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Pinaria (gens)

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Pinaria (gens)

The gens Pinaria was one of the most ancient patrician families at Rome. They traced their origin to a time long previous to the foundation of the city. The Pinarii are mentioned in the regal period, and the first of the gens to obtain the dignity of the consulship was Publius Pinarius Mamercinus Rufus in 489 BC.[1]

Origin of the gens

There were several traditions attached to the Pinarii. The first held that a generation before the Trojan War, Hercules came to Italy, where he was received by the families of the Potitii and the Pinarii. He taught them a form of worship, and instructed them in the rites, by which he was later honored. For centuries, these families supplied the priests for the cult of Hercules, until the Potitii were wiped out in a plague at the end of the 4th century BC[2][3][4]

The extinction of the Potitii was frequently attributed to the actions of Appius Claudius Caecus, who in his censorship in 312 BC, directed the families to instruct public slaves in the performance of their sacred rites. Supposedly the Potitii were punished for their impiety in doing so, while the Pinarii refused to relinquish their office, which they held until the latest period.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Another tradition asserts that until their extinction, the Potitii were always superior to the Pinarii in the performance of their sacrum gentilicum, because at the sacrificial banquet given by Hercules, the Pinarii did not arrive until after the entrails had been eaten. In anger, Hercules declared that the Pinarii should be excluded from partaking of the entrails of the sacrifice, and that in all matters relating to the worship they should be inferior to their brethren.[5][11]

In the later Republic, it was sometimes asserted that the Pinarii were descended from Pinus, a son of Numa Pompilius, the second King of Rome. Several other families made similar claims; the Aemilii had long claimed to be descended from Mamercus, the son of Numa, while in later times the Pomponii and Calpurnii claimed to be descended from sons named Pompo and Calpus. Mamercus and Pompo were genuine praenomina of Sabine origin, like Numa himself, although Calpus and Pinus are not otherwise attested. The Marcii also claimed descent from Numa's grandson, Ancus Marcius, the fourth Roman king.[1][12][13][14][15][16]

Praenomina used by the gens

The Pinarii of the early Republic used the praenomina Publius and Lucius. They are also thought to have used Mamercus, although no examples of this name as a praenomen amongst the Pinarii are found in ancient writers; however, the use of Mamercus or Mamercinus as a cognomen by the oldest family of the gens seems to prove that the praenomen was once used by the gens. In later times, some of the Pinarii bore the names Marcus and Titus.[1]

Branches and cognomina of the gens

The only family of the Pinarii mentioned in the early days of the Republic bore the cognomen Mamercinus. Later, the surnames of Natta, Posca, Rusca, and Scarpus appear, but no members of these families obtained the consulship. Natta and Scarpus are the only cognomina that occur on coins.[1]

The family of the Pinarii Mamercini, all of whom bore the agnomen Rufus, meaning "red", derived their surname from the praenomen Mamercus, which must have been borne by an ancestor of the gens. In Greek authors, it is sometimes found as Mamertinus, apparently by analogy with the Mamertini, a group of Italian mercenaries.[15][17]

Natta or Nacca, referring to "a fuller", was the surname of an ancient and noble family of the Pinarii, which flourished from the 4th century BC into imperial times. Cicero mentions the family, and an ancient bronze statue of one of its members, which was struck by lightning in 65 BC.[18][19][20]

Members of the gens

This list includes abbreviated praenomina. For an explanation of this practice, see filiation.

Early Pinarii

  • Publius Pinarius, father of the Vestal.
  • Pinaria P. f., a Vestal Virgin put to death for violating her vow of chastity during the reign of Lucius Tarquinius Priscus.[21]
  • Pinarius, husband of Thalaea, whose quarrel with her mother-in-law, Gegania, during the reign of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, is mentioned by Plutarchus as a rare example of domestic disharmony in early Rome.[22]

