Proposed referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union

In January 2013, British Prime Minister David Cameron promised an "in/out" referendum on British membership of the European Union in 2017, after a period of renegotiation with the EU, if the Conservative Party wins an outright majority at the next general election, expected in 2015.

Both Labour and the Liberal Democrats oppose the policy of guaranteeing a referendum in 2017, holding instead that a referendum should only be held if there is a further transfer of sovereignty to the European Union.[1][2]

Since 2010, polls have indicated that the UK public is divided on the question, with opposition peaking in November 2012 at 56% compared to 30% who wanted to remain and support peaking in 2013.[3] The largest ever poll (20,000) showed the public to be split on the issue, with 41% in favour of withdrawal, 41% in favour of membership, and 18% undecided.[4] However, when asked how they would vote if Britain renegotiates its terms with the EU, and the government says British interests are better protected, a wide majority of over 50% said they would vote to stay.[5]

While no state has ever withdrawn from the EU, Greenland, part of the Danish Realm, voted to leave the EU's predecessor, the European Economic Community (EEC), in 1985, and Algeria left upon independence in 1962, having been a part of France until then. The first United Kingdom European Communities membership referendum, 1975 endorsed the continuation of the UK's membership.

History

In January 2013, British Prime Minister David Cameron said that if elected in the 2015 General Election, a Conservative government would negotiate new agreements with the European Union and would then hold a referendum on whether to remain in or to leave the EU.[6] Political leaders in the EU criticized the possibility of British renegotiation of its membership of the Union and publicly supported Britain's continued membership.[7] Public polls in France and Germany favoured a British exit.[7] The Obama administration has warned against a British exit from the European Union, arguing that it would reduce the British "voice" in the EU, which was not in the USA's interest.[8]

Cameron had previously rejected a referendum on Britain's EU membership, but suggested the possibility of a future referendum to ensure the UK's position within an evolving EU has "the full-hearted support of the British people".[9] The Labour Party say they do not support a referendum at the current time, but have not ruled it out for the future. The Liberal Democrats have said they do not support an in/out referendum because it is within Britain's interests to remain a member. The UK Independence Party, the British National Party, the Green Party of England and Wales,[10] and the Respect Party[11] all support a referendum.

Former chancellor of the exchequer and member of the House of Lords Nigel Lawson called for the UK to leave the EU in an article for The Times in May 2013.[12] He said the move "would be a wake-up call" to businesses, and would allow "great exporting opportunities to the developing world, especially Asia."[12] Prime Minister David Cameron has been facing calls from backbenchers to hold a referendum on EU membership before the 2015 General Election after the UK Independence Party's success in the 2013 county council elections.[13]

Private member's bill

In May 2013, the Conservative Party published a draft EU referendum bill and outlined their plans for renegotiation and then an in-out vote if returned to office in 2015.[14] The draft bill stated that the referendum must be held no later than 31 December 2017.[15]

The draft was taken forward as a private member's bill by Conservative MP James Wharton.[16] The bill's first reading in the House of Commons was made on 19 June 2013.[17] The prime minister and leader of the Conservative Party, David Cameron, was said by a spokesman to be "very pleased" and would ensure the bill was given "the full support of the Conservative Party".[18]

Regarding the ability of the bill to force the next parliament into holding a referendum, a parliamentary research paper has noted that:

"The Bill simply provides for a referendum on continued EU membership by the end of December 2017 and does not otherwise specify the timing, other than requiring the Secretary of State to bring forward orders by the end of 2016. These orders would need both Houses to agree to the detailed rules for the poll and the date. If no party obtained a majority at the next general election due in 2015, there might be some uncertainty about the passage of the orders in the next Parliament. Unless the orders are passed, it would not appear possible to hold the referendum, since the day and the conduct of the poll would not have received parliamentary assent."[19]

The Bill received its second reading on 5 July 2013 by 304 vote to nil after almost all Labour MPs and all Liberal Democrat MPs abstained.[20] and finally cleared the Commons in November 2013. It was introduced to the House of Lords in December 2013, but failed to pass after the Lords voted to block the bill.[21]

Conservative Party MP, Bob Neill has promised to reintroduce the bill into the commons after coming third in an annual ballot for private members' bills.[22] If an identical bill is again passed by the Commons, the Lords will not be able to stop it coming into force under the Parliament Act.

