Patriarchs

This article is about the title in Christianity. For other uses, see Patriarch (disambiguation).

Originally, a patriarch was a man who exercised autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. The system of such rule of families by senior males is termed patriarchy. This is a Greek word, a compound of πατριά (patria), "lineage, progeny", esp. by the father's side[1] (which derives from the word πατήρpatēr meaning "father"[2]) and ἄρχων (archon) meaning "leader", "chief", "ruler", "king", etc.[3][4][5]

Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are referred to as the three patriarchs of the people of Israel, and the period during which they lived is termed the Patriarchal Age. It originally acquired its religious meaning in the Septuagint version of the Bible.[6]

The word has acquired specific ecclesiastical meanings. In particular, the highest-ranking bishops in Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Catholic Church (above Major Archbishop and Primate), and the Assyrian Church of the East are termed Patriarchs (and in certain cases also popes). The office and ecclesiastical circumscription (comprising one or more provinces, though outside his own (arch)diocese he is often without enforceable jurisdiction) of such a Patriarch is termed a Patriarchate. Historically, a Patriarch may often be the logical choice to act as Ethnarch, representing the community that is identified with his religious confession within a state or empire of a different creed (as Christians within the Ottoman Empire).

Eastern Christianity

Church of the East

Patriarchs of the Church of the East, sometimes also referred to as Nestorian, the Church of Persia, the Sassanid Church, or, in modern times, the Assyrian Church of the East, trace their lineage of patriarchs back to the 1st century.

Eastern Orthodoxy

Main article: Eastern Orthodoxy

Eastern Patriarchs outside the Orthodox Communion

Oriental Orthodox Churches

Main article: Oriental Orthodoxy

Catholic Church

Patriarchate of the West (not extant)

In the Pentarchy formulated by Justinian I (527–565), the emperor assigned as a patriarchate to the Bishop of Rome the whole of Christianized Europe (including almost all of modern Greece), except for a small area near Constantinople and along the coast of the Black Sea. He included in this patriarchate also the western part of North Africa. Justinian's system was given formal ecclesiastical recognition by the Quinisext Council of 692, which the see of Rome has, however, not recognized.

Popes have in the past occasionally used the title Patriarch of the West, without defining it. Beginning 1863, this title appeared in the annual reference publication, Annuario Pontificio, which in 1885 became a semi-official publication of the Holy See. This publication suppressed the title in its 2006 edition. The Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity explained the decision in a press release issued later that year. It stated that the title "Patriarch of the West" had become "obsolete and practically unusable" and that it was "pointless to insist on maintaining it". Since the Second Vatican Council, the Latin Church, with which the title could be consider associated, is now organized as a number of episcopal conferences and their international groupings.[12]

Other historical Latin patriarchates

Extant Latin patriarchates

Eastern Catholic patriarchates

Six of the particular Eastern Catholic Churches are headed by a patriarch with a claim to one (or more) of the ancient patriarchal sees:

Major archbishoprics

Four more of the Eastern Catholic Churches are headed by a prelate known as a "Major Archbishop," a title created in 1963 and essentially equivalent to that of Patriarch:[13]

Within their proper sui iuris churches there is no difference between patriarchs and major archbishops. However, differences exist in the order of precedence (i.e. patriarchs take precedence over major archbishops) and in the mode of accession: The election of major archbishops has to be confirmed by the pope before they are allowed to take office.[14] No papal confirmation is needed for newly elected patriarchs before they take office. They are just required to petition the pope as soon as possible for the concession of what is called ecclesiastical communion.[15][16]

Current and Historical Catholic Patriarchates
Type Church Patriarchate Patriarch
Patriarch of the West Latin Rome renounced in 2006
Titular and actual Latin-Rite Patriarchs Latin Aquileia suppressed in 1751
Latin Grado suppressed in 1451
Latin Jerusalem Fouad Twal
Latin Lisbon Manuel Clemente
Latin Venice Francesco Moraglia
Latin Alexandria suppressed in 1964
Latin Antioch suppressed in 1964
Latin Constantinople suppressed in 1964
Latin East Indies Filipe Neri Ferrão
Latin West Indies vacant since 1963
Eastern Catholic Patriarchs Coptic Alexandria Ibrahim Isaac Sidrak
Greek-Melkite Antioch Gregory III Laham
Syrian Antioch Ignatius Joseph III Younan
Maronite Antioch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi
Armenian Cilicia Nerses Bedros XIX Tarmouni
Chaldean Babylon Louis Raphaël I Sako
Eastern Catholic Major Archbishops Ukrainian Kiev-Halych Sviatoslav Shevchuk
Syro-Malabar Ernakulam-Angamaly George Alencherry
Syro-Malankara Trivandrum Baselios Cleemis
Romanian Făgăraş and Alba Iulia Lucian Mureșan

Independent Patriarchs

These Patriarchs are not part of traditional ecclesiastical communions of either the Eastern or the Catholic variety. Their sects were generally initiated since about 1900 and reject many of the teachings of traditional apostolic Christian faith, for example by allowing women to attempt ordination or by allowing priests to marry after ordination.

  • The Patriarch of the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church.
  • The Patriarch of the International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church.
  • The Patriarch of the Apostolic Catholic Church, in the Philippines
  • The Patriarch of the Catholic Apostolic Church of Antioch.[17]
  • The Patriarch of the American Orthodox Catholic Church.
  • The Patriarch of the Assembly of Jerusalem.

Mormonism

According to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a patriarch is one who has been ordained to the office of Patriarch in the Melchizedek Priesthood. The term is considered synonymous with the term evangelist. One of the patriarch's primary responsibilities is to give patriarchal blessings, as Jacob did to his twelve sons according to the Old Testament. Patriarchs are typically assigned in each stake (district; the name derives from Isaiah 54:2 "[e]nlarge the place of thy tent, ... and strengthen thy stakes") and possess the title for life.

See also

Christianity portal

References

External links

  • Current and former patriarchates of the Catholic Church (Giga-Catholic Information).
  • Current titular patriarchal sees of the Catholic Church (Giga-Catholic Information).
  • Current patriarchates of the Catholic Church (Giga-Catholic Information).
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