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Spanish general election, 2008


Spanish general election, 2008

Spanish general election, 2008

9 March 2008

All 350 seats of the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of the 264) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Turnout 25,900,439 (73.8%)
Decrease1.9 pp
  First party Second party Third party
Leader José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero Mariano Rajoy Gaspar Llamazares
Leader since 22 July 2000 2 September 2003 29 October 2000
Last election 164 seats, 42.6% 148 seats, 37.7% 5 seats, 5.0%
Seats won 169 154 2
Seat change Increase5 Increase6 Decrease3
Popular vote 11,289,335 10,278,010 969,946
Percentage 43.9% 39.9% 3.0%
Swing Increase1.3 pp Increase2.2 pp Decrease1.2 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Leader Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida Josu Erkoreka Rosa Díez
Leader since 2004 2004 26 September 2007
Last election 10 seats, 3.2% 7 seats, 1.6% Did not contest
Seats won 10 6 1
Seat change Steady0 Decrease1 Increase1
Popular vote 779,425 306,128 306,079
Percentage 3.0% 1.2% 1.2%
Swing Decrease0.2 pp Decrease0.4 pp New party

Most voted party in each autonomous community and province. Every province is a multi-member district for the Congress.

Prime Minister before election

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero

Elected Prime Minister

José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero

The 2008 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 9 March, to elect the 9th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. At stake were all 350 seats to the Congress of Deputies and 208 of 264 seats to the Senate.

Much like the previous election, this election returned a hung parliament with governing Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) being the largest party, increasing their share of the vote but still short by seven seats of an overall majority in the Congress. The Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, declared victory on 9 March, and the opposition People's Party conceded defeat.[1] The distance between both main parties remained essentially the same as in 2004, with a slight reduction in favour of the PP. Zapatero was elected Prime Minister for a second term, after which he proceeded to form a minority government.

This election is notable for several reasons: it was the second of only two times in Spanish history that a political party won more than 11 million votes in a general election. The PSOE also won the most popular votes of any political party ever, breaking their own record in 2004. The sums of both PP and PSOE's popular votes, percentage shares and seats (almost 83.8%, over 21 million votes cast and 323 seats) accounted for the largest amount of popular support for the two main parties of Spain in a general election to date.


Electoral system

Voting is on the basis of universal suffrage in a secret ballot. The Congress of Deputies 350 members are elected in 50 multi-member districts using the D'Hondt method and a closed-list proportional representation. Ceuta and Melilla elect one member each using plurality voting. Each district is entitled to an initial minimum of two seats, with the remaining 248 seats being allocated among the 50 provinces in proportion to their populations. Only lists polling above 3% of the total vote in each district (which includes blank ballots—for none of the above) are entitled to enter the seat distribution. Under articles 12 and 68 of the Constitution, the minimum voting age is 18.[2]

Elections to the Senate take place under a limited vote system. Each of the 47 peninsular districts (the provinces) is assigned 4 seats. In Baleares and Canarias, districts are the islands themselves, with the larger — Mallorca, Gran Canaria, and Tenerife — being assigned 3 seats each, and the smaller — Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, Gomera, Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma — one each. Ceuta and Melilla are assigned 2 seats each, for a total of 208 directly elected seats. In districts electing 4 seats, electors may vote for up to 3 candidates; in those with 2 or 3 seats, for up to 2 candidates; and for 1 candidate in single member constituencies. Electors vote for individual candidates: those attaining the largest number of votes in each district are elected for a 4-year term of office.

