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Princess Augusta of Great Britain

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Princess Augusta of Great Britain

Augusta of Great Britain
Duchess consort of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Tenure 26 March 1780[1] – 10 November 1806
Spouse Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick
Issue
More
Augusta, Hereditary Princess of Württemberg
Caroline, Queen of the United Kingdom
Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Full name
Augusta Frederica
House House of Brunswick
Father Frederick, Prince of Wales
Mother Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
Born (1737-07-31)31 July 1737
St James's Palace, London
Died 23 March 1813(1813-03-23) (aged 75)
Hanover Square, London
Burial 31 March 1813
Windsor
Augusta by Angelica Kauffman, 1767; Royal Collection, London

Princess Augusta Frederica of Great Britain (31 July 1737 – 23 March 1813) was a granddaughter of George IV.

Early life

Princess Augusta Frederica was born at Caroline of Ansbach and her mother was the Princess of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.

Fifty days later, she was christened at St. James's Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Her godparents were her paternal grandfather, the King (represented by his Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Grafton), and her grandmothers, Queen Caroline and the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Gotha (both represented by proxies).[2]

Her third birthday was celebrated by the first public performance of Rule, Britannia! at Cliveden in Buckinghamshire.

She was born second in the line of succession. Augusta was given a careful education and the negotiations about her marriage began in 1761.

Life in Brunswick

On 16 January 1764, Augusta married Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, at the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace.

Augusta regarded the residence in Brunswick as too simple. She returned to Great Britain in 1764 to give birth to her first child and took a long time to return to Brunswick after the birth. A new palace was built for her in Zuckerberg south of Brunswick to answer more to her taste, constructed by Carl Christoph Wilhelm Fleischer, and called Schloss Richmond, to remind her of England. When the palace was finished in 1768, Augusta moved there permanently.

The marriage was purely an arranged political marriage and Augusta and Charles regarded each other with mutual indifference. Augusta was indifferent to Charles's affairs with Maria Antonia Branconi and Louise Hertefeld. Her indifference was sometimes seen as arrogance, and it gave rise to rumours and slander. Augusta's popularity was severely damaged by the fact that her eldest sons were born with handicaps.

Augusta rarely appeared at the court of Braunschweig because of the dominance of her mother-in-law. When Charles became regent in 1773, her mother-in-law left the court and Augusta filled the position of first lady in the court ceremonies of Brunswick, although she often took short holidays to her personal palace Richmond. In 1780, Charles, already regent for his father, became sovereign duke, and Augusta became duchess consort.

The Swedish Princess Hedwig Elizabeth Charlotte described her, as well as her family, at the time of her visit in August, 1799:
Our cousin the Duke arrived immediately the next morning. He has won many victorys as a notable military man, are witty, litteral and a pleasant aquaitance but ceremonial beyond description. He is said to be quite strict, but a good father of the nation who attends to the needs of his people. After he left us, I visited [3]

Later life

In 1806, when Blackheath, in Greenwich, with her daughter, the Princess of Wales, but soon fell out with her daughter, and purchased the house next door, Brunswick House, as she renamed it. The Duchess of Brunswick lived out her days in Blackheath and died, in 1813, aged 75.

Titles, styles and arms

Titles and styles

  • 31 August 1737 – 16 January 1764: Her Royal Highness Princess Augusta[6]
  • 16 January 1764 – 26 March 1780: Her Royal Highness The Hereditary Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg
  • 26 March 1780 – 10 November 1806: Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg
  • 10 November 1806 – 23 March 1813: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg

Arms

Augusta was granted use of the arms of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of five points, the centre bearing a cross gules, the other points each bearing a rose gules.[7]

Ancestors

Issue

Together the couple had 7 children:
Name Birth Death Notes
Auguste Caroline Friederike Luise 3 December 1764 27 September 1788 married 1780, Friedrich III, Duke of Württemberg; had issue
Karl Georg August 8 February 1766 20 September 1806 married 1790, Frederika Luise Wilhelmine, Princess of Orange-Nassau; no issue
Caroline Amalie Elisabeth 17 May 1768 7 August 1821 married 1795, George IV of the United Kingdom; had issue
Georg Wilhelm Christian 27 June 1769 16 September 1811 Declared an invalid; Excluded from line of succession
August 18 August 1770 18 December 1822 Declared an invalid; Excluded from line of succession
Friedrich Wilhelm 9 October 1771 16 June 1815 married 1802, Marie Elisabeth Wilhelmine, Princess of Baden; had issue
Amelie Karoline Dorothea Luise 22 November 1772 2 April 1773

Sources

  • Beckett, William A.: Universal Biography. London: Isaac, 1836.
  • Kwan, Elisabeth E.; Röhrig, Anna E.: Frauen vom Hof der Welfen. Göttingen: MatrixMedia 2006, ISBN 3-932313-17-8, p. 115−126.
This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the Deutsch WorldHeritage.

References

  1. ^ The Peerage – Charles I, Duke of Brunswick
  2. ^ Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings
  3. ^   (search for all versions on WorldCat)
  4. ^ a b   (search for all versions on WorldCat)
  5. ^   (search for all versions on WorldCat)
  6. ^ The London Gazette, 17 January 1764
  7. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family
German nobility
Preceded by
Philippine Charlotte of Prussia
Duchess consort of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
1780–1806
Vacant
Title next held by
Marie of Baden



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