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Stanisław Brzozowski (writer)


Stanisław Brzozowski (writer)

Stanisław Brzozowski
Stanisław Brzozowski, 1878–1911
Born (1878-06-28)28 June 1878
Maziarnia, Congress Poland, Russian Empire
Died 30 April 1911(1911-04-30) (aged 32)
Florence, Kingdom of Italy
Nationality Polish
Occupation Philosopher, writer, literary critic

Stanisław Brzozowski (28 June 1878 – 30 April 1911) was a Sorel, Nietzsche, Bergson, Carlyle, and Newman. Brzozowski's core idea was based on the concept of socially engaged intellectual (artist). Although he was in favour of historical materialism, he strongly argued against its deterministic interpretation. In his philosophical approaches, Brzozowski rejected all the concepts that were comodyfing a human being.

Polish intellectuals (Czesław Miłosz,[1] Andrzej Walicki,[2] Leszek Kołakowski[3]) have stressed that his widely unknown interpretations of Marx's early writings were to much extent anticipating those presented later by György Lukács and Antonio Gramsci.


  • Biography 1
  • Intellectual profile 2
  • Connection of Marxism and Catholicism 3
  • Contemporary significance in Poland 4
  • Main works 5
  • References 6


Leopold Stanisław Leon Brzozowski was born in 1878 in Maziarnia, a village near

  1. ^ Miłosz Cz., "A controversial Polish writer: Stanisław Brzozowski", in California Slavic Studies, vol. 2, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1963:53–95
  2. ^ Walicki A., Stanisław Brzozowski and the Polish beginnings of >Western Marxism<", Oxford University Press, 1989
  3. ^ Kołakowski L., Main Currents of Marxism, vol. 2, Oxford University Press, 1978
  4. ^ Mackiewicz W., Brzozowski, Wiedza Powszechna, Warszawa, 1983
  5. ^
  6. ^ Brzozowski S., "Idee. Wstęp do filozofii dojrzałości dziejowej", Kraków 1990


  • Pod ciężarem Boga ("Under the Burden of God") [first published in 1901, novel]
  • Filozofia czynu ("The Philosophy of Act") [1903]
  • Wiry ("The Whirpools") [1904, novel]
  • Kultura i życie. Zagadnienia sztuki i twórczości w walce o światopogląd ("Culture and Life") [1907]
  • Płomienie ("Flames") [1908, novel]
  • Legenda Młodej Polski. Studia o strukturze duszy kulturalnej ("The Legend of Young Poland. Studies on the Structure of the Cultural Spirit") [1910]
  • Idee. Wstęp do filozofii dojrzałości dziejowej ("Ideas. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Historical Maturity") [1910]
  • Sam wśród ludzi ("Alone Among People") [1911, novel]
  • Głosy wśród nocy. Studia nad przesileniem romantycznym kultury europejskiej ("Voices in the Night. Studies on the Romantic Turning Point in European Culture") [1912]
  • Pamiętnik Stanisława Brzozowskiego ("The Diary") [1913]
  • Widma moich współczesnych ("The Ghosts of My Contemporaries") [1914]
  • Książka o starej kobiecie ("A Book About an Old Woman") [1914, novel]

Main works

Since 2002, Brzozowski has been the patron of Sławomir Sierakowski in 2002. In 2005, the Stanisław Brzozowski Association was founded and began to publish a journal. The association's core idea resembles that of its patron: that intellectuals are public figures who ought to live a socially involved and committed life.

Stanisław Brzozowski has an established position as one of the most important intellectuals in modern Polish history. His cultural and philosophical activity has been regularly debated throughout the last century in Poland. He became the point of reference for subsequent generations of Polish intellectuals. Although identified mainly with the political left, the subtlety and open-endedness of his thought allowed some groups from the right to identify themselves with Brzozowski's ideas as well.

Contemporary significance in Poland

Brzozowski reaches the conclusion that an essential condition of the discipline of will is a strong, traditional moral bond. This results in recognizing religion as a valuable school of will and a precious element of intense social bond. The essence of work is therefore the inner life of a human being, spirituality, “willingness to work”, although strongly rooted in customs, in culture. This emphasis on roots indicates that community is of crucial importance for the continuity of work.

In his philosophoy Brzozowski focused on subjective factors of work: on the quality of human will and on cohesion and strength of the live social bond determining this quality. He thought that the examination of work from the perspective of experience acquired in the process of its performance, or its "internal" analysis, made it possible to prove that the ultimate basis of work and its products arising in human awareness as the "objectively" given world, was subjective physical effort, maintained by the strength of human will. This effort, in its appropriate level and progress, depends on other forms of labor, creating proper organization and culture of societies; work, its quality, its amount, is a subtle creation of will, maintained by entire cultures, which in turn is a very subtle and complicated creation.

As for his philosophical heritage, Brzozowski tended to experience quite radical shifts in his world-view as the result of subsequent readings. His first important philosophical inspiration was Friedrich Nietzsche and his notion of historical sense, which Brzozowski found particularly valuable. After focusing on Nietzsche, Brzozowski moved closer towards Kant which eventually enabled him to develop his philosophy on the Marxist basis. Besides having many vital inspirations, Marxism played the central role in his intellectual biography and for the longest period of his short life, he was a Marxist thinker. His interpretation of Karl Marx's thought was anti-naturalist and anti-positivist. Brzozowski was an ardent critic of Friedrich Engels and his role in developing Marxist thought. He accused Engels of 'vulgar determinism' and leading Marxism towards naive and reductionist perspective of 'economic necessity'.[6] Finally, he developed his own philosophical program called 'philosophy of labour' that emphasized the role of human activity in creating and re-creating the reality. This was a concept rejecting reification and alienation of human acts and, according to Brzozowski, was the natural expansion of key Marxist ideas.

Connection of Marxism and Catholicism

Brzozowski held a unique position as an astute critic of Polish contemporary culture, known as Young Poland (Polish modernism) or neoromanticism. His Legenda Młodej Polski represents the most comprehensive denunciation of those forms of the Polish mind, which, in Brzozowski's words, represent "the delusion of cultural consciousness."[5]

Brzozowski was an influential critic of Polish social and philosophical thought, an analyst of literature, and a piercing observer of Polish and European everyday life. He was an unambiguous critic of the traditionalism and provincialism of the main currents of Polish 19th century literature. In particular, Brzozowski was a strong opponent of historical novels, represented mainly by the Nobel Prize winner Henryk Sienkiewicz. Brzozowski's radical attacks on Sienkiewicz's works made him persona non grata in the Polish artistic mainstream.

Intellectual profile

Beginning in the autumn of 1898 Brzozowski suffered heavily from tuberculosis, a consequence of the time spent in prison. In order to recuperate, he decided to go to the sanatorium in Otwock. There he met, in 1900, Antonina Kolberg, and they married the next year. In 1903 his only child, Anna Irena, was born. Brzozowski's health problems accompanied him for the rest of his life. In 1905 he went for the first time to Nevi, Italy to receive more intensive medical care. In 1906 he went to Italy again and resided in Florence until his death in 1911. The last few years of his life, although spent in gradually weakening conditions, both material and health-related, were the most productive period of his life. Brzozowski then wrote his opus magnum – the novel Płomienie [Flames] – a response to Dostoyevsky's The Possessed, as well as important books concerning his philosophical and cultural program: Idee. Wstęp do filozofii dojrzałości dziejowej. (Ideas. An introduction to the Historical Maturity) and Legenda Młodej Polski (The Legend of Young Poland).


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