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Paraphilia

Paraphilia
Classification and external resources
MeSH D010262

Paraphilia (also known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, or individuals.[1] No consensus has been found for any precise border between unusual sexual interests and paraphilic ones. There is debate over which, if any, of the paraphilias should be listed in diagnostic manuals, such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases.

The number and taxonomy of paraphilias is under debate; one source lists as many as 549 types of paraphilias.[2] Several sub-classifications of the paraphilias have been proposed, and some argue that a fully dimensional, spectrum or complaint-oriented approach would better reflect the evidence.[3][4]

Contents

  • Terminology, history and stigma 1
    • General 1.1
    • Homosexuality and non-heterosexuality 1.2
    • Political history 1.3
  • The border between typical and atypical sexual interests 2
  • Intensity and specificity 3
  • Associated features 4
    • Sex differences 4.1
  • Classification as mental illness 5
    • DSM-I and DSM-II 5.1
    • DSM-III through DSM-IV 5.2
    • DSM-IV-TR 5.3
    • DSM-5 5.4
  • Causes 6
  • Treatments 7
  • Legal issues 8
  • See also 9
  • References 10
  • External links 11

Terminology, history and stigma

General

Many terms have been used to describe atypical sexual interests, and there remains debate regarding technical accuracy and perceptions of stigma. Sexologist John Money popularized the term paraphilia as a nonpejorative designation for unusual sexual interests.[5][6][7][8] Psychiatrist Glen Gabbard writes that despite efforts by Stekel and Money, "the term paraphilia remains pejorative in most circumstances."[9]

Coinage of the term paraphilia (paraphilie) has been credited to Friedrich Salomon Krauss in 1903, and it entered the English language in 1913, in reference to Krauss by urologist William J. Robinson.[10] It was used with some regularity by Wilhelm Stekel in the 1920s.[11] The term comes from the Greek παρά (para) "beside" and φιλία (-philia) "friendship, love".

Money described paraphilia as "a sexuoerotic embellishment of, or alternative to the official, ideological norm."[12]

In the late 19th century, psychologists and psychiatrists started to categorize various paraphilias as they wanted a more descriptive system than the legal and religious constructs of sodomy[13] and perversion.[14] Before the introduction of the term paraphilia in the DSM-III (1980), the term sexual deviation was used to refer to paraphilias in the first two editions of the manual.[15] In 1981, an article published in American Journal of Psychiatry described paraphilia as "recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving:[16]

  1. Non-human objects
  2. The suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner
  3. Children
  4. Non-consenting persons

Homosexuality and non-heterosexuality

Homosexuality was at one time discussed as a sexual deviation.[17] Sigmund Freud and subsequent psychoanalytic thinkers considered homosexuality and paraphilias to result from psychosexual non-normative relations to the Oedipal complex.[18] As such, the term sexual perversion or the epithet pervert have historically referred to gay men, as well as other non-heterosexuals (people who fall out of the perceived norms of sexual orientation).[17][18][19][20][21]

By the mid-20th century, mental health practitioners began formalizing "deviant sexuality" classifications into categories. Originally coded as 000-x63, homosexuality was the top of the classification list (Code 302.0) until the American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from the DSM in 1974. Martin Kafka writes, "Sexual disorders once considered paraphilias (e.g., homosexuality) are now regarded as variants of normal sexuality."[19]

A 2012 literature study by James Cantor, clinical psychologist, comparing homosexuality with paraphilias found that homosexuality was sufficiently dissimilar from the paraphilias as to be considered an unrelated construct.[21][22]

Political history

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Sexual deviance and paraphilia has been defined politically in many different ways. In the 20th century in western culture, the three main sources of political unrest in the arena of sexual deviance were from interracial relationships and marriages, same-sex relationships and same-sex marriage, and children born out of wedlock.[23] Political control of sexuality through laws against sexual deviance has created a power-differential. People of color, women, and LGBT people's sex lives and sexuality are seen as a political problem and issue, taking away these people’s agency and ownership of their own sexuality.