Television debates

In March and April 2014, two head-to-head debates between Nick Clegg and Nigel Farage on the issue of leaving the European Union were broadcast in the UK — "high-profile interventions by two of the UK’s most prominent pro-EU and anti-EU figures ahead of the European Parliament election".[23] The first hour-long debate, hosted by Nick Ferrari, was broadcast on radio station LBC on 26 March,[24][25][26][27] and was followed by The European Union: In or Out, televised live on BBC Two on 2 April.[23]

Snap polls by YouGov and ICM suggested that Farage performed best in the debate,[28] but the BBC's Nick Robinson suggested in his analysis: "History will record that Nigel Farage was the winner of these debates. Nick Clegg will hope that, nevertheless, he may have won something too by being seen to challenge Britain's political insurgent."[29]

Procedure

No member state has ever left the European Union. The United Kingdom voted to remain a member of the European Communities in a 1975 referendum. Three former territories of EU member states have withdrawn from the EU (or its predecessors): Algeria (1962),[30] Greenland (1985)[31] and Saint Barthélemy (2012) with the latter two becoming Overseas Countries and Territories of the European Union.

Before the Treaty of Lisbon entered into force on 1 December 2009, no provision in the treaties or law of the European Union outlined the ability of a member state to voluntarily withdraw from the EU.[32]

The Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe provided that any member could voluntarily leave the Union of its own accord[33] but this treaty was never ratified. However the voluntary withdrawal clause survived into the Lisbon Treaty as Article 50 TEU.[34]

This new provision formalised the procedure by stating that a member state may notify the European Council that it wishes to withdraw, upon which withdrawal negotiations begin. If no other agreement is reached the treaty ceases to apply to the withdrawing state two years after such notification.

The remaining members of the EU would also need to undertake negotiations to manage the changes to the EU's budgets, voting allocations and policies brought about by the withdrawal of a member state.[35]

Criticism of the proposal to withdraw

Should the United Kingdom withdraw from the European Union but remain in the European Economic Area or the European Free Trade Area, Britain would have to continue implementing European Union Law relevant to the Internal market, but would no longer have the authority to influence its formation.[36] The EEA agreement does not cover the following policy areas: common agriculture and fisheries policies, customs union, common trade policy, common foreign and security policy, direct and indirect taxation and justice and home affairs.[37] Currently this is what is done by Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein.

Around 1.4 million British nationals had exercised their right to freedom of movement to live, work or study in the European Union according to the British government.[38] British citizens are currently able to study in EEA countries at the same cost as charged to their own citizens: this arrangement applies equally between EU states. Were Britain to leave the European Union and the European Economic Area, British citizens would lose these rights. The status of the Common Travel Area between a UK outside the EU and an Ireland continuing as a member remains to be clarified.

According to the European Commission the European single market brings between £30 billion to £90 billion into the British economy.[39] It is unknown if Britain could negotiate a free trade agreement, although the EU does have free trade agreements with Algeria, Colombia, Egypt, Mexico, Peru, South Africa and Tunisia, amongst others. The European trade commissioner Karel De Gucht told the British Broadcasting Corporation that Europe is "not a free lunch".[40] However the United Kingdom has a substantial trade deficit with the European Union (UK buys more EU goods than vice versa).

Some of those in favour of a British withdrawal say Britain could try to create a Commonwealth Free Trade Area to make up money lost by leaving the single market.[41] The idea of a series of bilateral free trade agreements, or even a full Commonwealth Free Trade Area was discussed at the 2005 Malta Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. It is often noted however that Britain trades more with Ireland than with all the leading developing countries combined, the so-called BRIC economics of Brazil, Russia, India and China (only one of which, India, is in the Commonwealth).[42] Some of those opposed to a British withdrawal note that the British economy is most similar to other European economies as opposed to those in other countries.[42]

Response

Business opinion

Car manufacturers Ford and BMW have warned Prime Minister David Cameron against an EU exit, insisting it would be "devastating" for the British economy.[43]

A February-March 2013 survey of 4,387 companies by business lobby group the British Chambers of Commerce found that 18 per cent of UK companies were in favour of entire withdrawal from the European Union,[44] and that 33 per cent of businesses were in favour of withdrawal and negotiating a free-trade deal. 60 per cent said a withdrawal could "harm their business",[44] while 23 per cent said that further integration would be "beneficial" for their company.[44] On commenting on the survey, the groups General Director, John Longworth, said “These findings suggest that U.K. businesses increasingly feel that some sort of change to Britain’s relationship with the EU is needed to boost our trading prospects."

