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Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

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Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha
Armoiries Saxe.svg
 
Blason Duché de Saxe-Altenbourg.svg
1826–1918
 

Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Heil unserem Herzog, heil
"Hail to our Duke, hail"
The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Capital Coburg and Gotha
Languages German
Government Constitutional Monarchy
Duke
 -  1826–1844 Ernest I
 -  1844–1893 Ernest II
 -  1893–1900 Alfred
 -  1900–1918 Charles Edward
History
 -  Established 1826
 -  German Revolution 18 November 1918
Area
 -  1905 1,977 km² (763 sq mi)
Population
 -  1905 est. 242,000 
     Density 122.4 /km²  (317 /sq mi)

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha or Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (German: Herzogtum Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha) is the collective name for the duchies of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in Germany. They were in what today are the states of Bavaria and Thuringia, respectively, and were in personal union between 1826 and 1918. The Duchy (German: Herzogtum) came to an end in November 1918 with the other German monarchies, and the Free State of Saxe-Coburg and the Free State of Saxe-Gotha were established. The former was merged into the Free State of Bavaria and the latter into the new state of Thuringia two years later.

The name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha also refers to the family of the ruling House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, which played many varied roles in nineteenth and twentieth-century European dynastic and political history, branches of which currently reign in Belgium and the British Commonwealth realms.

History

Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha were Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty. The duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha originated as the personal union of these two duchies in 1826, after the death of the last Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg without male heirs. His Wettin relations repartitioned his lands. The former husband of Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, the only niece of the last duke, was Duke Ernest III of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. He received Gotha and changed his name and title to Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, although the two duchies remained separate.

Ernest I died in 1844. His elder son and successor, Ernest II, ruled until his own death in 1893. As he died childless, the throne of the duchies would have passed to the male descendants of Ernest's late brother Albert, the Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom. However, the constitutions of both duchies excluded the British heir apparent from the ducal thrones if there were other eligible male heirs,[1] although Albert Edward, Prince of Wales had already renounced his claim to the ducal throne in favour of his next brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.

Alfred's only son, also Alfred, committed suicide in 1899, so when Duke Alfred died in 1900 he was succeeded by his nephew the Duke of Albany, the 16-year-old son of Queen Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, Alfred's next brother Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and his son Prince Arthur of Connaught having renounced the succession. Reigning as Duke Carl Eduard, or Charles Edward, under the regency of the Hereditary Prince of Hohenlohe-Langenburg until he came of age in 1905, the new duke also continued to use his British title, Duke of Albany. As a result of Charles Edward fighting for Germany against the British in the First World War he was stripped of his British titles in 1919.[2]

Charles Edward reigned until November 18, 1918 during the German Revolution, when the Workers' and Soldiers' Council of Gotha deposed him. The two Duchies, now without a common ruler, became separate states until shortly thereafter, when they ceased to exist. Saxe-Coburg became a part of Bavaria and Saxe-Gotha merged with other small states in 1920 to form the state of Thuringia in the Weimar Republic.

The capitals of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha were Coburg and Gotha. By 1914 the area and populations of the two duchies were:[3]

Duchy Area Population
km² sq mi
Saxe-Coburg 562 217 74,818
Saxe-Gotha 1,415 546 182,359
Total 1,977 763 257,177

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was the only European country to appoint a diplomatic consul, Ernst Raven, to the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War. He was assigned to a position in the state of Texas. He applied to the Confederate Government for a diplomatic exequatur on July 30, 1861 and was accepted.[4][full citation needed]

Ruler

According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha the full title of the Duke was:

Wir, Ernst, Herzog zu Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, Jülich, Cleve und Berg, auch Engern und Westphalen, Landgraf in Thüringen, Markgraf zu Meißen, gefürsteter Graf zu Henneberg, Graf zu der Mark und Ravensberg, Herr zu Ravenstein und Tonna usw.

Translation: We, Ernest, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Jülich, Cleves and Berg, also Angria and Westphalia, Landgrave in Thuringia, Margrave of Meissen, Princely Count of Henneberg, Count of the Mark and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein and Tonna, et cetera.

Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1826–1918)

Heads of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1918–present)

Title and Style of other members of the House

Use of titles may be restricted in case of marriage in opposition to House laws or a member renouncing for themselves and their descendants.

See also

References

External links

  • The Ducal House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha – the official website of the house, in German and English
  • The Catholic Encyclopedia: Saxe-Coburg and Gotha – article about the duchy, with details of religious issues, written in 1910)
  •  
bg:Саксония-Кобург и Гота

ca:Dinastia Saxònia-Coburg Gotha de:Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha (Herzogtum) et:Saksi-Coburg-Gotha dünastia eo:Saksio-Koburgo kaj Gotao (lando) ko:작센코부르크고타 pl:Sachsen-Coburg-Gotha th:แซ็กซ์-โคบูร์กและโกธา

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