The border between typical and atypical sexual interests

Albert Eulenburg (1914) noted a commonality across the paraphilias, using the terminology of his time, "All the forms of sexual perversion...have one thing in common: their roots reach down into the matrix of natural and normal sex life; there they are somehow closely connected with the feelings and expressions of our physiological erotism. They are...hyperbolic intensifications, distortions, monstrous fruits of certain partial and secondary expressions of this erotism which is considered 'normal' or at least within the limits of healthy sex feeling."[24]

The clinical literature contains reports of many paraphilias, only some of which receive their own entries in the diagnostic taxonomies of the

  • DSM-IV and DSM-IV-TR list of paraphilias
  • Proposed diagnostic criteria for sex and gender section of DSM5

External links

  • Kenneth Plummer, Sexual stigma: an interactionist account, Routledge, 1975, ISBN 0-7100-8060-3
  • Elisabeth Roudinesco, Our Dark Side, a History of Perversion, Polity Press, 2009, ISBN 0-7456-4593-3
Further reading
  • D. Richard Laws, William T. O'Donohue (ed.), Sexual Deviance: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment, 2nd ed., Guilford Press, 2008, ISBN 978-1-59385-605-2
Bibliography
  1. ^ a b  
  2. ^ Aggrawal, Anil (2009). Forensic and Medico-legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes and Unusual Sexual Practices. Boca Raton:  
  3. ^ Maser, JD et al. (2002). "Spectrum concepts in major mental disorders". Psychiatric Clinics of North America 25 (4): xi–xiii.  
  4. ^ Krueger RF, Watson D, Barlow DH (2005). "Introduction to the Special Section: Toward a Dimensionally Based Taxonomy of Psychopathology". Journal of Abnormal Psychology 114 (4): 491–3.  
  5. ^ Weiderman, M. (2003). "Paraphilia and Fetishism". The Family Journal 11 (3): 315–321.  
  6. ^ Bullough, VL (1995). Science in the Bedroom: A History of Sex Research.  
  7. ^ Moser, C (2001). "Critiques of conventional models of sex therapy". In Kleinplatz PJ. New directions in sex therapy: innovations and alternatives.  
  8. ^ McCammon, S; Knox D & Schacht C (2004). Choices in sexuality. Atomic Dog Publishing. p. 476.  
  9. ^ Gabbard, GO (2007). Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. American Psychiatric Press.  
  10. ^ Janssen, D.F. (2014). How to "Ascertain" Paraphilia? An Etymological Hint. Archives of Sexual Behavior, in press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-013-0251-5
  11. ^  
  12. ^  
  13. ^ Dailey, Dennis M. (1989). The Sexually Unusual: Guide to Understanding and Helping. Haworth Press ISBN 978-0-86656-786-2, pp. 15-16
  14. ^ Purcell, CE; Arrigo BA (2006). The psychology of lust murder: paraphilia, sexual killing, and serial homicide.  
  15. ^ Laws and, O'Donohue (2008) p. 384
  16. ^ Spitzer, R. L. (1981). "The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: A reformulation of the issues". The American Journal of Psychiatry 138 (2): 210–215.  
  17. ^ a b Hutchinson, GE (1959). "A speculative consideration of certain possible forms of sexual selection in man".  
  18. ^ a b Karpman, B. (1951). "The sexual psychopath". Journal of the American Medical Association 146 (8): 721–726.  
  19. ^ a b Kafka, MP (1996). "Therapy for Sexual Impulsivity: The Paraphilias and Paraphilia-Related Disorders". Psychiatric Times 13 (6). 
  20. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310132/
  21. ^ a b Cantor, J. M. (2012). "Is Homosexuality a Paraphilia? The Evidence for and Against". Archives of Sexual Behavior 41 (1): 237–247.  
  22. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310132/