In September 2013, a YouGov/Business for Britain survey of 1024 UK business leaders found that by 46% - 37%, British businesses said that the costs of the Single Market out-weigh the benefits of being in the EU, by 66% - 26%, businesses support a referendum on the EU, and by 56% - 23%, business leaders believe a meaningful change would require a treaty change, and would like to see Britain's relationship with the EU focused on trade.[45]

International reaction

In response to David Cameron's January 2013 speech on the EU, several countries submitted their views on the proposal and on the UK-EU relationship. The U.S. Obama administration expressed the belief that the United Kingdom is stronger in the European Union, and that the EU is stronger through having British membership.[46] The German Defence Minister, Thomas de Maiziere, claimed that it would diminish British influence in NATO.[47] French President Francois Hollande, in a speech to the European Parliament, said there could be no à la carte option for European membership.[48] In response to British Foreign Secretary William Hague's review of EU competencies, the Japanese Government said "The Government of Japan...expects that the UK will maintain a strong voice and continue to play a major role in the EU".[49] In July 2013, a letter from the Australian Foreign Minister Bob Carr said "Australia recognises the UK's strength and resilience and looks forward to seeing it continue as a leading economy and effective power. Strong effective membership of the EU contributes to this."[50] The Swedish finance minister, Anders Borg, expressed that this was a serious matter, and that for Sweden the issue raised some concerns and could reorient the EU.[51]

A report by Tim Oliver of the German Institute for International and Security Affairs noted that there has been little analysis of what a British withdrawal could mean for the EU. The report argues a UK withdrawal "has the potential to fundamentally change the EU and European integration. On the one hand, a withdrawal could tip the EU towards protectionism, exacerbate existing division, or unleash centrifugal forces leading to the EU’s unravelling. Alternatively, the EU could free itself of its most awkward member, making the EU easier to lead and more effective."[35]

Labour for a Referendum

Labour for a Referendum (LfR) is a political campaign by members of the Labour Party that seeks a referendum in the United Kingdom on the European Union.[52] The movement was set up following a pledge by the Conservative Party to hold an in-out vote if re-elected in 2015.[52]

Let Britain Decide

Let Britain Decide is a political campaign by the Conservative Party that seeks a referendum on the UK's relationship with the European Union.[53] It was set up in June 2013 by party chairman Grant Shapps MP. The movement aims to force an in-out vote commitment on EU membership from all three major parties.

Exit plan competition

Following David Cameron's announcement of an EU referendum, British think tank the Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA) announced in July 2013 a competition to find the best plan for a UK exit from the European Union, declaring that a departure is a 'real possibility' after the next election.[54] Those interested were asked to submit a 2,000-word proposal by 16 September 2013, with around 20 of the best being asked to produce a more detailed version.[55] Eight judges, including former Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson, determined which entry is the most plausible.[55] The winning entry was awarded 100,000 euros (£86,525), and was announced on 8 April 2014.[55][56]

Iain Mansfield submitted the winning proposal in the competition with a submission focusing on addressing both trade and regulatory issues with EU members as well as other UK global trading partners.[56][57]

The six finalists for the Brexit prize had been announced on 26 March 2014. They were Rory Broomfield and Iain Murray (coauthored submission), Professor Stephen Bush, Ben Clements, Tim Hewish, Iain Mansfield, and Daniel Pycock.[58]

Opinion polling

Renegotiated terms

The proposed referendum discussed in this article would be on the basis of a prior renegotiation by the British government of its relationship with Europe. The first tables below show polling when the question is asked on this basis.

