An example of the different definitions of
shape. The two triangles on the left are congruent, while the third is
similar to them. The last triangle is neither similar nor congruent to any of the others, but it is homeomorphic.
A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture, or material composition.
Psychologists have theorized that humans mentally break down images into simple geometric shapes called geons.^{[1]} Examples of geons include cones and spheres.
Contents

Classification of simple shapes 1

Shape in geometry 2

Equivalence of shapes 2.1

Congruence and similarity 2.2

Homeomorphism 2.3

Shape analysis 3

Similarity classes 4

See also 5

References 6

External links 7
Classification of simple shapes
Some simple shapes can be put into broad categories. For instance, polygons are classified according to their number of edges as triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, etc. Each of these is divided into smaller categories; triangles can be equilateral, isosceles, obtuse, acute, scalene, etc. while quadrilaterals can be rectangles, rhombi, trapezoids, squares, etc.
Other common shapes are points, lines, planes, and conic sections such as ellipses, circles, and parabolas.
Among the most common 3dimensional shapes are polyhedra, which are shapes with flat faces; ellipsoids, which are eggshaped or sphereshaped objects; cylinders; and cones.
If an object falls into one of these categories exactly or even approximately, we can use it to describe the shape of the object. Thus, we say that the shape of a manhole cover is a circle, because it is approximately the same geometric object as an actual geometric circle.
Shape in geometry
There are several ways to compare the shape of two objects:

Congruence: Two objects are congruent if one can be into the other by a sequence of rotations, translations, and/or reflections.

Similarity: Two objects are similar if one can be transformed into the other by a uniform scaling, together with a sequence of rotations, translations, and/or reflections.

Isotopy: Two objects are isotopic if one can be transformed into the other by a sequence of deformations that do not tear the object or put holes in it.
Sometimes, two similar or congruent objects may be regarded as having a different shape if a reflection is required to transform one into the other. For instance, the letters "b" and "d" are a reflection of each other, and hence they are congruent and similar, but in some contexts they are not regarded as having the same shape. Sometimes, only the outline or external boundary of the object is considered to determine its shape. For instance, an hollow sphere may be considered to have the same shape as a solid sphere. Procrustes analysis is used in many sciences to determine whether or not two objects have the same shape, or to measure the difference between two shapes. In advanced mathematics, quasiisometry can be used as a criterion to state that two shapes are approximately the same.
Simple shapes can often be classified into basic geometric objects such as a point, a line, a curve, a plane, a plane figure (e.g. square or circle), or a solid figure (e.g. cube or sphere). However, most shapes occurring in the physical world are complex. Some, such as plant structures and coastlines, may be so arbitrary as to defy traditional mathematical description – in which case they may be analyzed by differential geometry, or as fractals.
Equivalence of shapes
In geometry, two subsets of a Euclidean space have the same shape if one can be transformed to the other by a combination of translations, rotations (together also called rigid transformations), and uniform scalings. In other words, the shape of a set of points is all the geometrical information that is invariant to translations, rotations, and size changes. Having the same shape is an equivalence relation, and accordingly a precise mathematical definition of the notion of shape can be given as being an equivalence class of subsets of a Euclidean space having the same shape.
Mathematician and statistician
External links

^ Marr, D., & Nishihara, H. (1978). Representation and recognition of the spatial organization of threedimensional shapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London , 200, 269294.

^ Kendall, D.G. (1984). "Shape Manifolds, Procrustean Metrics, and Complex Projective Spaces". Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society 16 (2): 81–121.

^ Here, scale means only uniform scaling, as nonuniform scaling would change the shape of the object (e.g., it would turn a square into a rectangle).

^ Hubbard, John H.; West, Beverly H. (1995). Differential Equations: A Dynamical Systems Approach. Part II: HigherDimensional Systems. Texts in Applied Mathematics 18. Springer. p. 204.

^ J.A. Lester (1996) "Triangles I: Shapes", Aequationes Mathematicae 52:30–54

^ Rafael Artzy (1994) "Shapes of Polygons", Journal of Geometry 50(1–2):11–15
References
See also
A polygon (z_1, z_2,...z_n) has a shape defined by n – 2 complex numbers S(z_j,z_{j+1},z_{j+2}), \ j=1,...,n2. The polygon bounds a convex set when all these shape components have imaginary components of the same sign.^{[6]}

If p=(1q)^{1}, then the quadrilateral is a parallelogram.

If a parallelogram has arg p = arg q, then it is a rhombus.

When p = 1 + i and q = (1 + i)/2, then the quadrilateral is square.