In addition, the legislative assemblies of the self-governing or autonomous communities into which the provinces of Spain are grouped are entitled to appoint at least one senator each, as well as one senator for every million inhabitants, adding up a variable number of appointed seats to the directly-elected 208 senators.[3]


This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Foreign relations

Under Article 68 of the Spanish constitution, the boundaries of the electoral districts must be the same as the provinces of Spain and, under Article 141, this can only be altered with the approval of Congress.[2]

The apportionment of seats to provinces follows the largest remainder method over the resident population ("Padrón") with a minimum of two seats (Art. 162 of the Electoral Law).[4]


Dual membership of both chambers of the Cortes or of the Cortes and regional assemblies is prohibited, meaning that candidates must resign from regional assemblies if elected. Active judges, magistrates, public defenders, serving military personnel, active police officers and members of constitutional and electoral tribunals are also ineligible,[2] as well as CEOs or equivalent leaders of state monopolies and public bodies, such as the Spanish state broadcaster [6] Lastly, following changes to the electoral law which took effect for the 2007 municipal elections, candidates' lists must be composed of at least 40% of candidates of either gender and each group of five candidates must contain at least two males and two females.[7]

Presenting candidates

Parties and coalitions of different parties which have registered with the Electoral Commission can present lists of candidates. Groups of electors which have not registered with the commission can also present lists, provided that they obtain the signatures of 1% of registered electors in a particular district.[5]

Candidates and coalitions

By tradition, the first candidate on each Madrid party list for the Congress of Deputies is the Prime Ministerial candidate for that party. nationalist parties who did not expect to win enough seats to be contenders for the office of Prime Minister typically designated one of their list leaders as their main candidate. Those candidates were generally featured more prominently in the Spanish national media than other list leaders or candidates. Regional, provincial and local media nearly always covers the activities of the Prime Ministerial candidates, together with the leading candidates in their area.

Spanish Socialist Workers' Party

On 9 March 2008, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero won the general elections.

As in 2004, the governing Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) was led by Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero. Mr Zapatero was the only PSOE candidate who sought the nomination and he was therefore proclaimed candidate on 25 November 2007 at a rally in Fuenlabrada, Madrid. The PSOE ran in all Spanish constituencies. In Catalonia, the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) operated as part of the PSOE's ticket.

The current Deputy Prime Minister María Teresa Fernández de la Vega led the party's list in the province of Valencia. After the election, she continued as Deputy Prime Minister.

José Bono Martínez, former Minister of Defence and President of Castile-La Mancha for 21 years, led the list in Toledo. After the election, he was elected President (i.e., Speaker) of the Congress of Deputies.

After some discussion due to the need for ensuring the future support of the Prime Minister for his economic policy and his intentions to retire, the current Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Finance, Pedro Solbes, was second on the Madrid list.[8] He continued as Minister of Economy after the election.

Other prominent politicians who led provincial lists for the Socialist Party included the current Minister of Culture, César Antonio Molina, in A Coruña, the current Home Minister, Alfredo Pérez Rubalcaba, in Cádiz, the Minister of Public Works, Magdalena Álvarez, in Málaga, the former Minister of Housing (and now Minister of Defence) Carme Chacón, in Barcelona and the former Home Minister and current Socialist Parliamentary Group spokesman, José Antonio Alonso, in León.

There were relatively few disputes about the composition of the election lists, except for minor problems on the Balearic Island of Formentera and in the capital. In Madrid the selection of the remaining candidates on the list after the socialist leadership (Prime Minister Zapatero, Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Finance Solbes, and the electoral coordinator Jesús Caldera) was unclear, since the regional socialist federation had recently changed their leadership. Besides this, Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT), an old federated socialist union, suggested presenting joint lists. The final decision by the PSOE leadership to include a deputy linked to UGT, Manuel de la Rocha, ended the discussion.

People's Party

PP President Mariano Rajoy (right) and Secretary-General Ángel Acebes addressed supporters outside the party headquarters on 13, Genova St. (Madrid) after the election.

The People's Party (PP) was led by Mariano Rajoy, former Deputy Prime Minister and successor to the former Prime Minister José María Aznar. He was nominated as candidate by the National Board of Directors of the party on 10 September 2007.[9] PP ran in all the constituencies with its sister party the Navarrese People's Union (UPN) acting as part of the PP ticket in Navarre.

Rajoy chose Manuel Pizarro as his candidate for Second Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Economy and Finance.[10] Pizarro is the former chairman of Endesa, where he was noted for his criticism of the economic policies of Zapatero's Government.

The People's Party suggested reducing taxes and raising the minimum threshold for Income Tax.