  23. ^ Curra, John. The Relativity of Deviance. 
  24. ^ Eulenburg (1914). Ueber sexualle Perversionen. Ztschr. f. Sexualwissenschaft, Vol. I, No. 8. translated in Stekel, Wilhelm. (1940). Sexual aberrations: The phenomena of fetishism in relation to sex. New York: Liveright, p. 4. OCLC 795528
  25. ^ Axis I. Clinical Disorders, most V-Codes and conditions that need Clinical attention". Retrieved: 23 November, 2007""". Psyweb.com. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 
  26. ^ World Health Organization, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, (2007), Chapter V, Block F65; Disorders of sexual preference. Retrieved 2007-11-29.
  27. ^ Summary of Practice-Relevant Changes to the DSM-IV-TR from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
  28. ^ a b c d e f g American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
  29. ^ Padmal de Silva (March 2007). "Sexual disorder and psychosexual therapy". Psychiatry (Elsevier Ltd) 6 (3): 130–134.  
  30. ^ King, M.B. (1990). "Sneezing as a fetish object".  
  31. ^ Fedoroff, J. P., Fishell, A., & Fedoroff, B. (). A case series of women evaluated for paraphilic sexual disorders. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 8.
  32. ^ Kleinplatz, PJ; Moser C (2005). "Politics versus science: An addendum and response to Drs. Spitzer and Fink". Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 17 (3/4): 135–139.  
  33. ^ Moser C, Kleinplatz PJ (2005). "DSM-IV-TR and the Paraphilias: An argument for removal". Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality 17 (3/4): 91–109.  
  34. ^ Laws and, O'Donohue (2008) pp. 384-385 citing DSM-I pp. 7, 38-39
  35. ^ Aggrawal, A (2008). Forensic and medico-legal aspects of sexual crimes and unusual sexual practices.  
  36. ^ Laws and, O'Donohue (2008) p. 385 citing DSM-II p. 44
  37. ^ a b Laws and O'Donohue (2008) p. 386
  38. ^ Laws and, O'Donohue (2008) p. 385
  39. ^ Paraphilias: Clinical and Forensic Considerations, April 15, 2007 Psychiatric Times. Vol. 24 No. 5 from Psychiatric Times
  40. ^ a b http://www.dsm5.org/ProposedRevisions/Pages/proposedrevision.aspx?rid=186 (click 'Rationale' tab).
  41. ^ Alice Dreger (19 Feb 2010) Of Kinks, Crimes, and Kinds: The Paraphilias Proposal for the DSM-5, Hastings Center
  42. ^ Moser C (2010). "Problems with Ascertainment". Archives of Sexual Behavior 39 (6): 1225–1227.  
  43. ^ A. C. Hinderliter. (2010) Defining paraphilia: excluding exclusion. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology. 2, 241-271. http://web.me.com/gregdeclue/Site/Volume_2__2010_files/Hinderliter%202010.pdf
  44. ^ Singy P (2010). "What's Wrong With Sex?". Archives of Sexual Behavior 39 (6): 1231–1233.  
  45. ^ Rahman Q, Symeonides DJ, Q.; Symeonides, D. J. (February 2007). "Neurodevelopmental Correlates of Paraphilic Sexual Interests in Men".  
  46. ^ a b c M. Williams. Sexual Compulsivity: Defining Paraphilias and Related Disorders "Psychoactive Drug Treatments". Retrieved 23 November 2007
  47. ^ How do you cure a sex addict? Lauren Slater, NYTimes, 19 Nov 2000
  48. ^ First, M. B.; Halon, R. L. (2008). "Use of DSM paraphilia diagnoses in sexually violent predator commitment cases" (pdf). The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 36 (4): 443–454.  
  49. ^ Cripe, Clair A; Pearlman, Michael G (2005). Legal aspects of corrections management. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 248.  
  50. ^ JESSE J. HOLLAND, Court: Sexually dangerous can be kept in prison, Associated Press. Retrieved 5-16-2010.
  51. ^ "Civil: SVPA - CCAP". Capcentral.org. Retrieved 2013-03-14. 

