World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0002348424
Reproduction Date:

Title: Parennefer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Amarna Period, Nefertiti, Akhenaten, El-Assasif, Donald B. Redford
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Akhenaten rewarding Parennefer, from the latter tomb at Amarna

The Ancient Egyptian noble Parennefer was Akhenaten's close advisor before he came to the throne, and in later times served as his Royal Butler, an office which brought him into intimate contact with the king. His titles include "The King's Cup Bearer," "Washer of the King's Hands," "Chief Craftsman," and "Overseer of All the Works in the Mansion of Aten." He was instrumental in imposing the "Amarna style" in architecture.[1]


Parennefer had two tombs constructed for him, an unfinished one in Thebes, (TT188), which was a precursor of the Amarna rock tombs[2] An inscription in this tomb stresses that one had to pay one's due to all the gods, although the Aten was to be treated preferentially.[3] The tomb also witnesses some of the changes in the world view occurring under Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, e.g. the royal ka, which had been anthropomorphic became more abstract, a development culminating in the complete abandonment of anthropomorphic depictions of the ka at Akhetaten.[4]

He built a second tomb (Amarna Tomb 7) at Akhetaten, in the Southern group of tombs, where he is shown being rewarded by Akhenaten with many gold collars.[5]


  1. ^ Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge 2001, ISBN 0-415-15448-0, p.146
  2. ^ Dieter Arnold, The Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture, I.B.Tauris 2003, ISBN 1-86064-465-1, p.171
  3. ^ Erik Hornung, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, Cornell University Press 1999, ISBN 0-8014-8725-0, p.48
  4. ^ David P. Silverman, David O'Connor, Ancient Egyptian Kingship, Brill 1995, ISBN 90-04-05402-2, p.72
  5. ^ Brian Molyneaux, The Cultural Life of Images: Visual Representation in Archaeology, Routledge 1997, ISBN 0-415-10675-3, p.118

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.