Some controversy took place when the Mayor of Madrid, Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón, sought a place on the Madrid list for the Congress, something which increased his rivalry with fellow Madrid PP rank Esperanza Aguirre (president of the Community of Madrid and leader of the party in this Autonomous Community). The subsequent People's Party leadership's refusal was considered by the press as a victory for Aguirre, preventing him from taking advantage in the succession of Rajoy in the eventuality of an electoral defeat.[11] Several left leaning media and political parties referred to this as a victory of the most radical, reactionary, sectors close to Aguirre over the so-called moderate way represented by Gallardón.[12] Sources close to the People's Party denied such interpretations. Some newspapers even speculated about the possibility of internal conflicts between the supporters of each politician.[13] However, the appearance of both politicians at electoral events together stopped or at least reduced criticism.[14]

With the People's Party defeat, there was some speculation over Rajoy's eventual resigning for future electoral contests. Then, at a meeting of his party's Executive Committee on 11 March, Rajoy dispelled doubts about his future by stating that he would stand again as party leader at a party congress in June.[15]

United Left

United Left (IU) is a coalition of several leftist movements. During the previous legislature, there had been internal fighting between the main component of the coalition, the Communist Party (PCE) and the faction headed by Llamazares. This led to a primary election between October and November 2007. This internal election was contested by Gaspar Llamazares, the then General Coordinator of United Left and Margarita Sanz, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Valencian Country - the Valencian federation of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE).[16] On 14 November Llamazares was declared the winner, beating his contender by a wide margin. After that, three members of the Communist Party, who were most critical, including the former leader of it, Felipe Alcaraz, were expelled from the Directive Committee.

IU ran in all constituencies; in many of them, they ran in coalition with other parties. In Catalonia, IU ran with Iniciativa per Catalunya Verds. Felipe Alcaraz, executive chairman of PCE, announced his intention not to seek nomination for Seville, another of the traditional PCE/IU seats and district where he had been deputy from 1993 to 2004, in the Andalusian Council of IU, after losing the provincial assembly, he was substituted by the former mayor of Carmona Sebastián Martín Recio who failed to gain a seat.[17]

The Assembly of EUPV (IU's federation in the Valencian Community) elected Antonio Montalbán as its leading candidate for Valencia, one of the traditional districts where IU or PCE have obtained deputies, against incumbent Isaura Navarro after heated debate on ideology matters and different stances regarding the convenience of keeping a coalition with another party, the Valencian Nationalist Bloc (BNV). The coalition with the BNV was finally discarded by the party Executive. This led to a schism within EUPV which saw incumbent EUPV MP Isaura Navarro, among others, defecting to a newly created party made up of critics with the direction of EUPV. The new party was named Iniciativa pel País Valencià (IpV) and ran in these elections in coalition with the BNV, the party which had been discarded by EUPV. Ultimately EUPV failed to hold their seat in Valencia (IpV-BLOC did not win any seat in this constituency either).

The outcome of these elections proved a hard blow for IU, which got its worst ever result, obtaining two (S) down from five at the Spanish Parliament, subsequently Llamazares resigned in the immediate aftermath of the elections.

Convergence and Union

In November 2007, Convergence and Union (CiU) designated their leader in Congress and leader of the Democratic Union of Catalonia Josep Antoni Duran i Lleida as main candidate. CiU only contested the four Catalan provinces.

Republican Left of Catalonia

In August 2007, Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC in its Catalan acronym) designated their spokesman in the Catalan Parliament Joan Ridao i Martín as their leader for the elections. ERC ran in Catalonia and in the Valencian Community through its local branch ERPV. It also participated in an electoral coalition with other nationalist parties in the Balearic Islands constituency called Unitat per les Illes.

ERC was the party with the biggest loss in these elections, obtaining three MPs, down from their previous eight seats. These bad results opened an ongoing internal dispute over ideology and strategies.

Basque Nationalist Party

The Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ–PNV) ran only in the three Basque provinces. Josu Erkoreka headed the ticket in Vizcaya, the most populous on the three provinces. In Navarre they were part of the Nafarroa Bai coalition.

