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Pope Anicetus

Pope Saint
Anicetus
Papacy began c. 157
Papacy ended c. 20 April 168
Predecessor Pius I
Successor Soter
Personal details
Birth name Anicetus
Born late 1st century
Emesa, Syria
Died c. 20 April 168
Rome, Roman Empire
Sainthood
Feast day 20 April[1]
Attributes Papal tiara, palm branch

Pope Anicetus (died c. 20 April 168) was the Bishop of Rome from c. 157 to his death in 168.[2] According to the Annuario Pontificio, the start of his papacy may have been 153. His name is Greek for unconquered (ἀ-νίκητος). According to the Liber Pontificalis, Anicetus was a Syrian from the city of Emesa (modern-day Homs).[3]

According to Irenaeus, it was during his pontificate that the aged Polycarp of Smyrna, a disciple of John the Evangelist, visited Rome to discuss the celebration of Passover with Anicetus. Polycarp and his Church of Smyrna celebrated the crucifixion on the fourteenth day of Nisan, which coincides with Pesach (or Passover) regardless of which day of the week upon this date fell, while the Roman Church celebrated the Pasch on Sunday—the weekday of Jesus' resurrection. The two did not agree on a common date, but Anicetus conceded to St. Polycarp and the Church of Smyrna the ability to retain the date to which they were accustomed. The controversy was to grow heated in the following centuries.[4]

The Christian historian Hegesippus also visited Rome during Anicetus's pontificate. This visit is often cited as a sign of the early importance of the Roman See.[4]

Anicetus was the first Roman Bishop to condemn heresy by forbidding Montanism. He also actively opposed the Gnostics and Marcionism. Liber Pontificalis records that Anicetus decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair (perhaps because the Gnostics wore long hair).[3]

According to legend, St. Anicetus suffered martyrdom during the reign of the Roman Co-Emperor Lucius Verus, but there are no historical grounds for this account.[5] 16, 17 and 20 April are all cited as the date of his death, but 20 April is currently celebrated as his feast day.[1] Before 1970, the date chosen was 17 April.[5] The Liber Pontificalis states he was buried in the cemetery of Callistus.[3]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 88-209-7210-7)
  2. ^ Campbell, Thomas (1907). "Pope St. Anicetus" in The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  3. ^ a b c The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis), translated by Raymond Davies (Liverpool: University Press, 1989), p. 5
  4. ^ a b Irenaeus, cited in Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica, 5.24; translated by G.A. Williamson, Eusebius: History of the Church (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), pp. 232f
  5. ^ a b Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 1969), p. 120

References

  •  
  • Duff, Eamon. Saints and Sinners: A History of the Popes, Yale University Press, 2001, p. 13. ISBN 0-300-09165-6
  • Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present, Thames & Hudson, 2002, p. 19. ISBN 0-500-01798-0.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Pius I
Bishop of Rome
Pope

154–167
Succeeded by
Soter
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