References

See also

In the United States, following a series of landmark cases in the Supreme Court of the United States, persons diagnosed with paraphilias and a history of anti-social behavior, particularly pedophilia (Kansas v. Hendricks, 1997) and exhibitionism (Kansas v. Crane, 2002), can be held indefinitely in civil confinement under various state legislation generically known as sexually violent predator laws[48][49] and the federal Adam Walsh Act (United States v. Comstock, 2010).[50][51]

Legal issues

Psychostimulants have been used recently to augment the effects of serotonergic drugs in paraphiliacs. In theory, the prescription of a psychostimulant without pretreatment with an SSRI might further disinhibit sexual behavior, but when taken together, the psychostimulant may actually reduce impulsive tendencies. Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is a substituted phenethylamine stimulant used primarily to manage the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Recent studies imply that methylphenidate may also act on serotonergic systems. Amphetamine is also used medically as an adjunct to antidepressants in refractory cases of depression.[46]

Antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate have been widely used as therapy in these men to reduce sex drive. However, their efficacy is limited and they have many side effects, including breast growth, headaches, weight gain, and reduction in bone density. Even if compliance is good, only 60 to 80 percent of men benefit from this type of drug. Long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormones, such as Triptorelin (Trelstar) which reduces the release of gonadotropin hormones, are also used. This drug is a synthetic hormone which may also lead to reduced sex drive.[46]

The treatment of paraphilias and related disorders has been challenging for patients and clinicians. In the past, surgical castration was advocated as a therapy for men with pedophilia, but has been abandoned for the time being because most governments consider it a cruel punishment where the express willingness and consent of the patient is not objectively indicated. Psychotherapy, self-help groups, and pharmacotherapy (including anti-androgen hormone therapy sometimes referred to as "chemical castration") have all been used. Other drug treatments for these disorders do exist, however.[46][47]

Treatments

The causes of paraphilic sexual preferences in men are unclear, although a growing body of research points to a possible prenatal neurodevelopmental correlation. A 2008 study analyzing the sexual fantasies of 200 heterosexual men by using the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire exam, determined that males with a pronounced degree of fetish interest had a greater number of older brothers, a high 2D:4D digit ratio (which would indicate excessive prenatal estrogen exposure), and an elevated probability of being left-handed, suggesting that disturbed hemispheric brain lateralization may play a role in deviant attractions.[45]

Causes

Historian and philosopher of science Patrick Singy claims that the DSM-5 is about to drastically loosen the criteria for paraphilias and to make them directly dependent on cultural values. The DSM-5 will then be closer to the DSM-I and DSM-II than to their successors, which all were at least trying to separate the concept of "mental disorder" from cultural norms, and which made "harm" or "distress" a necessary condition for having a mental disorder.[44]

Charles Allen Moser pointed out that this change is not really substantive as DSM-IV already acknowledged a difference between paraphilias and non-pathological but unusual sexual interests, a distinction that is virtually identical to what is being proposed for DSM-5, and it is a distinction that, in practice, has often been ignored.[42] Linguist A. C. Hinderliter argued that "Including some sexual interests—but not others—in the DSM creates a fundamental asymmetry and communicates a negative value judgment against the sexual interests included," and leaves the paraphilias in a situation similar to ego-dystonic homosexuality, which was removed from the DSM because it did not meet the DSM's definition of mental disorder.[43]

Bioethics professor Alice Dreger interpreted these changes as "a subtle way of saying sexual kinks are basically okay – so okay, the sub-work group doesn’t actually bother to define paraphilia. But a paraphilic disorder is defined: that’s when an atypical sexual interest causes distress or impairment to the individual or harm to others." Interviewed by Dreger, Ray Blanchard, the Chair of the Paraphilias Sub-Work Group, explained: "We tried to go as far as we could in depathologizing mild and harmless paraphilias, while recognizing that severe paraphilias that distress or impair people or cause them to do harm to others are validly regarded as disorders."[41]