Minor parties in Congress

Reallocation of seats

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Foreign relations

Four districts - Córdoba, A Coruña, Soria and Vizcaya - lost a seat in the Congress of Deputies due to net population loss in these constituencies. Then, another four - Alicante, Almería, Murcia and Toledo, all with population increases, gained a seat each.

If the 2004 general election had been fought under the new distribution of seats the ruling Socialist Party (PSOE) would have lost one seat in both La Coruña and Vizcaya, while the opposition People's Party (PP) would have had one seat fewer in Córdoba as well as in Soria. However, PSOE would have captured the additional seats in Alicante, Murcia and Toledo, whereas PP would have only won the newly added seat in Almería. In all, PSOE would have made a net gain of one seat, for a total of 165, while PP would have come down by one, to 147 seats.[18]


Although the official electoral campaign period in Spain only lasts for the 15 days before the election, (with the exception of the day just before the election), many parties, especially the PP and PSOE, start their "pre-campaigns" months in advance, often before having finalised their electoral lists.


The first phase campaign was done under the slogan "Con Z de Zapatero" (With Z of Zapatero), a joke based on the Prime Minister and socialist candidate's habit of tending to pronounce words ending with D as if they ended with Z. The campaign was linked to terms like equality (Igualdad-Igualdaz) or solidarity (Solidaridad-Solidaridaz), emphasizing the policies carried out by the current government. The second phase was done under the slogan "La Mirada Positiva" (The Positive outlook), emphasising the future government platform, and "Vota con todas tus fuerzas" (Vote with all of your strength), aiming to mobilize the indecisive or potentially abstaining voters. Another common slogan through all the campaign was "Motivos para creer" (Reasons to believe in).


For the pre-campaign the PP used the slogan "Con Rajoy es Posible" (With Rajoy it's Possible). Usually emphasizing PP's campaign proposals, such as "Llegar a fin de mes, Con Rajoy es Posible" (Making ends meet, With Rajoy it's Possible). IU accused PP of copying its slogan from the last municipal elections[19]


IU chose the pre-campaign slogan "LlamazarES + Más Izquierda" (LlamazarES (is) More Left), calling attention to their position as the third national party.

Campaign issues

The economy

The economy became a major campaign issue due to a number of factors:

  • A slowing down in the housing market, with prices even beginning to fall in some areas.
  • Sharp increases in prices of some basic commodities.
  • Global instability as a result of market uncertainty.
  • A rise in unemployment.

The sudden emergence of the economy as a political issue came after several years of steady economic growth, and led some observers to suggest that maybe the government would have benefitted from calling an earlier election.[20] In addition to those factors both the PP and the PSOE made competing proposals on taxation.

Opinion polls

15-day average trend line of poll results from March 2004 to March 2008, with each line corresponding to a political party.


Congress of Deputies

Composition of the elected Congress.
Summary of the 9 March 2008 Spanish Congress of Deputies election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Won +/−
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 11,289,335 43.87 +1.28 169 +5
People's Party (PP) 10,278,010 39.94 +2.23 154 +6
United Left (IU) 969,946 3.77 −1.19 2 −3
Convergence and Union (CiU) 779,425 3.03 −0.20 10 ±0
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 306,128 1.19 −0.44 6 −1
Union, Progress and Democracy (UPyD) 306,079 1.19 New 1 +1
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 298,139 1.16 −1.36 3 −5
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 212,543 0.83 +0.02 2 ±0
Canarian Coalition-Canarian Nationalist Party (CC-PNC) 174,629 0.68 −0.23 2 −1
Andalusian Coalition (CA) 68,679 0.27 −0.43 0 ±0
Yes to Navarre (Na-Bai) 62,398 0.24 ±0.00 1 ±0
Basque Solidarity (EA) 50,371 0.20 −0.11 0 −1
Citizens-Party of the Citizenry (C's) 46,313 0.18 New 0 ±0
Animal Rights Party (PACMA) 44,795 0.17 New 0 ±0
The Greens (LV) 41,531 0.16 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 40,054 0.16 +0.02 0 ±0
Aragonese Union (CHA) 38,202 0.15 −0.21 0 −1
New Canarias-Canarian Centre (NC-CCN) 38,024 0.15 New 0 ±0
The Greens-Green Group (LV-GV) 30,840 0.12 +0.07 0 ±0
Aralar (Aralar) 29,989 0.12 −0.03 0 ±0
Bloc-Initiative-Greens (BNV-IDPV-EV-EE) 29,760 0.12 −0.04 0 ±0
Unity for the Islands (Unitat per les Illes) 25,454 0.10 −0.06 0 ±0
Blank ballots 286,182 1.11 −0.47
Total 25,734,863 100.00 350 ±0
Valid votes 25,734,863 99.36 +0.37
Invalid votes 165,576 0.64 −0.37
Votes cast / turnout 25,900,439 73.85 −1.81
Abstentions 9,172,740 26.15 +1.81
Registered voters 35,073,179
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Vote share
Parliamentary seats


