World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Plated mail

Article Id: WHEBN0010958769
Reproduction Date:

Title: Plated mail  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Banded mail, Plate armour, Kikko (Japanese armour), Karuta (armour), Mail (armour)
Collection: Asian Armour, Medieval Armour, Plate Armour
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Plated mail

Polish: Bechter
Polish: Bechter diagramm

Plated mail (sometimes called plated chainmail, splinted mail or splinted chainmail) is a type of mail with embedded plates. Armour of this type has been used in the Middle East, Japan, China, Korea, Central Asia, Greater Iran, India, Eastern Europe, and by the Moors.


  • Types of plated mail 1
  • Gallery 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Types of plated mail

In Russia there are three known varieties of this armour. These were adopted from Persia, initially as Persian exports, and have Persian names.

  • Behterets (Russian: Бехтерец), from Persian behter:[1] small horizontal plates arranged in vertical rows without gaps, joined by rings, and embedded in chainmail
  • Yushman (Russian: Юшман), from Persian jawshan:[1] long horizontal plates embedded in chainmail and resembling laminar armour (e.g. Roman lorica segmentata)
  • Kalantar (Russian: Калантарь): square plates embedded in chainmail, very similar to the Japanese karuta tatami-do. The major difference is that kalantar are not sewn to a cloth backing as Karuta tatami-do are.

According to Bobrov[2] the first plated mail appeared as cuisses in the Middle East, and were imported by the Golden Horde. Iranian miniatures of the first half of 15th century show different combinations of plated mail with lamellar armor and brigandines sometimes worn with a single round mirror plate as breast re-enforcement. The first representation of plated mail as body protection is shown in Iranian miniatures, which show plated mail composed of relatively large plates, worn with laminar pauldrons and skirt (formed from long, horizontal plates), re-enforced by a large round mirror plate. The first representation of classic plated mail (without lamellar elements) can be seen in Baghdad's miniature which dates from 1465. From the end of the 15th century plated mail began to fully replace lamellar armours. The main difference between eastern European (Russian and Polish) and Oriental plated mail is that eastern European versions usually do not have sleeves, while Oriental versions have sleeves (the forearms were protected by vambraces). In a heavy version these sleeves have embedded plates, and a light version (more widely used) has sleeves entirely made from mail.

In Kitab al-Durra al-Maknuna (The Book of the Hidden Pearl) Jābir ibn Hayyān describes plated mail for use in armours (jawasin), helmets (bid), and shields (daraq).[3]

In Japan plated mail is called "karuta", small square or rectangular plates with the gaps between them filled with mail.[4]

The Korean version of this armour is known as gyeongbeongap (경번갑/鏡幡甲). The most famous general who used this type of armor was General Chonji.


See also

  • kote - Japanese bracers which are often were made from plated mail sewn to cloth backing
  • Bechter poznański
  • Bechter moskiewski - Russian type of plated mail
  • Tatami-do - Japanese type of plated mail
  • Baju Lamina - Indonesian type of plated mail
  • Moro-Rüstung - Philippine type of plated mail
  • Mail (armour)
  • Splinted armour
  • Lamellar armour


  1. ^ a b Leonid A. Bobrov "Iron hawks from the territory of Maveranahr" (sets of the defensive equipment of the warriors of the Middle Asia and the neighbouring territories in 16th–17th centuries)
  2. ^ Леонид Бобров "Защитное вооружение среднеазиатского воина эпохи позднего средневековья" (Leonid Bobrov "Panoply of a Late Medieval Central Asian Warrior")
    illustrations of different kind of plated mails
  3. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, The Colouring of Gemstones, the Purifying and Making of Pearls, and Other Useful Recipes
  4. ^ Ian Bottomley & A. P. Hopson, Arms and Armor of the Samurai: The History of Weaponry in Ancient Japan, pp. 88 & 91.

External links

  • The Silk Road Designs Armoury (Maile and Plates) (same site at the internet archive)
  • Russian medieval arms and armor
  • about Korean plated mail (lang. Korean)
    • 몽고습래회사(蒙古襲來繪詞)
    • 정지(鄭地1347∼1391)장군 경번갑(鏡幡甲)
  • Photos of Turkish plated mail
  • Nihon Katchû Seisakuben
    • Tatami Dô
    • Kikkô (Japanese brigandine from plates, mail and cloth)
  • Mughal Plated Mail (Pakistan)
  • Samurai's Tatami-do
  • Plated mail in turkish style owned by Holly Roman Emperor Charles V
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from World eBook Library are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.