2014

Date(s) conducted stay leave Unsure Sample Held by Notes
30 Nov - 1 Dec 55% 25% 17% 1,763 YouGov/The Sun
17th-19th November 58% 25% 13% 1,124 YouGov / The Evening Standard London adults only.
16th-17th November 58% 24% 14% 1,589 YouGov / The Sun
4-7 November 40% 43% 17% 1,707 Opinium/The Observer
2nd-3rd November 52% 27% 15% 1,652 YouGov / The Sun
19th-20th October 55% 24% 17% 1,727 YouGov / The Sun
21st-22nd September 54% 25% 16% 1,671 YouGov / The Sun
25th-26th August 54% 26% 16% 2,021 YouGov / The Sun
10th-11th August 54% 23% 18% 1,676 YouGov / The Sun
13th-14th July 52% 25% 19% 1,745 YouGov / The Sun
29th-30th June 54% 23% 17% 1,729 YouGov / The Sun
15th-16th June 57% 22% 16% 1,696 YouGov / The Sun
18–19th May 53% 24% 18% 1,740 YouGov Northern Ireland not sampled
24–25 April 50% 26% 18% 1,835 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
21–22 April 52% 26% 18% 2,190 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
23–24 March 54% 25% 17% 2,190 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
9–10 March 52% 27% 16% 3,195 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
9–10 February 47% 27% 18% 1,685 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
12–13 January 48% 29% 18% 1,762 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled

2013

Date(s) conducted stay leave Unsure Sample Held by Notes
12–13 May 45% 33% 19% 1,748 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
9–10 May 45% 32% 20% 1,945 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
7–8 April 46% 31% 17% 1,765 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
17–18 February 52% 28% 14% 1,713 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled

Standard polling on EU membership

The tables below show polling on whether the UK should be in or out of the EU. It does not ask the question in the context of a proposed prior renegotiation.

2014

Date(s) conducted stay leave Unsure Sample Held by Notes
30 November-1 December 42% 39% 16% 1,763 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
20-26 November 38% 43% 15% 1,641 YouGov EuroTrack Northern Ireland not sampled
21-23 November 32% 48% 20% 2,049 ComRes/ITV Northern Ireland not sampled
20-21 November 40% 41% 15% 1,970 YouGov/The Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
20-21 November 40% 41% 16% 2,314 YouGov/The Sun on Sunday Northern Ireland not sampled
17-19 November 45% 37% 14% 1,124 YouGov/The Evening Standard London adults only.
16-17 November 39% 39% 17% 1,589 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
7 November 31% 51% 18% 979 Survation/Mail on Sunday Northern Ireland not sampled
2-3 November 38% 41% 16% 1,652 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
30-31 October 37% 43% 16% 1,808 YouGov/The Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
27-28 October 35% 44% 21% 2,052 YouGov/The Times Northern Ireland not sampled
23-24 October 41% 40% 15% 2,069 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
19–20 October 40% 39% 16% 1,727 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
11-14 October 2014 56% 36% 8% 1,002 Ipsos MORI Northern Ireland not sampled
21–22 September 42% 38% 14% 1,671 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
25–26 August 41% 40% 14% 2,021 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
10–11 August 40% 38% 17% 1,676 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
13–14 July 41% 38% 16% 1,745 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
29–30 June 40% 39% 16% 1,729 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
27-29 June 36% 43% 21% 2,049 ComRes/ITV
27-28 June 39% 47% 14% 1,000 Survation/Mail on Sunday
26-27 June 39% 37% 18% 1,936 YouGov /Sunday Times
19-20 June 39% 39% 15% 2,016 YouGov / The Sunday Times
17-19 June 37% 48% 15% 1,946 Opinium/Observer
15-16 June 44% 36% 15% 1,696 YouGov / The Sun
30 May-1 June 40% 42% 18% 2,062 ComRes/ITV
29–30 May 41% 39% 15% 2,090 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
20–21 May 42% 37% 16% 6,124 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
18–19 May 43% 37% 16% 1,740 YouGov Northern Ireland not sampled
10–12 May 54% 37% 10% 1,003 Ipsos MORI Northern Ireland not sampled
28 April–6 May 39% 38% 17% 1,805 YouGov Northern Ireland not sampled
2-3 May 39% 46% 15% 1,005 Survation/Daily Mirror
24-28 April 41% 49% 10% 1,199 TNS-BMRB Base: All those who would definitely vote in referendum (683)
24–25 April 40% 37% 18% 1,865 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
21–22 April 40% 38% 17% 2,190 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
3–4 April 42% 37% 16% 1,998 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
27–28 March 42% 36% 16% 1,916 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
23–24 March 42% 36% 17% 1,558 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
9–10 March 41% 39% 15% 3,195 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
9–10 February 36% 39% 18% 1,685 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
7–20 January 41% 41% 18% 20,000 Lord Ashcroft Polls
12–13 January 33% 43% 19% 1,762 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled

2013

Date(s) conducted stay leave Unsure Sample Held by Notes
10–11 November 39% 39% 17% Unknown YouGov
23–27 September 36% 44% 15% 1,922 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
6–8 August 32% 53% 15% 1,945 Opinium/Observer Northern Ireland not sampled
18–24 July 35% 45% 21% 1,968 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
4–5 July 36% 46% 18% 1,022 YouGov/Channel 5 Northern Ireland not sampled
1–3 June 49% 51% 0% 1,566 Survation/Sky News
17–18 May 36% 50% 14% 1,000 Survation/Mail on Sunday Northern Ireland not sampled
16–17 May 36% 45% 19% 1,809 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
15–16 May 24% 46% 30% 2,017 ComRes/Sunday Mirror/Independent Northern Ireland not sampled
15–16 May 30% 46% 24% 2,017 ICM/The Telegraph
12–13 May 34% 44% 22% 1,748 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
10–12 May 40% 43% 17% 1,001 ICM/The Guardian
9–10 May 30% 47% 23% 1,945 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
7 May 35% 46% 20% 719 YouGov/The Times Northern Ireland not sampled
7–8 April 36% 43% 21% 1,765 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
4–27 March 46% 46% 8% 1,012 Pew Research Center Includes Northern Ireland
17–18 February 38% 41% 21% 1,713 YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
5 February 30% 41% 22% 1,237 TNS BMRB
29 Jan – 6 Feb 33% 50% 17% 2,114 Financial Times/Harris
25 January 36% 50% 16% 1,005 Survation/Mail on Sunday Northern Ireland not sampled
24–25 January 37% 39% 24% 1,943 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
23 January 37% 40% 23% 2,000 Populus/The Times
20–21 January 37% 40% 24% Unknown YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
17–18 January 34% 25% 40% 1,912 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
10–11 January 36% 42% 21% 1,995 YouGov/Sunday Times Northern Ireland not sampled
6 January 36% 54% 10% 1,002 Survation/Mail on Sunday Northern Ireland not sampled
2–3 January 31% 46% 22% Unknown YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled

2012

Date(s) conducted stay leave Unsure Sample Held by Notes
27–28 November 30% 51% 9% Unknown YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
13–15 November 30% 56% 14% 1,957 Opinium/Observer Northern Ireland not sampled

2011

Date(s) conducted stay leave Unsure Sample Held by Notes
15–16 December 41% 41% 19% Unknown YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
8–9 December 35% 44% 20% Unknown YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled
7–8 August 30% 52% 19% Unknown YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled

2010

Date(s) conducted stay leave Unsure Sample Held by Notes
8–9 September 33% 47% 19% Unknown YouGov/The Sun Northern Ireland not sampled

Other opinion polling

On UK withdrawal

  • Scotland – A poll conducted by Survation for the Daily Record in November 2014 shows that 47% of Scots say they would vote to remain in the EU, 35% said they would vote to leave, with 18% undecided.[59][60]
  • Scotland – A poll conducted by Panelbase in November 2014 shows that 41% of Scots say they would vote to remain in the EU, 38% said they would vote to leave, with 19% undecided.[61]
  • Scotland – A poll conducted by Ipsos-MORI in February 2013 shows that a majority of Scots would opt for the UK to stay in the EU – 53% say they would vote to remain whereas 34% said they would vote to leave.[62] However, over half of Scots (58%), believe there should be a referendum on the UK's continued membership of the EU.[62]
  • Wales – A poll conducted by YouGov in September 2014 found that 37% of people in Wales would opt to withdraw from the European Union whereas 43% said they would vote to stay in. 5% said they would not vote with 15% saying they don't know how they would vote.[63]
  • Wales – A poll conducted by WalesOnline in June 2013 found that 37% of people in Wales would opt to withdraw from the European Union whereas 29% said they would vote to stay in. More than one in five (21%), said they would not vote with 14% saying they don't know how they would vote.[64] Of the 1,015 people surveyed between 14 and 25 June, the poll found that support for leaving was greatest in the South Wales Valleys, and fewest in south-west Wales. The only age group to show a majority of those wishing to stay in were between 18 and 25.[64]
  • France – A poll conducted by French daily newspaper Le Parisien found that 52% of French voters were in favour of the UK withdrawing from the EU.[65] Of the 1,136 people polled, in conjunction with French research agency BVA in January 2013, 48% said they would rather the UK remained inside the EU.[66]
  • Germany – A study carried out by Internationale Politik found 64% of Germans favoured Britain remaining inside the EU – with just 36% saying they favoured an exit.[67] The biggest support for retaining the union with the UK was with the younger generation with 69% of 18–25 year-olds saying they wanted the UK to stay.[67] Amongst the German political parties, the Green Party remained most favourable at 85%.[67]
  • Ireland – Ireland remains largely opposed to a British exit from the EU.[68]