Pinarii Mamercini

Pinarii Nattae


  • Lucius Pinarius, commander of the Roman garrison at Enna in 214 BC, during the Second Punic War, vigororously suppressed an attempted insurrection by the inhabitants.[32]
  • Marcus Pinarius Posca, praetor in 181 BC, obtained Sardinia as his province; he put down an insurrection on Corsica, and returning to Sardinia, he successfully carried on the war against the Ilienses.[33]
  • Marcus Pinarius Rusca, brought forward a lex annalis, which was opposed by Marcus Servilius; he is mentioned only by Cicero, and may perhaps have been the same person as Marcus Pinarius Posca.[34]
  • Titus Pinarius, ridiculed by the orator Gaius Julius Caesar Strabo, curule aedile in 90 BC.[35]
  • Titus Pinarius, a friend of Cicero, mentioned several times in his letters.[36]
  • Lucius Pinarius, a grand-nephew of Caesar, who was named one of his heirs in his will. He later served in the army of the triumvirs during the war against Brutus and Cassius.[37][38]
  • Lucius Pinarius Scarpus, placed by Marcus Antonius over Cyrene shortly before the Battle of Actium, he submitted to Octavianus, and was subsequently given the command of Libya. He may be the same person as the grand-nephew of Caesar.[39]
  • Pinarius, an eques, put to death by order of Augustus.[40]

Pinarii in popular culture

The Pinarii are the focus of the novels Roma and Empire, by Steven Saylor. These novels follow the history of Rome, up to the reign of Hadrian, and concern the fortunes of the Potitii and Pinarii, through the passing down of a family heirloom.

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
  2. ^ Titus Livius, Ab Urbe Condita, i. 6, 7.
  3. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia, i. 38-40.
  4. ^ a b Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius, Saturnalia, iii. 6.
  5. ^ a b Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, i. 7.
  6. ^ Servius, ad Virg. Aen., viii. 268.
  7. ^ Sextus Pompeius Festus, epitome of Marcus Verrius Flaccus De Verborum Significatu, p. 237, ed. Karl Otfried Müller.
  8. ^ Johann Adam Hartung, Die Religion der Römer (1836), vol. ii., p. 30.
  9. ^ Barthold Georg Niebuhr, History of Rome, vol. i. p. 88.
  10. ^ Karl Wilhelm Göttling, Geschichte der Römische Staatsverfassung (1840), p. 178.
  11. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia, i. 40.
  12. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, i. 7, 20, 32.
  13. ^ Plutarch, Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans, "Numa", 21.
  14. ^ Herbert A. Grueber, Catalogue of Roman Coins in the British Museum (Republic) (1910). ii. p. 311, no. 733; p. 361, no. 62.
  15. ^ a b George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897).
  16. ^ Michael Grant, Roman Myths (1971), 123, 139.
  17. ^ D.P. Simpson, Cassell's Latin & English Dictionary (1963).
  18. ^ Festus, epitome of Flaccus' De Verborum Significatu, s. v. Natta.
  19. ^ Lucius Appuleius, Metamorphoses, ix. p. 636, ed. Ouden.
  20. ^ Marcus Tullius Cicero, De Divinatione, i. 12, ii. 20, 21.
  21. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia, iii. 67.
  22. ^ Plutarch, Lives, "Comparison of Lycurgus and Numa", 3.
  23. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, ii. 56.
  24. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Romaike Archaiologia, ix. 40.
  25. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica, xi. 66.
  26. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia, i. 13.
  27. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, iv. 25.
  28. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica, xii. 60.
  29. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, vii. 3, 25.
  30. ^ Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, iv. 34.
  31. ^ Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Satirae, i. 6. 124.
  32. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, xxiv. 37-39.
  33. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita, xl. 18, 25, 34.
  34. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, ii. 65.
  35. ^ Cicero, De Oratore, ii. 66.
  36. ^ Cicero, Epistulae ad Atticum, vi. 1. § 23, viii. 15, Epistulae ad Familiares, xii. 24, Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem, iii. 1. § 6.
  37. ^ Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, De Vita Caesarum, "Caesar", 83.
  38. ^ Appianus, Bellum Civile, iii. 22, iv. 107.
  39. ^ Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus, Roman History, li. 5, 9.
  40. ^ Suetonius, De Vita Caesarum, "Augustus", 27.

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