape from the Bohemia and this is the start of decades of confusion and anarchy.

The decline ended during the reign of Prince Bretislaus I. He in turn looted Poland, including the cities of Krakow and Gniezno (1038), where he obtained the relics of St. Adalbert. He sought establishment of the Prague archbishopric and a royal title. His son and successor Vratislaus II became the first King of Bohemia (1085).

Vratislav's son Sobeslaus I destroyed the Imperial army of King Lothar III in the Battle of Chlumec (1126). This allowed for a further strengthening of Bohemia with a culmination during the reign of Vratislav's nephew, King Vladislaus II (1158). Vladislav II founded many monasteries and built the first stone bridge across the Vltava. But then internal struggles again started the decline of the Přemyslids. Many different leaders from the dynasty alternated on the Bohemian throne, leading to the eventual bankruptcy. Upon his rise to the throne, Ottokar I began a series of changes that brought Bohemia out of crisis, and began a period of success[1] that lasted for nearly 220 years.

At the height of its power


Ottokar I was elected as king in the year 1198 and was awarded a hereditary royal title. Thus began a significant growth of the Přemyslids dynastic power. Ottokar's son King Wenceslaus I annexed Austria to Bohemia (1236). There was also a large urban and crafts development.

By the end of the 13th century, the Přemyslids were one of the most powerful dynasties in Central Europe.[2] King Přemysl Ottokar II, son of Wenceslas I, earned the nickname "Iron and Golden King" because of his military power and wealth.[1] After several victorious wars with the Hungarian Kingdom, he acquired Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Carniola, thus spreading the Bohemian territory to the Adriatic Sea. They were so powerful that King Ottokar II aspired to the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire. These aspirations started the conflict with House of Habsburg, who were, until then, little-known princes. Their representative Rudolf was elected as King of Romans. Ottokar II fought Rudolph in several wars. In the Battle of Marchfeld (1278), Ottokar clashed with Imperial and Hungarian armies. In addition, he was faced with the treachery of the Bohemian nobility. He was killed in battle[1] and the Habsburgs acquired Austria, retaining it until the 20th century.

His son, King Wenceslaus II come to Czech throne in year 1283. In the next time, due to deft diplomacy, he gained the crowns of both the Hungarians for his son, and the Polish crown for the himself.[1] Wenceslas II formed a vast empire stretching from the Baltic Sea to the Danube river and established numerous cities, such as Plzeň in 1295. Bohemia became a wealthy nation due to a large vein of silver discovered under Wenceslaus II.[1] He created the penny of Prague,[1] which was an important European currency for centuries, and planned to build the first university in Central Europe. The power and wealth of the Kingdom of Bohemia gave rise to great respect, but also to the hostility of European royal families.

The dynasty began to collapse following after the untimely death of Wenceslaus II (1305), and the assassination of his only son, Wenceslaus III in 1306, which brought about the end to their rule.[1][2] On the distaff side, however, the dynasty continued, and in 1355, Bohemian king Charles IV, the grandson of Wenceslaus II, was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome.

Legendary rulers

The name of the dynasty, according to Cosmas in his Chronica Boemorum (1119), comes from its legendary founder, Přemysl, husband of Libuše.[3]

Dukes of Bohemia

The first historical Přemyslid was Duke Bořivoj I, baptised in 874 by Saint Methodius. In 895, Bohemia gained independence from Great Moravia. Between 1003 and 1004, Bohemia was controlled by Boleslaus the Brave, Duke of Poland from the Piast dynasty, grandson of Boleslaus I the Cruel.

In 1085, Duke Vratislaus II, and, in 1158, Duke Vladislaus II, were crowned King of Bohemia as a personal award from the Holy Roman Emperor. The title, however, was not hereditary.

Kings of Bohemia

Bohemia was the only princedom in the Holy Roman Empire which was raised to the status of kingdom prior to the Napoleonic wars. The reason for this was strength: as soon as Bohemia overcame its civil strife, the Czech duke became the principal ally for any candidate for the Imperial throne. The emperor could, thus, use Bohemian forces to punish any rebels who were Czech neighbours simply by raiding their lands. This is evinced by the establishment, by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, of Prince Vratislaus II of Bohemia as the first king of Bohemia, Vratislav I, in 1085. He was raised to this prominent position not very long after his father Bretislaus pacified Bohemia after years of civil conflict. The kingship was disputed whenever Czech internal conflict increased. It was fixed, however, after the position of the emperor in Germany weakened.