Composition of the Senate after the election.
Summary of the 9 March 2008 Spanish Senate election results
Party Vote Seats
Votes % +/− Won +/− Total
People's Party (PP) 101 −1 124
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 88 +7 107
Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSC-ERC-ICV-EUiA) 12 ±0 16
Convergence and Union (CiU) 4 ±0 7
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 2 −4 4
Canarian Coalition-Canarian Nationalist Party (CC-PNC) 1 −2 2
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 0 ±0 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 ±0 1
Socialist Party of Majorca (PSM) 0 ±0 1
Independents 0 ±0 1
Others 0 ±0 0
Blank ballots 524,750 2.06 −0.61
Total 25,527,940 100.00 208 ±0 264
Valid votes 25,527,940 97.71 +0.62
Invalid votes 597,299 2.29 −0.62
Votes cast / turnout 26,125,239 74.49 −1.26
Abstentions 8,947,940 25.51 +1.26
Registered voters 35,073,179
  • Ministry of the Interior
  • Historia Electoral
Parliamentary seats
The Spanish Senate at the time of the 2008 election was composed by 208 directly-elected seats and 56 seats appointed by the regional parliaments of the autonomous communities when a new Parliament resulting from a regional election convenes. The appointment process of these seats depended on the political composition of those regional assemblies, and as such, it could change each time regional elections were held. A summary of the Senate composition evolution throughout the 2008−2011 legislature can be found in the table below, showing changes due to seat appointment variation as a result of regional elections.
Summary of Spanish Senate seat composition for the period 2008−2011
Party Seats
2008 2011
Elect. App. Total App. Splits Total
PP and allies 101 23 124 26 −2 125
PP 98 22 120 26 +2 125
UPN 3 1 4 0 −4 0
PSOE and allies 96 21 117 20 −1 115
PSOE 88 19 107 18 −1 105
PSC 8 2 10 2 10
CiU 4 3 7 4 8
EAJ/PNV 2 2 4 1 3
ERC 3 1 4 0 3
IU and allies 1 1 2 1 2
IU 0 0 0 0 0
ICV 1 1 2 1 2
CC-PNC 1 1 2 1 2
BNG 0 1 1 1 1
PAR 0 1 1 0 0
PSM 0 1 1 0 0
UPN (w.PP) (w.PP) (w.PP) 1 +1 2
FAC N/A N/A N/A 1 1
Independents 0 1 1 0 0
Total 208 56 264 56 −2 262
Source: Historia Electoral

