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Siege of Crema

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Title: Siege of Crema  
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Siege of Crema


The Siege of Crema was a siege of the town of Crema, Lombardy by the Holy Roman Empire in 1159. The Cremaschi tried to defend their city from the German invaders, but they were eventually defeated by Frederick's men. Frederick seized Milan in 1162 shortly after he took Crema. These events started the wars of Guelphs and Ghibellines, leading to the formation of the Lombard League, a league of northern Italian communes allied against the emperor, supported by the Pope.

Background

In 1158, Frederick Barbarossa led an army into northern Italy to reduce the autonomy of its communes. The main imperial ally, Cremona, was at the time quarreling with the nearby Crema about rights and privileges namely owed to the bishops of Cremona. Crema was also allied to Milan, and this was seen as a menace of extension of the Milanese power towards Cremona and the Po River. In a meeting held at Casale Monferrato, the Cremonesi convinced Frederick to attack Crema, an act that would also imply a menace against the rebellious Milan. The Cremonese also paid 15,000 silver corone to Frederick in exchange of his help.

The siege

After an ultimatum sent by Frederick on 2 February 1159, asking the destruction of their walls, was refused, the Cremaschi settled into their city to hold against a siege. Barbarossa killed his prisoners, so the Cremese hacked their prisoners to pieces in front of their comrades.[1]

The besieging troops were formed mostly by Barbarossa's imperial contingents, part of which led by his brother, Conrad, and by the latter's son Frederick; by Bavarian troops under duke Henry the Lion; and by communal troops, mostly belonging to the main imperial allies, Cremona (under bishop Oberto of Dovara) and Pavia.

The besiegers set in their final positions in the October 1159; starting from the following December, they used a "cat" (a mobile roof), followed by a siege tower, to cover their siege engineers who were mining under the walls. This led to the Cremaschi also digging tunnels to start underground warfare. After the cat had eroded the walls, a ram was used to create a breech in the walls; the tower was further neared to the walls starting from 6 January. The final assault was launched on January 21 using a mobile bridge measuring some 24 x 3.5 meters, while a smaller one was launched from the siege tower.

The defenders and the civilians, some of which had died of hunger and disease, surrendered on January 25 after the imperial troops had taken control of the walls. Some 20,000 survivors were allowed to leave before Crema was burnt to the ground. An edict issued by Frederick in 1162 at Lodi officially forbade its reconstruction.

Milan was also taken and destroyed two years later, ending the first phase of the war. Crema could be rebuilt by its citizens after the signature of the Peace of Constance in 1183.

References

  1. ^ Grant, RG: Battle

Sources

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