If p = r(1q^{1}) and sgn r = sgn(Im p), then the quadrilateral is a trapezoid.
The shape of a quadrilateral is associated with two complex numbers p,q. If the quadrilateral has vertices u,v,w,x, then p = S(u,v,w) and q = S(v,w,x). Artzy proves these propositions about quadrilateral shapes:

p(1p)^{1} = S(u,v,w)S(v,w,u)=(uw)/(vw)=S(w,v,u). These relations are "conversion rules" for shape of a triangle.
Combining these permutations gives S(v,w,u) = (1  p)^{1}. Furthermore,

1  p = 1  (uw)/(uv) = (wv)/(uv) = (vw)/(vu) = S(v,u,w). Also p^{1} = S(u,w,v).
For any affine transformation of the complex plane, z \mapsto a z + b,\quad a \ne 0, a triangle is transformed but does not change its shape. Hence shape is an invariant of affine geometry. The shape p = S(u,v,w) depends on the order of the arguments of function S, but permutations lead to related values. For instance,

S(u, v, w) = \frac{u  w}{u  v} the shape of triangle (u, v, w). Then the shape of the equilateral triangle is

(0–(1+ √3)/2)/(0–1) = ( 1 + i √3)/2 = cos(60°) + i sin(60°) = exp( i π/3).
All similar triangles have the same shape. These shapes can be classified using complex numbers in a method advanced by J.A. Lester^{[5]} and Rafael Artzy. For example, an equilateral triangle can be expressed by complex numbers 0, 1, (1 + i √3)/2. Lester and Artzy call the ratio
Similarity classes
The abovementioned mathematical definitions of rigid and nonrigid shape have arisen in the field of statistical shape analysis. In particular Procrustes analysis, which is a technique used for comparing shapes of similar objects (e.g. bones of different animals), or measuring the deformation of a deformable object. Other methods are designed to work with nonrigid (bendable) objects, e.g. for posture independent shape retrieval (see for example Spectral shape analysis).
Shape analysis
One way of modeling nonrigid movements is by homeomorphisms. Roughly speaking, a homeomorphism is a continuous stretching and bending of an object into a new shape. Thus, a square and a circle are homeomorphic to each other, but a sphere and a donut are not. An oftenrepeated mathematical joke is that topologists can't tell their coffee cup from their donut,^{[4]} since a sufficiently pliable donut could be reshaped to the form of a coffee cup by creating a dimple and progressively enlarging it, while preserving the donut hole in a cup's handle.
A more flexible definition of shape takes into consideration the fact that realistic shapes are often deformable, e.g. a person in different postures, a tree bending in the wind or a hand with different finger positions.
Homeomorphism
Objects that have the same shape or mirror image shapes are called geometrically similar, whether or not they have the same size. Thus, objects that can be transformed into each other by rigid transformations, mirroring, and uniform scaling are similar. Similarity is preserved when one of the objects is uniformly scaled, while congruence is not. Thus, congruent objects are always geometrically similar, but similar objects may not be congruent, as they may have different size.
Objects that can be transformed into each other by rigid transformations and mirroring (but not scaling) are congruent. An object is therefore congruent to its mirror image (even if it is not symmetric), but not to a scaled version. Two congruent objects always have either the same shape or mirror image shapes, and have the same size.
Congruence and similarity
Shapes of physical objects are equal if the subsets of space these objects occupy satisfy the definition above. In particular, the shape does not depend on the size and placement in space of the object. For instance, a "d" and a "p" have the same shape, as they can be perfectly superimposed if the "d" is translated to the right by a given distance, rotated upside down and magnified by a given factor (see Procrustes superimposition for details). However, a mirror image could be called a different shape. For instance, a "b" and a "p" have a different shape, at least when they are constrained to move within a twodimensional space like the page on which they are written. Even though they have the same size, there's no way to perfectly superimpose them by translating and rotating them along the page. Similarly, within a threedimensional space, a right hand and a left hand have a different shape, even if they are the mirror images of each other. Shapes may change if the object is scaled non uniformly. For example, a sphere becomes an ellipsoid when scaled differently in the vertical and horizontal directions. In other words, preserving axes of symmetry (if they exist) is important for preserving shapes. Also, shape is determined by only the outer boundary of an object.
In this paper ‘shape’ is used in the vulgar sense, and means what one would normally expect it to mean. [...] We here define ‘shape’ informally as ‘all the geometrical information that remains when location, scale^{[3]} and rotational effects are filtered out from an object.’
[2]
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