Results by region

Election results by province.
PSOE S 36 8 4 4 9 7 2 9 14 25 0 5 10 2 15 0 3 2 14 169
V 51.9 46.4 46.9 44.2 38.1 39.6 43.6 44.5 42.8 45.4 40.5 52.3 40.6 43.6 39.7 48.1 32.9 34.8 41.0 43.9
PP S 25 5 4 4 3 6 3 12 18 8 1 5 11 2 18 1 7 2 19 154
V 38.2 37.0 41.6 44.0 18.5 35.0 50.0 49.4 50.0 16.4 55.1 41.8 43.9 49.5 49.2 49.0 61.2 39.2 51.6 39.9
IU S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
V 5.1 2.8 7.2 2.8 4.5 1.3 2.3 2.9 2.5 4.9 0.7 3.0 1.4 1.9 4.7 2.9 3.3 2.7 3.8
CiU S 10 10
V 20.9 3.0
PNV S 6 6
V 27.1 1.2
UPyD S 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
V 0.9 1.1 1.4 0.7 0.9 0.4 1.4 1.1 1.5 0.2 1.3 0.8 0.6 1.3 3.7 1.1 0.9 0.8 0.7 1.2
ERC S 3 0 3
V 7.8 0.2 1.2
BNG S 2 2
V 11.5 0.8
CC S 2 2
V 17.5 0.7
Na-Bai S 1 1
V 18.4 0.2
Others V 2.9 11.4 1.7 7.0 9.1 5.5 11.5 1.1 2.0 2.9 1.5 1.3 1.0 2.6 1.7 0.9 1.4 2.0 2.9 3.0
Blank 1.0 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.8 0.7 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.5 0.9 0.8 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.7 1.5 0.9 1.1
Total seats 61 13 8 8 18 15 5 21 32 47 1 10 23 4 35 1 10 5 33 350
Turnout 72.8 75.9 71.3 67.6 64.0 65.9 76.4 80.0 77.7 70.3 63.3 78.6 70.5 79.3 79.1 63.7 79.6 72.1 78.8 73.8

Investiture voting

1st round: 9 April 2008
Investiture voting for José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)

Absolute majority: 176/350
Vote Parties Votes
Yes PSOE (168)
168 / 350
No PP (154), ERC (3), UPyD (1)
158 / 350
Abstentions CiU (10), PNV (6), IU (2), BNG (2), CC (2), Na-Bai (1)
23 / 350
1 PSOE deputy missed the voting.
2nd round: 11 April 2008
Investiture voting for José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (PSOE)

Simple majority
Vote Parties Votes
YesY Yes PSOE (169)
169 / 350
No PP (154), ERC (3), UPyD (1)
158 / 350
Abstentions CiU (10), PNV (6), IU (2), BNG (2), CC (2), Na-Bai (1)
23 / 350
Source: Historia Electoral


  1. ^ "Worldwide". 2008-03-09. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  2. ^ a b c "The Spanish Constitution of 1978". 
  3. ^ "General Aspects of the Electoral System". 
  4. ^ Electoral Law
  5. ^ a b "Law governing electoral procedures". Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  6. ^ "Law regarding registration of political parties". Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  7. ^ "OSCE observers task force report on 2008 Spanish election" (PDF). Organisation for security and cooperation in Europe OSCE. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  8. ^ "El Periodico de Cataluña- 26/11/2007- Solbes confirma su permanencia en el Gobierno si el PSOE gana las elecciones legislativas". 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  9. ^ (AFP) – 10/09/2007. "Agence France Press". Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  10. ^ (AFP) – 15/01/2008 (2008-01-15). "AFP Manuel Pizarro podría ser ministro de Economía de Rajoy". Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  11. ^ "Gallardón: ''He sido derrotado''". 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  12. ^ "Post in the blog of Pepe Blanco, member of the direction of the Socialist Party". 2004-02-27. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  13. ^ 'El PP de Vizcaya alerta de que la crisis de Gallardón puede "costar el Gobierno"''"'". 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  14. ^
  15. ^ El País, 12 March 2008
  16. ^ Izquierda Unida Official Page
  17. ^ (Spanish) Diario de Cordoba 4-12-2007 Felie Alcaraz renuncia a encabezar la lista de IU en Sevilla
  18. ^ "redistribution of seats for 2008". Retrieved 2010-06-18. 
  19. ^ El PP copia el Lema de IU en su Ultima Campaña, Público, 23/11/2007
  20. ^ "Zapatero's bear fight". The Economist. 2008-01-24. Retrieved 2010-06-18. 

External links

  • Election Guide- Spain Profile
  • NSD: European Election Database - Spain publishes regional level election data; allows for comparisons of election results, 1993–2008
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