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Title: Snaaib  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Abydos Dynasty, Pharaohs, Egyptian Museum, Mekh, Nebiriau II
Collection: Egyptian Museum, Pharaohs, Pharaohs of the Abydos Dynasty
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Menkhaure Snaaib was an Egyptian pharaoh during the Second Intermediate Period. According to egyptologists Kim Ryholt and Darell Baker he was a king of the Abydos Dynasty, although they leave his position within the dynasty undetermined.[3][4] Alternatively, Jürgen von Beckerath sees Snaaib as a king reigning near the end of the 13th Dynasty.[5][6][7]


  • Attestations 1
  • Dynasty 2
  • References 3


The only contemporary attestation of Snaaib's reign is a painted limestone stele "of exceptionally crude quality"[4] discovered in Abydos and now in the Egyptian Museum (CG 20517). The stele gives the nomen, prenomen and horus names of the king and shows him wearing the khepresh and adoring the god Min.[3][4]


In his study of the second intermediate period, Kim Ryholt elaborates on the idea originally proposed by Detlef Franke that following the collapse of the 13th Dynasty with the conquest of Memphis by the Hyksos, an independent kingdom centered on Abydos arose in Middle Egypt.[8] The Abydos Dynasty thus designates a group of local kinglets reigning for a short time in central Egypt. Ryholt notes that Snaaib is only attested by his stele from Abydos and may thus belong to this dynasty.[4] This conclusion is shared by Darell Baker but not by von Beckerath, who places Snaaib near the end of the 13th Dynasty.[7]


  1. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, kings of the second intermediate period, available online
  2. ^ Daphna Ben Tor, James and Susan Allen: Seals and Kings, BASOR 315, (1999)
  3. ^ a b Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN 978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 379
  4. ^ a b c d K.S.B. Ryholt: The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period, c. 1800 – 1550 BC, Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications, vol. 20. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997
  5. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Untersuchungen zur politischen Geschichte der Zweiten Zwischenzeit in Ägypten, Glückstadt, 1964
  6. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath: Chronologie des pharaonischen Ägyptens, Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 46. Mainz am Rhein, 1997
  7. ^ a b Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen, Münchner ägyptologische Studien 49, Mainz 1999.
  8. ^ Detlef Franke: Zur Chronologie des Mittleren Reiches. Teil II: Die sogenannte Zweite Zwischenzeit Altägyptens, in Orientalia 57 (1988), p. 259
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