On the possible withdrawal of other countries

  • Denmark – A poll commissioned in January 2013 following David Cameron's EU referendum speech found that 52% of Danes would still want their country to stay within the EU even if the UK opted to withdraw.[69] However, 47% said they would like the government to attempt to renegotiate the terms of their membership.[69]
  • Ireland – A Red C poll, commissioned by European Movement Ireland in January 2013, found most Irish people would opt for Ireland to remain inside the EU – 66% – even if the UK decided to leave.[68] Just 29% of those asked said that Ireland should leave if the UK does.[68]

Previous campaigns to hold a referendum on EU membership

2010 campaign by Nikki Sinclaire

In July 2010 Nikki Sinclaire (MEP) launched a campaign for a referendum with the aim of collecting 100,000 signatures calling for a referendum on the UK's continued membership in the European Union.[70] The Campaign's first roadshow was held in Stoke-on-Trent on 29 July 2010[71] and it visited over 50 towns and cities in the West Midlands. Alongside her weekly road shows, she created a magazine which by April 2012 was in its fourth issue.[72] The magazine has gathered cross party support. As of August 2011, the petition had attracted over 100,000 signatures.[73]

An electronic petition, set-up by the Daily Express, attracted more than 59,000 signatures from its creation in August 2011 to its end in August 2012.[74]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Watt, Nicholas (1 July 2014). "Nick Clegg defeats Lib Dem bid to guarantee EU referendum". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  3. ^ Boffey, Daniel; Helm, Toby (17 November 2012). "56% of Britons would vote to quit EU in referendum, poll finds". The Observer. Retrieved 4 January 2014. 
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  5. ^ http://cdn.yougov.com/cumulus_uploads/document/65qzen2gxe/YG-Archive-Pol-Sun-results-160614.pdf
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  14. ^ "David Cameron: EU referendum bill shows only Tories listen". British Broadcasting Corporation. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013. 
  15. ^ "European Union (Referendum) Bill (HC Bill 11)". UK Parliament. Retrieved 3 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Private Members' Bills". Parliament.uk. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "Presentation of Bills". Parliament.uk. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "EU referendum: Tory MP will take forward bill". British Broadcasting Corporation. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
  19. ^ [file:///Users/MJWalsh/Downloads/RP13-41.pdf European Union (Referendum) Bill] Bill 11 of 2013-14 Research Paper 13/41. Dated: 28 June 2013. Page 1. Access date: 5 July 2014.
  20. ^ McTague, Tom (5 July 2013). """EU referendum: MPs vote unanimously for 2017 poll but Commons bill branded "complete stunt. The Mirror. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  21. ^ Rigby, Elizabeth; Pickard, Jim (31 January 2014). "EU referendum bill blocked in Lords". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
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  26. ^ Withnall, Adam (5 March 2014). "Nick Clegg and Nigel Farage to clash in head-to-head TV and radio debates". The Independent. Retrieved 23 March 2014. 
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  31. ^ "What is Greenland’s relationship with the EU?". Folketing. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
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  33. ^ Article I-60 of the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
  34. ^ "Consolidated Version of the Treaty On European Union" (PDF). 
  35. ^ a b Oliver, Tim. "Europe without Britain: Assessing the Impact on the European Union of a British Withdrawal". Stiftung Wissenshaft und Politik. Retrieved 1 March 2014. 
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  38. ^ "Stop mass immigration from Bulgarian and Romanians in 2014, when EU restrictions on immigration are relaxed. - e-petitions". Epetitions.direct.gov.uk. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 
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