In 1198, Duke Ottokar I again gained the title of King of Bohemia as an ally of Philip of Swabia. This title was reconfirmed by Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor and later on in Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor's Golden Bull of Sicily (1212).

Kings of Bohemia, Poland and Hungary, rulers of Austria

In 1269-1276, King Ottokar II of Bohemia was the first in history to rule the lands of today's Austria together (except for Tyrol). He also founded the Hofburg Palace in Vienna.

In 1300, King Wenceslaus II was crowned King of Poland. Prior to this, he held the title "High Duke of Poland (Duke of Kraków)" since 1291 and became its overlord upon the death of Przemysł II of Poland in 1296.

The royal line ended in 1306, with the death of King Wenceslaus III. The Bohemian throne went to the Luxembourgs, and the Polish returned to the Piasts.

Dukes of Opava, Krnov, Ratibor and Münsterberg

In 1269, Nicholas, bastard son of King Ottokar II who was legitimized by pope Alexander IV in 1260, became duke of Opava. In 1337, his son Nicholas II inherited Duchy of Ratibor. His four sons divided the Duchy of Opava (Duchy of Ratibor was inherited only by oldest John). Thus started the partition of once unified land between the descendants of Nicholas II. In 1443 William, Duke of Opava gained the Duchy of Münsterberg, which was held by Přemyslids to 1456. This line of Opavian Přemyslids ended in 1521, with the death of Valentine, Duke of Ratibor.

Legacy

Territorial efforts of the Přemyslid kings (all arranged or supported by marriage) were not made without purpose. They were predecessors to similar later efforts of the House of Luxemburg, Jagiellon dynasty and finally the House of Habsburg. All of them wanted to create a permanent powerbase enabling to rule Germany without really doing so (Luxemburgs, Habsburgs) or at least dominate its closer parts, and to defend the eastern border of the Empire from invasions coming from time to time from the east. It were the Habsburgs, who in the end (1526) succeeded, but it is not a big surprise, that the Czech Estates willingly consented, as it was the most reasonable alternative, especially in the view of ongoing wars with Turks dating from the time of Sigismund of Luxemburg.

It is interesting to note, that the only Czech king, who could not personally follow such aims through dynastical bonds, George of Poděbrady, who was deemed heretic by pope and therefore could not hope for his sons to inherit the throne, tried to achieve it by a purely political project Tractatus pacis, of course unsuccessfully. Certainly it would be anachronical to state, that the Přemyslids tried to establish Austrian Empire, but still they did quite enough to unite all the lands within its later borders. Whether it means, that traditional Czech policy is support of European integration, is perhaps not purely historical question, but rather that of personal judgment made today.

Family tree

Family Tree of the Premyslid Dukes and Kings of Bohemia

Bořivoj I. + Saint Ludmila

  • Spytihněv I
  • Vratislav I
    • Saint Václav I
    • Boleslav I the Cruel
      • Boleslav II the Pious
        • Boleslav III the Red-haired
        • Jaromír the Eunuch
        • Václav the Infantdead
        • Oldřich
          • Břetislav I Achilles
            • Spytihněv II
            • Vratislav II
              • Břetislav II
              • Judith of Bohemia, mother of Boleslaus III of Poland
              • Bořivoj II
              • Vladislav I
                • Vladislav II
                  • Bedřich
                  • Ottokar I
                    • Wenceslas I
                      • Ottokar II the Golden and Iron
                        • Wenceslas II
                          • Wenceslas III d. 1306 as last male member of the royal Přemyslid dynasty
                          • Anne of Bohemia (1290–1313)
                          • Elisabeth of Bohemia (1292–1330) last member of the royal Přemyslid dynasty
                      • Nicholas I of Opavia started line of Dukes of Opava; died out in 1521
                    • Queen Dagmar of Dennmark, mother of Valdemar the Young
                  • Vladislav III Henry
                • Henry
                  • Břetislav III Henry (Henry Bretislav)
              • Soběslav I
                • Soběslav II. the Peasant
                • Wenceslas II
            • Bishop Jaromír
            • Konrád I of Brno and Znojmo
            • Otto of Olomouc
              • Otto II the Black
              • Svatopluk
      • Abbess Mlada
      • Dobrava m. Mieszko I of Poland, ancestors of piast line in Poland, which includes Boleslaw III above
      • Strachkvas Christian

Family tree of Elisabeth of Bohemia and Jagiellonians and Habsburgs

References

See also

External links

  • Full premyslid family tree (Czech)
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