The DSM-5 Paraphilias Subworkgroup reached a "consensus that paraphilias are not ipso facto psychiatric disorders", and proposed "that the DSM-V make a distinction between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. A paraphilia by itself would not automatically justify or require psychiatric intervention. A paraphilic disorder is a paraphilia that causes distress or impairment to the individual or harm to others. One would ascertain a paraphilia (according to the nature of the urges, fantasies, or behaviors) but diagnose a paraphilic disorder (on the basis of distress and impairment). In this conception, having a paraphilia would be a necessary but not a sufficient condition for having a paraphilic disorder." The 'Rationale' page of any paraphilia in the electronic DSM-5 draft continues: "This approach leaves intact the distinction between normative and non-normative sexual behavior, which could be important to researchers, but without automatically labeling non-normative sexual behavior as psychopathological. It also eliminates certain logical absurdities in the DSM-IV-TR. In that version, for example, a man cannot be classified as a transvestite—however much he cross-dresses and however sexually exciting that is to him—unless he is unhappy about this activity or impaired by it. This change in viewpoint would be reflected in the diagnostic criteria sets by the addition of the word "Disorder" to all the paraphilias. Thus, Sexual Sadism would become Sexual Sadism Disorder; Sexual Masochism would become Sexual Masochism Disorder, and so on."[40]

The DSM-5 draft adds a terminology distinction between the two cases, stating that "paraphilias are not ipso facto psychiatric disorders", and defining paraphilic disorder as "a paraphilia that causes distress or impairment to the individual or harm to others".[40]

DSM-5

In the current version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), a paraphilia is not diagnosable as a psychiatric disorder unless it causes distress to the individual or harm to others.[1]

Some paraphilias may interfere with the capacity for sexual activity with consenting adult partners.[28]

The DSM-IV-TR describes paraphilias as "recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors generally involving (1) nonhuman objects, (2) the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or (3) children or other nonconsenting persons that occur over a period of 6 months" (Criterion A), which "cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning" (Criterion B). DSM-IV-TR names eight specific paraphilic disorders (Exhibitionism, Fetishism, Frotteurism, Pedophilia, Sexual masochism, Sexual sadism, Voyeurism, and Transvestic fetishism, plus a residual category, Paraphilia—Not Otherwise Specified).[39] Criterion B differs for exhibitionism, frotteurism, and pedophilia to include acting on these urges, and for sadism, acting on these urges with a nonconsenting person.[28] Sexual arousal in association with objects that were designed for sexual purposes is not diagnosable.[28]

DSM-IV-TR

The DSM-IV (1994) retained the sexual disorders classification for paraphilias, but added an even broader category, "sexual and gender identity disorders," which includes them. The DSM-IV retained the same types of paraphilias listed in DSM-III-R, including the NOS examples, but introduced some changes to the definitions of some specific types.[37]

The DSM-III-R (1987) renamed the broad category to sexual disorders, renamed atypical paraphilia to paraphilia NOS (not otherwise specified), renamed transvestism as transvestic fetishism, added frotteurism, and moved zoophilia to the NOS category. It also provided seven nonexhaustive examples of NOS paraphilias, which besides zoophilia included telephone scatologia, necrophilia, partialism, coprophilia, klismaphilia, and urophilia.[38]

The term paraphilia was introduced in the DSM-III (1980) as a subset of the new category of "psychosexual disorders."

