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Pano–Takanan languages

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Title: Pano–Takanan languages  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Chibchan languages
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Pano–Takanan languages

southern Amazon
Linguistic classification: Macro-Panoan ?
  • Páno-Takána

Panoan languages (dark green) and Takanan languages (clear green). Circles indicate locations of modern languages.

Pano-Tacanan (also Pano-Takana, Pano-Takánan, Pano-Tacana, Páno-Takána) is a proposed family of languages spoken in Peru, western Brazil, Bolivia and northern Paraguay. There are two close-knit branches, Panoan and Tacanan (Adelaar & Muysken 2004; Kaufman 1990, 1994), with 33 languages. There are lexical and grammatical similarities between the two branches, but it has not yet been demonstrated that these are genetic (Loos 1999).

Most Panoan languages are spoken in either Peru or western Brazil; a few are in Bolivia. All Tacanan languages are spoken in Bolivia (Ese’ejja is also spoken in Peru).

Genealogical relations

Migliazza has presented lexical evidence in support of a genetic relationship between the Panoan and Yanomaman languages. He also urges that a Panoan–Chibchan relationship is plausible.[1]

External links

  • Proel: Familia Pano-Tacanana
  • Proel: Familia Panoana
  • Proel: Familia Tacanana


  • Adelaar, Willem F. H.; & Muysken, Pieter C. (2004). The languages of the Andes. Cambridge language surveys. Cambridge University Press.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.


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