DSM-III through DSM-IV

The DSM-II (1968) continued to use the term sexual deviations, but no longer ascribed them under personality disorders, but rather them alongside them in a broad category titled "personality disorders and certain other nonpsychotic mental disorders". The types of sexual deviations listed in the DSM-II were: sexual orientation disturbance (homosexuality), fetishism, pedophilia, transvestitism (sic), exhibitionism, voyeurism, sadism, masochism, and "other sexual deviation". No definition or examples were provided for "other sexual deviation", but the general category of sexual deviation was meant to describe the sexual preference of individuals that was "directed primarily toward objects other than people of opposite sex, toward sexual acts not usually associated with coitus, or toward coitus performed under bizarre circumstances, as in necrophilia, pedophilia, sexual sadism, and fetishism."[36] Except for the removal of homosexuality from the DSM-III onwards, this definition provided a general standard that has guided specific definitions of paraphilias in subsequent DSM editions, up to DSM-IV-TR.[37]

In American psychiatry, prior to the publication of the DSM-I, paraphilias were classified as cases of "psychopathic personality with pathologic sexuality". The DSM-I (1952) included sexual deviation as a personality disorder of sociopathic subtype. The only diagnostic guidance was that sexual deviation should have been "reserved for deviant sexuality which [was] not symptomatic of more extensive syndromes, such as schizophrenic or obsessional reactions". The specifics of the disorder were to be provided by the clinician as a "supplementary term" to the sexual deviation diagnosis; examples of this supplementary term provided in the DSM-I included homosexuality, transvestism, pedophilia, fetishism, and sexual sadism, including rape. There were no restrictions in the DSM-I on what this supplementary term could be.[34] Researcher Anil Aggrawal writes that the 1952 first edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) specified "the type of the pathological behavior, such as homosexuality, transvestism, pedophilia, fetishism, and sexual sadism, including rape, sexual assault, mutilation."[35]

DSM-I and DSM-II

Some groups seeking greater understanding and acceptance of sexual diversity have lobbied for changes to the legal and medical status of unusual sexual interests and practices. Charles Allen Moser, a physician and advocate for sexual minorities, has argued that the diagnoses should be eliminated from diagnostic manuals.[33]

There is scientific and political controversy regarding the continued inclusion of sex-related diagnoses such as the paraphilias in the DSM, due to the stigma of being classified as a mental illness.[32]

Classification as mental illness

Paraphilias are rarely observed in women,[28] but some case studies of females with paraphilias have been published.[31] Approximately 1 in 20 cases of sexual masochism are female.[28]

Sex differences

Associated features

The literature includes single-case studies of exceedingly rare and idiosyncratic paraphilias. These include an adolescent male who had a strong fetishistic interest in the exhaust pipes of cars, a young man with a similar interest in a specific type of car, and a man who had a paraphilic interest in sneezing (both his own and the sneezing of others).[29][30]

Clinicians distinguish between optional, preferred and exclusive paraphilias,[28] though the terminology is not completely standardized. An "optional" paraphilia is an alternative route to sexual arousal. For example, a man with otherwise unremarkable sexual interests might in some cases seek or enhance sexual arousal by wearing women's underwear. In preferred paraphilias, a person prefers the paraphilia to conventional sexual activities, but also engages in conventional sexual activities.

Intensity and specificity

Consensual adult activities and adult entertainment involving sexual roleplay, novel, superficial, or trivial aspects of sexual fetishism, or incorporating the use of sex toys are not necessarily paraphilic.[28] Paraphilial psychopathology is not the same as psychologically normative adult human sexual behaviors, sexual fantasy, and sex play.

[27] There is disagreement regarding which sexual interests should be deemed paraphilic disorders versus normal variants of sexual interest. For example, as of May 2000, per DSM-IV-TR, "Because some cases of Sexual Sadism may not involve harm to a victim (e.g., inflicting humiliation on a consenting partner), the wording for sexual sadism involves a hybrid of the DSM-III-R and DSM-IV wording (i.e., "the person has acted on these urges with a non-consenting person, or the urges, sexual fantasies, or behaviors cause marked distress or interpersonal difficulty").[26][25]

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